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Vol. CXIX 


Special Index Issue 


243 West 39th Street 


Founded 1876 

Published Fortnightly 
in New York 

Six Dollars 

r I T HIS index is fur the 119th volume of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT. This scries of volumes constitutes an 
encyclopaedia of architecture in America. They mark the progression from a tune wlien our architecture 
was but a re-echo of classic precedent to the present day when architecture, as practiced in this cmintr\, 
sets a standard for emulation all over the world. 

^The development of architecture in America is a reflex of our great advancement as a nation. The progress 
of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT has been in keeping with this great advancement. It mirrors todav, as it has ulwuvs 
clone, the highest ideals of a profession that is the oldest of ail the arts, and it has blazed the' n-ay to a better 
appreciation of the dignities and the responsibilities of architectural practice. 

Its twenty-sir issues each year, more than twice as many as any other architectural publication, form a com- 
pendium to architectural practice. 

Its many illustrations more than four hundred full page plates and approximately twice as manv tc.rt 
illustrations give to readers a larger volume of suggestive material on architectural subjects than is to be found 

Its various departments of Architectural Engineering, Economics as applied to building, Specification and 
Cubage Costs, place in the hands of subscribers, a fund of material that makes tlie magazine indispensable to 
architects, engineers and students who are keenly interested in our architectural development. 



Light-faced figures refer to tc.rt pages; bold-faced to serial number 



American Architecture, 147, 2355. 

American Specification Institute, 93, 2353; 

175, Z356. 

Annual Convention of the A. I. A., 515, 2366. 
Architect, The Advancing, 649, 2370. 
Archives Building, A National, 245, 2358. 

Calder Committee, Report of, 427, 2363. 

Canadian Copyright Law, Proposed, 489, 1365 

Chicago's Opportunity, 365, 2361. 

Civic Center in New York, 275, 2359. 

Confidence, 319, 2360. 

Confidence, Commonsense and Co-operation, 

43, 2351. 
Congress and the Housing Shortage, 44, 

Contractors Adopt Code of Ethics, 395, 232. 


Daylight Saving, 275, 2359. 
Digest, A Nationwide, 453, 2364. 


Elimination of Waste in Building Industry, 

555, 2367. 

F.thics in Architectural Design, 147, 2355. 
Europe Turns to American Architects, 69, 

Excessive Bidding, 70, 2352. 

Farm Buildings, Improving, 613, 2369. 
Farm Conditions, Improving, 245, 2358. 
Fine Arts in the Government. 94, 2353. 
Fund to Assist Young Architects, 43, 2351. 

Greenwich Village, Los Angeles, 175, 2356. 


Holy Land in 1920, 122, 2354. 

How Much Will It Cost? 44, 2351. 


Ignoring Our American Art, 121, 2354. 
Illinois Chapter, A Timely Resolution of, 427, 

League of New York Artists, 489, 2365. 


Military Honors to an Artist, 453, 2364. 


National Duty, A, 585, 2368. 
New Jersey Abolishes State Architect, 555, 

Organized Labor Enters FieM of General 
Contracting, 205, 2357. 


Personal Equation Editorial by Sullivan 

Jones, 176, 2356. 
Philadelphia Building Trades Work Toward 

Building Resumption, 365, 2361. 
Plain Duty. 275, 2359. 
Prices, 94, 2353. 
Public Library, For What Is It Maintained? 

585, 2368. 


Sketching for Architects, 515, ?366. 

Skilled Workmen for the Building Trades, 

93, 2353. 
State Registration Fails in Indiana, 427, 


State Societies, 649, 2370. 
State Societies and the Institute, 613, 2369. 


Traffic Congestion in New York, To Relieve, 

395, 2362. 
Transportation Tangles, Reducing, 148, Z3SS. 


What Is a "Public?" 69, 2352. 
Where Does the Evil Lie? 121, 2354. 


Light-faced figures refer to text pages; bold-faced to serial number 


Ambassador Hotel, The. Warren & Wet- 
more, Architects, 644, 2370. 

American Chippendale, Some Examples of, 
321, 2360. 

American Institute of Architects, Fifty- 
fourth Annual Convention of, 573, 2368. 

American Specification Institute, 172, 2356; 
320, 2360. 

American Specification Institute, Announce- 
ment by Board of Governors of, 670, 2370. 

Architect and Engineer, Relation Between. 
By Kort Berle, 4, 2350. 

Architects, What They May Think About in 
1921, 11, 2350. 


Architectural Interiors of the United States 
Shipping Board S. S. "Hawkeye State." 
By Francis B. Ellis, 446, 2364. 

Architectural League of New York, Thirty- 
sixth Annual Exhibition, 475, 2365. 

Architectural Management. By Francis B. 
Ellis, 397, 2362; 428, 2363. 

Architectural Quicksands. By Clinton H. 
Blake, Jr., 390, 2362; 484, 236S. v' 








;il Registration Boards, National 
Z3M; 580. 2JM. 

Building, Relation Between 

\ tl l i ill,- MOM. MI 1'iL-ture. By 



, of. By < .11. 

' of the Sm.ill College. By S. I!. 614. ZJ. 
ng gjcperim<nts ni the Schools, 

B.ium, Dwicfc* Tames, Architect, Notes on 
Work of, 557,' 23*7. 

Beauty, The Bsnis of. it,.'. 23SS. 

Beaux-Arts Institute uf Design. 2/6. 23S; 
HI. OM; 516, 23W: 609, 23M; 651, 237*. 

Boston CoIVRt. Ti.e New. By Ralph Adams 
... 615, 2W. 

Building Gilds and Housing in England, 304, 

Building Material Costs in 1921. By A. K. 
Kr.-ichti.ium, 19. 2SS. 

Building Outlook in the Middle West. 16, 

Buildings on Narrow Streets, High. By Har- 
vey W. Corbett, 603, ZW. 

Business Conditions, .126, 23M. 

Chicago Bridges. 552, 23(7. 

Competition for School Group, New Britain, 
.. 59. 23S2. 

Color in Architecture, 202, 2357. 

Congestion Defended by Landscape Archi- 
tect, 454, 23(4. 

'ruction Costs, Some Solid Tacts on. 
By K. E. Davidson, 268, 2JS. 

Craftsmanship, The True. By "Travi," 9, 

Creating n New Investment Center in New 
York. 6.'7. 2371. 

PunninK. X. Max. Work of. Ill, 2354. 

Entasis, Calculation of. By T. T. Tubby, 550, 


r.utorv Profluclion Applied to Housing. By 

Robert Tappan, 62. 2352. 
Financial Outlook. By Francis II. Sisson, 7, 

<;.iham National Bank Building. Sommer- 
feld & Steckler, Architects; Kenneth 
MurchUon. Consulting Architect, 350, 


l|..*|Mtal Construction Affecting Distribution 

of Food. 2.14, 2358. 
Hotel Webster, Chicago. Fridstcm & Co., 

Engineers, 383, 23(2. 


Impression of the Washington Convention, 
An. By Howard Van Doren Shaw, 620, 



Japanese Life, Insight Into, 39, 2351. 

Labor Attempts to Organize Architectural 
Draftsmen, 36, 2351. 

Legal Regulation of Standards of Architec- 
tural Practice. By Emory Stanford Hall, 
199, Z357. 

Louis XV Paneled Room, A, 586, 23M. 


Mclntire, Samuel. By W. H. Hunt, 415, 

Memorial Bridge Across the Hudson River 

at New York, Proposed. Alfred C. Bos- 

som. Architect, 423, 2363. 
Minneapolis Architects Have a Colony, 88, 



New York District Conference, of Building 
Industry, 1.19, 2355. 

Noyes-Buick Building, Boston. Mass. Ar- 
thur H. Bowditch, Architect, 195, 2357. 

OM Salem Houses. By W. H. Hunt, 507 

Own Your Home Small House Competition, 

Prize Designs of, 321, 230. 


Paris, Extension of, 64, 2352. 
Personal Equation, What About the? 324, 

Prague As a City of the Baroqur, Part III. 

By Selwyn Brinton, 343, 2361. 
Prague, Housing Problem Met in, 66, 2352. 
Prices, Study of. By Edmund D. Fisher, 117, 

2353, 133, 2354, 163, 2355. 
Proposal Worth Millions, An Intangible, 366, 



Real Estate Outlook for 1921. By Joseph P. 
Day, 7, 2350. 

Reconstruction in Northern France. By 
Ralph Fanning, 167, 2356. 

Registration Matters, Architectural, 116, 

Research and Educational Hospitals of Illi- 
nois. Schmidt. Garden & Martin, Archi- 
tects, 223, 235. 

Roman Catholic Church of St. Clare, Staten 
Island. Eggers & Higgins, Architects, 41, 

School Buildings in Syracuse, N. Y.. Two. 
James A. Randall, Architect, 89, 2353. 

Scottish Rite Cathedral Competition, Port- 
land, Oregon. Extracts from Competition 
Program of, 358, 2361. 

Side Trip in Building. By Thomas Crane 
Young, 85, 2353. 

Southern Intercollegiate Competitions, 523, 

Specifications, Department of, 667, 2378. 

Standardization of Parts in House Construc- 
tion. By D. Knickerbacker Boyd, 200, 

State Societies, 629, 236. 

Straus, S. W., & Co., Building. Warren & 
Wetmore, Architects, 637, 2370. 


Trade Agreements in Chicago, 650. 2370. 
Trained Observer? Are You a, 150, 2355. 


Unwise Building Laws, Written and Un- 
written. By Grosvenor Atterbury, 90, 

Urban Congestion A Study of Its Causes 
and Suggestions for Its Eradication. By 
John Irwin Bright, 581, 2368. 


War Memorials. Cass Gilbert, Jr., 33, 2351. 
Westward Ho! 149, 2355. 


Zoning Regulations, Simpler. By Herbert S. 
Swan, 454, 2364. 


Light-faced figures refer to text pages; bold-faced to serial number 


Atterbury, Grosvenor: 
Building Laws, Unwise, Written and Un- 
written, 90, 2353. 


Berle, Kort: 
Architect and Engineer, Relation Between, 

4, 235*. 
Blackill C. H.: 

Architecture in 1921, Practice of 1 235* 
Blake. Clinton H., Jr.: 
Architectural Quicksands, 390, 23(2; 484, 

Boardman, Charles S. : 

Steel Sheet Piling, 123, 2354. 
Roiiom, Alfred C. : 
Memorial Bridge Across the Hudson River 

t New York, Proposed, 423, 23(3. 
Bowditch. Arthur H. : 
Noyes-Buick Building, Boston, Mass, 195, 


Boyd, D. Knickerback* 

Standardization of Parts in House Con- 
struction, 200, 2357. 
Bright, John, Irwin: 

T'rhan Congestion A Study of Its Causes 
nd Suggestions for Its Eradication. 58], 

Brinton, Selwyn: 

Prague As a City of the Baroque, 343, 23(1. 
Bryant, Henry F. : 

Noyes-Buick Building, Boston, Engineering 
Features of, 207, 2357. 

Corbett, Harvey W.: 

Buildings on Narrow Streets, High, 603, 

Cram, Ralph Adams: 

Boston College, The New, 615, 23W. 

Davidson, F. E. : 

Construction Costs, Some Solid Facts on, 

268, 2359. 
I'ay, Joseph P.: 

Real Estate Outlook for 1921. 7, 23S. 


Eggers & Higgins: 
Roman Catholic Church of St. Clare 41 


Kllis, Francis B. : 

Architectural Interiors of the United States 
Shipping Board S. S. "Hawkeye State." 

7, 2364. 

Architectural Management, 397, 23(2; 428, 


Ericson, Lambert T.: 
Creosoted Wood Block Factory Floors, 212, 



Fanning, Ralph: 
Reconstruction in Northern France, 167, 


Farwell, Milo S.: 

Reinforced Concrete, Short Cuts for Calcu- 
lating and Estimating, 251, 2358. 
Fisher, Edmund D. : 
Prices, Study of, 107, 2353; 133, 2354; 163, 


Fridstein & Co.: 
Hotel Webster, Chicago, 383, 23(2. 

Gardner, Henry A. : 

Paints and Varnishes, Fire-Resisting, 594, 

Gilbert, Cass, Jr.: 

War Memorials, 33, 235L 



I KM AKV ID jl'NK, l g _M 




Ihill, Emory Stanford: 

Architectural Practice, Legal Regulation 

of Standards, 199, 2357. 
Horowitz, Louis Jay: 

Architecture and Building, Relation Be- 
tween, 2, 2350. 
Hubbard, Charles L. : 

Heating and Ventilating Equipment, 367, 
2361; 399, 2362. 

Heating and Ventilating Industrial Build- 
ings, 71, 2352; 95, 2353. 

Refrigeration, 528, 2366; 587, 2368; 654, 2370. 
Hunt, W. H.: 

Mclntire, Samuel, 415, 2363. 

Old Salem Houses, 507, 2366. 


K t ii-i hbaum, A. R.: 
Building Material Costs in 1921, 19, 2350. 


Matteson, Victor Andre: 

Architect and Engineer, 51, 2351. 
Mensch, L. J.: 

Warehouse for The National Tea Company, 
Chicago, 492, 2365. 


N'immons, George C. & Co.: 
Federal Electric and Walker Vehicle Plants, 
Chicago, 559, 2367. 

Owen, Allan F.: 

Hollow Tile Floor Construction, An Im- 
provement in, 26, 2350. 


Randall, James A.: 
School Buildings in Syracuse, N. Y., Two, 

89, 2353. 

Rohm & Son, Jean B.: 

Warehouse for The National Tea Company. 
Chicago, 492, 2365. 

Schmidt, Garden & Martin: 
Research and Educational Hospitals of Illi- 
nois, 223, 2358. 

Shaw, Howard Van Doren: 
Impression of the Washington Convention, 

An, 620, 2369. 
Sisson, Francis H.: 

Financial Outlook, 6, 2350. 
Sommerfeld & Sleekier: 
Gotham National Bank Building New 

York, 350, 2361. 
Swan, Herbert S. : 
Xoning Regulations, Simpler, 454, 2364. 

_ T _ 

Factory Production Applied lo H.msiiiK, 6J. 


Trowbridge, S. B. P.: 
Architecture and the Small College. 614, 


Tubby, J. T.:- 
Entasis, Calculation of, 550, 2367. 


Warren & Wetmore: 
Ambassador Hotel, New York City, 644, 

Straus, S. W., & Co., Building, New York 

City, 637, 2370. 
Willard, A. C.: 

Warm-Air Furnaces, Rating and Compar- 
ing, 155, 2355. 


Young, Thomas Crane: 
Side Trip in Building, 85, 2353. 

Ziegler, Carl A.: 

Architecture anil the Motion Picture, 543, 


Figures refer to text pages 


Alabama Architects, 188. 

American Academy in Rome, 159. 

American Federation of Arts, Convention 
of, 439. 

American Standard of Living, 31. 

American Students to Help France Re- 
build, 597. 

America's Gift to the World, 337. 

Ancient Stone Plaque, 632. 

Architects Elect New Officers, 569. 

Architects Join National Group, 257. 

Architect's Service, The, 375. 
Architect's Service Bureau, An, 596. 
Architects to Compete, Manhattan College, 

Architect Wins Prize for Writing Best Play, 

Architectural Association Elects Officers, 


Architectural Exhibit for Ghent, Belgium, 52. 
Architectural League Exhibition, 376. 
Architectural League of Indianapolis, 30. 
Architectural Water Colors, 187. 
Architecture, Growing Appreciation for, 596. 
Armour Institute of Technology, Head of, 


Art Appreciation Lacking, 190. 
Art Center Getting Settled, 376. 
Art Historian Dies, 257. 

rt n te ome, . 
Artists Divide Auto Prize, 500. 

Birren Frize, 4t>/. 
Bismarck's Unique Park, 357. 

Borglum to Carve Army on Mountain, 162. 

Boston Architectural Show, 257. 

Boston Society of Architects Meets, 335. 

Brangwyn to Decorate Missouri Capitol, 129. 

Bridge for the U. S., Highest, 438. 

Bridge Resists Floods for Ages, 80. 

Brooklyn's Plymouth Church Rebuilding, 104. 

Builders Form New Organization, 500. 

Building Now, Wisdom of, 255. 

Building Officials' Conference, 438. 

Building with Government Aid, 255. 

Bungalow on Factory Roof, 297. 

Bureau of Housing, 105. 

Burning Coal Mine Under City, Fighting, 131. 

Burroughs Memorial, Plan, 631. 

Cabinet May Urge War Reductions, 502. 
Calder Committee Suggests Remedy for 

Housing Shortage, 469. 
Cambridge Architect Wins, 337. 
Carnegie Institute, 439. 
Carnegie Institute Exhibit, 376. 
Chicago Architectural Exhibit, 159. 
Chicago Architectural Exhibit 1921 The 34th 

Annual, 468. 

Chicago News Notes, 53, 106. 
Chicago Notes of Interest, 336. 
Chicago's Field Museum, 596. 
Chinese Art, 536. 
Circulating of Pictures, 162. 
City Bureau to Plan Homes, 105. 
City Plan for St. Paul, 438. 
City Planning in Kansas, 470. 
Civic Federation to Discuss Labor Problems, 


Coal, Plan to Pipe, 296. 
Cocoanut Palm, The Versatile, 297. 
Competition, Small House, 29. 
Concrete Building, Largest, 31. 
Construction Division U. S. A. Holds Re- 

union, 103. 

Contractor, Ethics for the, 295. 
Corinthian Capital, The Origin of the, 295. 
Country's Oldest House, This, 579. 
Crane, R. T., Buys Westover, 469. 


Danes Erect Obelisk, 80. 

Doctors' Co-operative Building, 499. 

Dutch Dry the Zuyder Zee, 215. 

Efficiency Body Favors World Fair in 1926. 


Engineer, Definition of 2000 Years Ago, 30. 
English Architects Meet, 630. 
Estate Management, Will Teach, 407. 


Factory Machinery No Longer Black, 130. 

Fine Exchange of Unselfish Recognition, A 

Finns Develop Own Architecture, 296. 

Fire Loss, 1920, Third Largest on Record, 

Forrests in Northwest, Vast, 104. 

France Plans Home for Married Women 
Only, 104. 

French Town, To Build Model, 362. 

French Village Has American Aid in Memor- 
ial, 190. 

Georgia Architects Organize, 187. 
Georgia School of Technology, 536. 
Germany Wants Skyscrapers, 215. 
Gobelins, Trying to Save, 105. 
Gobelin Works Admit Women, 80. 
Good Housing Hurt by Shortage, 255. 
Gotham National Bank, 53. 
Government Service, For, 408. 


Health Commissioner Invokes Millionaires. 


Henry Reinhardt, Art Dealer, Dead, 103 
High Bridge Saved, 159. 
High School Competition, 376. 
Historic St. Paul's, in Washington, D. C, 

Destroyed by Fire, 570. 
Home Builders, To Help, 375. 
Home Building by Advertising Campaign, To 

Push, 499. 

Hotel Entrances, 189. 
House Managers for the Dutch, 217. 
House Names, 407. 
Housing and Garden City League Formed, 


Housing Conference, 105. 
Housing in Germany, 104. 





x Problem in America. 256 
II. nising Problems to Be Considered, 5.! 

:i|( Kc><illlt . 256. 

tin* \\ .- Look from Ah"v.-, 

Hudson River I" It.' lli'.ii;. 1. 1"! 


Illinois Chapter Ar. -hit.-. Is Mold Meeting. 338. 

IH ,,i Art Works, 189. Mad -45 Story Apartment. 1)2. 
Induitrial Art at Museum, 103. 
Industrial Teachers' Scholarships in \e\v 

York. 630. 
Information Bureau for New York State Con 

tractors, 56V. Congress o f Cities in Paris, 160. 
Int.-Miational Situation. 502. 
Inter State Bridge, Maine, 161.> Wants Art Treasures, 615. 


Jamestown Architects Organize, 499. 
Japanese Houses, Signs on, 216. 
Jersey City Building Active, 160. 
Jersey City Chinning, 160. 

John Hopkins Plans Building Costing $11,- 
500,000, 5J. 


Kansas Architects Annual Meeting, 188. 
K:.IIV.LS City Architects Announce New Ser- 

vi. - Bureau, 569. 
Kitchen Marathon Two Miles, 104. 

Landmarks for the Aviator, 297. 

I-angley, Batty, Two Books Illustrating De- 

signs by, 631. 
Leases, $600,000 in. 499. 
LcBrim Scholarship Award, 191. 
Legacy to Posterity, A, 583. 
Leviathan, Nobody Wants the, 467. 

Library of Congress Wants The American 
Architect, 52. 

Lumbermen to Reduce Building Costs, 104. 


Marriage Profitable in Berlin, "336. 

MrKaddrn Art Disposal, 375. 

Memorial Competition, 296. 

Memorial Plans, 439. 

Michigan Chapter, A. I. A., 632. 

Model City for China, 272. 

Moving a C'ity, 536. 

Mural Painters Appointed. -Us 

Museums, Additions to, 377. 


National Arboretum, 188. 

N'atiiuial Building- Code, 256. 

National Landmark, A, 570. 

National Memorials Committee Issues Warn- 

ing, 569. 


Nebraska Chapter Elects Officers, 159. 
New York MIM i-Ilaiiies, 53. 

N'cw York Went Laws Upheld, 377. 

New York Society of Architects, 29, 159, 408, 

N.-w Yoik Society of Architects, Annual 

Dinner of, 5'),-. 
New York Society of Architects, Year Book, 


\ew York State Association Meets, 336. 
\i:iK'.na Power, 161. 
\Hiscs, Silencer for Street, 131. 


Omaha Art School, 189. 

Origin of "Checks," 105. 

Our Most Popular Building, 537. 

( iwn Your Home, 377. 

Own Your Home Competition, 215. 


Painters Hear Lecture on Color Dimensions, 

Paris Prize, Society of Beaux-Arts Archi- 
tects, 187. 

Paris Salon, American Architects Invited to 
Exhibit in, 129. 

Paris to Have Mosque, 631. 

Paris Walls for War Area Homes, 162. 

Peace Gardens for War Gardens, 536. 

Pennsylvania Academy Exhibit Announced, 

Permanent State Buildings in Washington, 

D. C., A Proposed Erection of, 631. 
Personalities of Cities, 538. 

Philadelphia Architects Co-operate with 
Labor, 189. 

Philadelphia Architects Join Exposition, 103. 
Philadelphia Architects Receive Gold Medal 
Award, 499. 

Philadelphia's Exhibit, 335. 
Philadelphia's New Art Museum, 5%. 
Portland, Ore., to Get City Plan, 468. 
Poverty of Immigrants, 257. 
Prague, In, 79. 

Prehistoric Village Found, 79. 
Publicity by Contractors, 191. 
Pueblo Architecture in Concrete, 296. 
Pullmans Used as Houses, 538. 
Puppets in Egyptian Tombs Show Ancient 
Conditions, 161. 


Razing Paris Forts, 409. 

Heal Estate Lecture Course, Y. M. C. A., 52. 

Realistic Art Is Urged, 537. 

Reconstruction in Belgium, 80. 

Reduce Excessive Building Costs, 256. 

Reims, Two Churches Unde'r, 631. 

Rembrandt, A Rare, Stolen, 105. 

"Rembrandt" Found, 132. 

Kh( 597 S " heilral ' <"armot Match Stone in, 

Ricker Library of Architecture 189 

Koine Extending Her Area, 272 

Roosevelt Memorial in Washington to Sur- 

pass All, 160, 

Roosevelt Memorial Proposed, 52 
Roosevelt Memorial Site, 536. 
Rotch Scholarship Award, 632 
Rotch Scholarship Examinations 407 
Roumanian Parlor Stoves, 215 


St. Lazare Prison Is to Be Demolished, Fa- 
mous, 377. 

St. Louis "Own Your Home Exposition," -t(j : 

San Francisco Is Unearthed, Ancient, 349. 

Sargent Returns to Boston, 188. 

Scholarships, M. I. T., 438. 

School Building Program for New York, 191. 

Schoolhouse, Good-Bye to Little Red, 296. 

Scientists to Delve in Ruins of Old Palestine, 

Seattle A. I. A. Elects, 335. 

Skyscraper, Birth of the, 408. 

Skyscrapers, Rue de Rivoli Wants, 190. 

South America Offers Inducements to Im- 
migrants, 537. 

Southern California Chapter's Officers, 187. 

Spain to Use Electricity, 362. 

Spanish Missions to Be Restored, 216. 

Specification Writers Reports Progress, Or- 
ganization of, 407. 

Speir, Oswald, Dead, 187. 

Stage Settings from Blocks, 296. 

Standard of Living, 255. 

State Financing for Home Building, Favors, 

Summer Classes in Architecture, 568. 


Tax Exemption Passed in New York Citv, 


Teacherages Are Gaining Favor, 439. 
Teach Housing in Schools, 256. 

Technical Man in War Department, Want, 

Tenement, Revamping the, 257. 

Thessalian Temple, Unearth, 632. 

Tmver Made of Tree Trunk, 536. 

Traveling Exhibits of Art, 130. 

Treasures of Loreto Are Reduced to Ashes, 


U. S. Wearing Away, 162. 

University of Chicago, To Enlarge, 597. 

Upbuilding the Nation, 255. 


Virginia Chapter Names Officers, 188. 


Washington State Society Elects, 188. 
Westminster Acknowledges American C.ift, 

Whale Bones for Building, 337. 
Where Land Costs Most, 536. 
White House Again to Become Mecca Under 
the Hardings, 337. 

Wichita Architects Hold Election, 188. 

William Willett Dead, 467. 

Workhouse Closes, Famous, 79. 

World's Fair in Philadelphia, 160. 

World's Fair, Permanent Buildings for, 189 

World Trade, To Restore, 469. 


Zoning, Saving by, 295. 

American Specification Institute. I ,,,,,, m mica- 
lion, from Architects, 67. IN, .>*). i>> 37S 

Appreciative Letter fr,,m an old SoWi-iber 
B V )' 'lueen, 490. 


"Hawkeye State," The. By Edwin D. Weary. 
"Westward-Ho," An Echo from. 303. 





Light-faced figures refer to text pages; bold-faced to serial number 

Ambassador Hotel and the Architectural En- 
gineer, The, 659, 2370. 
American Engineering Standards Committee, 

The, 466, 2364. 
liiiuininous Concrete Foundation, Advantages 

of. 5.54, 2366. 
II ok Notes A Book of Ceilings, 298. 2359; 

Hcndrick's Commercial Register for 1921, 

298, 2359; Red Lead, and How to Use It 

in Paint, 497, 2365. 
Ki.ildniu; Cudcs, Inconsistencies of Some, 463, 

lYment Slabs, New Design Data for, 287, 

C ntral Warehouse, Chicago, Shoring and 

I'lnU-i-pinning the, 592, 2368. 
Cleveland Auditorium, 21, 2350. 
( o;il Hin of Unusual Design and Construc- 
tion, A Concrete, 621, 2369. 
Colored Wall Plaster, 661, 2370. 
Concrete Strength, Effect of Colorings on, 

661, 2370. 

Crane, Making, the, Safe, 154, 2355. 
Creosoted Wood Block Factory Floors. By 

Lambert T. Ericson, 212, 23S7. 
Elevator Motors, Controls for A. C., 434, 2363. 
Engineers and Architects, Estrangement Be- 

'twcen, 294, 2359. 
l-Vdcral Electric and Walker Vehicle Plants, 

Chicago, The. George C. Nimmons & Co., 

Architects, 559, 2367. 
Fire Precautions in a Woodworking Plant, 

331, 2360. 

Fire Tests, 498, 2365. 
Flat Slab Floors, 100, 2353. 
Flues, Proper Size and Design for, 158, 2355. 

Frame Roof a Thatched Appearance, Giving 
a, 373. 2361. 

(iarage Fire Record, 76, 2352. 

Generator Units, Emergency, 334, 2360. 

Good Design Increases Rental Values, 151, 

Heating and Ventilating Equipment. By 
Charles L. Hubbard, 367, 2361; 399, 2362. 

Heating and Ventilating Industrial Buildings. 
By Charles L. Hubbard, 71, 2352, 95, 2353. 

High Bridge, Fate of, 45, 2351. 

Hollow Tile Floor Construction. An Improve- 
ment in. By Allan F. Owen, 26, 2350. 

Lighting Fixtures, New Idea in, 50, 2351. 

Linoleum and Its Proper Application, 565, 

Metal Lath to Avoid Plaster Cracks, Appli- 
cation of, 246, 2358. 

Method of Securing Weather-tight Contact 
Between Swinging Doors, 534, 2366. 

Motor Transport Industry, A New Building 
for the, 429, 2363. 

National Safety Council, 1921 Campaign, 405, 

Noyes-Buick Building, Boston, Engineering 
Features of. By Henry F. Bryant, Engi- 
neer, 207, 2357. 

Overhead and Underground Streets for New 
York, 463, 2364. 

Paints and Varnishes, Fire-Resisting. By 
Henry A. Gardner, 594, 2368. 

Pittsburgh Changes Regulation on Wall 
Thickness. 535, 2366. 

Plaster Walls, Preventing Cracks in, 186, 

Raising and Shoring a Fireproof School 
House, 464, 2364. 

Refrigeration. By Charles L. Hubbard, 528, 
2366; 5X7. 2368; <>5-4, 2370. 

Reinforced Concrete Against Electrolysis, 
Protection for, 498, 2365. 

Reinforced Concrete Construction, Modern 
Practice in, 177, 2356. 

Reinforced Concrete. Short Cuts for Calcu- 
lating and Estimating. My Milo S. Far- 
well, 251, 2358. 

Relative Heat Conductivities of Building 
Materials, 78, 2352. 

Sheathing and Wall Board, Relative Strength 
of, 498. 2365. 

Single Doors for Entrances to School Build- 
ings, 534, 2366. 

Spray Painting, Recent Developments in, 157, 

Stairs, The Rise and Run of, 661, 2370. 

Steel Forms for Concrete Columns and Floor 
Slabs, 332, 2360. 

Steel Sheet Piling. By Charles S. Boardman, 
123, 2354. 

Theatre. Safety in a Modern, 292, 2359. 

Tile and Concrete Floor Shows to Advantage 
Under Test, 327, 2360. 

Ventilation of the Home Office Building of 
the Travelers Insurance Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn., 429, 2364. 

Warehouse for The National Tea Company, 
Chicago. Jean B. Rohm & Son, Archi- 
tects; L. J. Mensch, Engineer, 492, 2365. 

\\':irm-Air Furnaces. Rating and Comparing. 
By A. C. Willard, 155, 2355. 

Wrought Iron, How. It Is Made, 101, 2353. 


Figures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 

Albro, Lewis Colt: 
Mendleson Memorial Chapel. Loudenville, 

N. Y., 2368. 
. \shfim, Leonard: 

1'ire ami Police Station for the City of 

Bridgeport, Conn., 2369. 
Harber, Donn: 
Hartford Times Building, Hartford, Conn., 


Barnard, John: 
Second Prize, Brick House, Own Your 

Home Small House Competition, 2360. 
Bates & How: 
House of Mr. Chapin S. Pratt, Bronxville, 

N. Y., 2365. 

Maum, Dwight James: 
House of Mr. John W. Griffin, Fieldston, 

N. Y., 2367. 
House of Mr. R. E. Lewis, Hartsdale, N. Y., 

House of Mr. M. A. Shea, Fieldston, N. V., 

Riverdale Country Club, Riverdale, N. Y., 


Hla. kail, Clapp & Whittemore: 
Broadway Theatre, South Poston, Mass., 

lioehm, G. A. and H.: 

Store of Richard Hudnut, New York, 2364. 
Howditch, Arthur H.: 

Noyes-Buick Building, Boston, Mass., 2357. 
Muchman & Kahn: 

Borden Building, New York City, 2365. 
House of Mr. Herman Younker, Elmsford, 

N. Y., 2365. 
Childs & Smith: 

First National Bank, Menasha, Wis., 2351. 
II .use of Mr. G. S. Gaylord, Neenah, Wis., 

House of Mr. A. C. Gilbert, Neenah, Wis., 

House of Mr. Ralph Isham, Santa Barbara, 

Cal., 2351. 

House of Mr. Mowry Smith, Menasha, Wis.. 

Menasha Cafe, Menasha, Wis., 2364. 
Cross & Cross: 
Guaranty Trust Company, Fifth Avenue, 

New York City, 2365. 
Davis, McGrath & Kiesling: 
Community Building, Flint, Mich., 2365. 
Industrial Savings Bank Building, Flint, 

Midi.. 2365. 

Dies, J. Ivan and Maier, E. J.: 
Second Prize, Frame House, Own Your 
Home Small House Competition, 2360. 

Dunning, N. Max: 
American Book Co., Chicago, 2356. 
Bethany Bible School, Chicago, 2354. 
Dixon National Bank, Dixon, 111., 2356. 
Dixon Telephone Co., Dixon, 111., 2356. 
House of Mr. C. D. Barnes, Kenosha, Wis., 

House of Mr. F. C. Traver, Kenilworth, HI., 

House of Mr. Robert E. Ward, Wilmette, 

111., 2354. 

Kenosha Hospital, Kenosha, Wis., 2356. 
National Cloak & Suit Co., Kansas City, 

Mo., 2354. 
Newell Memorial Chapel, Kenosha, Wis., 


Shelter House, Kenosha, Wis., 2357. 
Simmons Mfg. Co., Kenosha, Wis., 2354. 
Stromberg Motor Device Co., Chicago, 2356. 
N. Max Dunning & John W. McKecknie: 
House of Mr. Robert J. Thome, Lake For- 
est, HI., 2359. 
Eggers, O. R.: 

Drawings of Early American Architecture: 
Old Shop, Litchfield, Conn., 2350. 
Door of a Dutch Farm House, North 

Paterson, 2351. 

Trinity Church, Newport, R. L, 2.152. 
Doorway, Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., 


Old State House, Newport, R. I., 2354. 
A Street in Newport, R. I., 2355. 
Billop House, Staten Island, N. Y., 2356 
St. Andrew's Church, Staten Island, N. Y., 


Old Tavern, Rossville, Staten Island, 2358. 
Old Dutch Farm House, Staten Island, 


Christ Church, Philadelphia. 2361. 
St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, 2362. 
Christ Church and Graveyard, Philadel- 
phia, 2363. 

Old State House, Philadelphia. Pa.. 2364. 
Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., 


Old Custom House, Philadelphia. Pa., 2366. 
Old State House, Philadelphia, Pa., 2367. 
Doorway to Fairfax House, Alexandria, 

Va., 2.V8. 

Kitchen Wing, Mount Vernon, Va., 2369. 
Christ Church, Alexandria, Va.. 2370. 
Fridstein & Co.: 

Hotel Webster, Chicago, 2362. 
Green, James C. : 

House of Mr. Duane Armstrong, Green- 
wich, Conn., 2365. 

Gregory, Julius: 

House of Mr. Clarence McDaniel, Harts- 
dale, N. Y., 2362. 
Holabird & Roche: 
Building for Beckley-Ralston Co., Chicago, 

Building for R. T. Ederer Co., Chicago, 

Building for Maxwell Sales Co., Chicago, 


House for Mr. Louis A. Ferguson, Evans- 
ton, 111., 2363. 

House of Mr. Joseph E. Tilt, Chicago, 2363. 
Wesley Foundation, University of Illinois, 

Urbana, 111., 2364. 
Hood, Raymond M.: 
House of Mr. Cyril Crimmins, Noroton, 

Conn., 2359. 
Jackson, John F.: 
House of Mr. E. L. Woodworth, Passaic, 

N. J., 2364. 
Justement, Louis: 
First Prize, Frame House, Own Your Home 

Small House Competition, 2360. 
First Prize, Stucco House. Own Your Home 

Small House Competition, 2360. 
Kohn, Robert D. : 

I-oft Building, New York, 2368. 
Leone, Amedp: 
Second Prize, Stucco House, Own Your 

Home Small House Competition, 2360. 
McGoodwin, Robert R.: 
House at Chestnut Hill, Pa., 2369. 
House of Mr. Norman Ellison, Chestnut 

Hill, Pa., 2369. 
House of Mr. Spencer Erwin, Chestnut Hill, 

Pa., 2369. 
House of Mr. Norman Mackie, Chestnut 

Hill, Pa., 2369. 
House of Mr. Walter Schwartz, Chestnut 

Hill, Pa., 2369. 
House of Dr. George Woodward, Chestnut 

Hill, Pa., 2369. 
Nfclmire, Samuel: 

Baldwin -Lyrnan House, Salem, Mass., 2366. 
Cabot-Endicott-Low House, Salem, Mass., 

Details of Old Salem Houses, Salem, Mass., 


Teffrey Lang House, Salem, Mass., 2366. 
Old Ladies' Home. Salem, Mass.. 2363. 
Pickering House. Salem. Mass., 2366. 
Pierce-Nichols House, Salem, Mass., 2363. 
Richard-Derby House, Salem, Mass., 2366. 
Stearns House, Salem, Mass., 2366. 






Mi-Kecknie, John W., & N. Max Dunning: 
OM nf Mr Robert J. Thorne. Lake For- 
est, III.. 2359. 
Mi -Kim, Meat! & White: 

II. ill. N, w York, 2355. 

Murvhisun, Kenneth M.: 

I'rimelles Building. Havana, Cuba, 2365. 
I'ennell, H. B.:- 

- Building for Pennell, Gibbs & OuirinK 
. II.. -i. ,n. Mass., 2362. 

.lottn Russell: 

llcmsr of Mr. Andrew V. Stout. Redbank, 
N. J., 2368. 

Randall, James A.: 
Blodgett Vocation; 
ware School, Syracuse 

Blodgett Vocational High School, Dela- 
ware School, Syracuse, N. Y., 2353. 
Kossiter & Muller:- 

House of Mr. B. Austin Cheney, New 

Haven, Conn., 2368. 

Salomonsky, Edgar, and Vt-rna Cook: 
First Prize, Brick House. Own Your Home 

Small House Competition, 2360. 
-Schmidt, Garden & Martin: 
Cosmopolitan State Bank, Chicago, 111., 


Sommerfelcl & Steckler: 
Gotham National Bank Building, New 
York, 2361. 

button & Whitney: 

Scottish Rite Cathedral Competition, Port- 
land, Oregon, First Prize Design, 2361. 

Walker & Gillette: 

House of Mr. James J. Hill, Westbury, 
L. I., N. Y., 2350. 

Warren & Wetmore: 

Ambassador Hotel, New York City, 2370. 
Straus, S. W., & Co. Building, New York 
City, 2370. 

Welsh, Lewis E. : 

House of Mr. Laurence M. Thompson, Mon- 
trose, Pa., 2365. 


Figures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 

Administrative and Governmental 

l-irc and Police Station for the City of 
Bridgeport, Conn. Leonard Asheim, 
Architect, 2369. 

Town Hall. New York City. McKim, Mead 
& White, Architects, 2355. 


< oMnopolitan State Bank, Chicago, III. Rich- 

ard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Archi- 

tects, 2364. 
Dixon National Bank Building, Dixon, 111. 

N. Max Dunning Architect 2356. 
First National Bank Menasha, Wis. Childs 

& Smith, Architects, 2351. 
<;.,iham National Bank Building, New York. 

Sommerfeld & Sleekier, Architects, 2361 
(iuaranty Trust Company, Fifth Avenue, New 

York City. Cross & Cross, Architects, 

Industrial Savings Bank Building, Flint, 

Mich. Davis, McGrath & Riesling, Archi- 

tects, 2365. 
Straus, S. W., & Co. Building, New York 

City. Warren & Wetmore, Architects, 


Bethany Bible School, Chicago. N. Max 

Dunning, Architect, 2354. 
Mendelson Memorial Chapel, Loudenville, 

N. Y. Lewis Colt Albro, Architect, 2368. 
Newell Memorial Chapel, Kenosha, Wis. N. 

Max Dunning, Architect, 2356. 
Scottish Rite Cathedral Competition, Port- 

land Oregon First Prize Design. Sutton 

& Whitney, Architects, 2361. 


Blodgett Vocational High School, Syracuse, 
N. Y. Delaware School, Syracuse. N. Y., 
James A. Randall, Architect, 2353 

State Normal School Competition, New 
Britain, Conn. Guilbert & Betelle, W F 
Brooks, Aymar Embury, II, Architects, 

U . Kiev Foundation. University of Illinois, 
Urbana. 111. Holabird & Roche, Archi- 
tects, 2364. 


enice, . 

French Romanesque Doorway, 2353 
< athedral, Mainz, Germany. 2354. 

Veni all 23 r 5 > 5 Parapet> Church of S. Mark, 
Gothic Window, Cathedral, Wetzlar, Ger- 


Salute ' Venic<1 . 
Miracoli ' 

neM ' 

Tomb of Beato Pacificio Buon, Venice 2359 
Monuments oi Doges, Venice, 2360 

2361 ch of S'- Maclou, Rouen, France, 

Cathedral, Wetzlar, Germanv 2362 

2363 an<1 Br ' dge ' ' he Miraco1 '. Venice, 
Ravenna, Italy, 2364. 

Entrance Detail, Andrew-Safford House, 

Salem, Mass. 

Detail of Doorway, Rathaus, Lucerne, 2367. 
Church of S. Stephen, Florence. Italy, 2368. 
Detail of a Spanish Church, Circa XV-XVI 

Century, 2369. 
Basilica of S. Spirito, Ravenna, Italy, 2370. 


Ambassador Hotel, New York City. Warren 

& Wetmore, Architects, 2370. 
Menasha Cafe, Menasha, Wis. Childs & 

Smith, Architects, 2364. 
Hotel Webster, Chicago. Fridstein & Co., 

Engineers, 2362. 


American Book Co., Chicago. N. Max Dun- 
ning, Architect, 2356. 
Borden Building, New York City. Buchman 

& Kahn, Architects, 2365. 
Building for Beckley-Ralston Co., Chicago, 

111. Holabird & Roche, Architects 2364 
Building for R. T. Ederer Co., Chicago, III. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects 2364 
Building for Maxwell Sales Co., Chicago III 

Holabird & Roche, Architects, 2364. 
Dixon Home Telephone Co., Dixon, 111. N. 

Max Dunning, Architect, 2356. 
Hartford Times Building, Hartford, Conn. 

Donn Barber, Architect, 2365. 
Loft Building, New York. Robert D. Kohn, 

Architect, 2368. 
National Cloak & Suit Co., Kansas City, Mo 

N. Max Dunning, Architect, 2354 
Noyes-Buick Building. Boston, Mass. Arthur 

H. Bowditch, Architect, 2357. 
Office for Simmons Manufacturing Co 

tec OS 2354 W ' S ' N ' M " X Dunnin K' Archi- 
Strornberg Motor Device Building, Chicago, 

111. N. Max Dunning, Architect. 2356. 


Architectural League of New York, Thirty- 

sixth Annual Exhibition, 2365. 
M roadway Theatre, South Boston, Mass 

tecTs 236 & Whitteraore - Archi- 

CommnaSty Building, Flint Mich. Davis. 

McGrath & Kieshng, Architects, 2365 
e 'l' 1S f , 9i d Sa . Iem Houses, Salem, Mass 

bamuel Mclntire, Architect, 2366 
Kenosha Hospital, Kenosha, Wis N Max 

Dunning, Architect, 2356. 
Old Ladies' Home, Salem, Mass. Samuel Mc- 

Pri M ell M B i .WinK? 'Havana, Cuba. Kenneth 

M Murchison, Architect. 2365 
Riverdale Country Club, Riverdale N Y 
SI Ue'r 1 He K BaUm ' Architect, 2367 


- A 

House of Mr. C. D. Barnes, Kenosha, Wis. N. 

Max Dunning, Architect, 2359. 
House of Mr. B. Austin Cheney, New ii;iv. ... 
Conn. Rossiter & Muller, Architects, 2368. 
House of Mr. Cyril Crimmins, Noroton, Conn. 

Raymond M. Hood, Architect, 2359. 
House of Mr. Norman Ellison, Chestnut Hill. 
Pa. Robert R. McGoodwin, Architect, 

House of Mr. Spencer Erwin, Chestnut Hill, 
Pa. Robert R. McGoodwin, Architect, 
House of Mr. Louis A. Ferguson, Evanston, 

111. Holabird & Roche, Architects, 2363. 
House of Mr. G. S. Gaylord, Neenah, Wis. 

Childs & Smith, Architects, 2369. 
House of Mr. A. C. Gilbert, Neenah, Wis 

Childs & Smith, Architects, 2351. 
House of Mr. John W. Griffin, Fieldston, 
N. Y. Dwight James Baum, Architect, 

House of Mr. Tames J. Hill, Westbury, L I, 
N. Y. Walker & Gillette, Architects, 
House of Mr. Ralph Isham, Santa Barbara 

Cal. Childs & Smith, Architects, 2351 
House of Mr. R. E. Lewis, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Dwight James Baum, Architect, 2367 
House of Mr. Norman Mackie, Chestnut Hill, 
Pa. Robert R. McGoodwin, Architect, 

House of Mr. Clarence McDaniel, Hartsdale, 

. N. Y. Julius Gregory, Architect, 2362. 
House of Mr. Chapin S. Pratt, Bronxville, 

N. Y. Bates & How, Architects, 2365 
House of Mr. Walter Schwartz, Chestnut 

Hill, Pa. Robert R. McGoodwin, Archi- 

tect, 2369. 
House of Mr. M. A. Shea, Fieldston, N Y 

Dwight James Baum, Architect, 2367 
"A e -,j Mr - Mowry Smith, Menasha, Wis 

Childs & Smith, Architects, 2364 
House of Mr. Andrew V. Stout, Redbank. 

" J. Jnn Russell Pope, Architect, 2368. 
House of Mr. Laurence M. Thompson. Mon 

troe, Pa. Lewis E. Welsh, Architect, 

House of Mr. Robert J. Thorne, Lake Forest, 
III. John W. McKecknie, Architect; N 
Max Dunning, Associate Architect 2359 

House of Mr. Joseph E. Tilt, Chicago. Hola- 
bird & Roche, Architects, 2363. 

Ho "? c of Mr. F. C. Traver, Kenilworth, III 
N. Max Dunning, Architect, 2354. 

\f r f Ml r\ Robert E - Ward ' Wilmette, 111 
N. Max Dunning, Architect, 2354. 
T! ? M f Dr - George Woodward, Chestnut 
tec"' 2369 ' Mc Gdwin, Archi- 

House of Mr E I. Woodworth, Passaic, N. T. 

John F. Jackson, Architect. 2364. 
House of Mr Herman Younker. Elmsford. 

W. Y. Buchman & Kahn, Architects 2365 
Baldwin-Lyman House, Salem. Mass Sam- 

uel Mclntire, Architect, 2366 

Cib S^.f i t V 1 i OW F ouse ' Sale . Mass. 
Samuel Mclntire. Architect, 2366 


. , 

Jeffrey Lang House, Salem, Mass. ' Samuel 
Mclntire, Architect, 2366. 

House at Chestnut Hill, Pa. Robert R Me 
Goodwin. Architect, 2369 
C S onn M a r m Du %Arm strong, Greenwich, 
n. James C. Green, Architect, 2365. 





Figures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 

Santa Barbara: 

House of Mr. Ralph Isham. Childs & 
Smith, Architects, 2351. 


Bridgeport : 
Fire and Police Station. Leonard Asheim, 

Architect, 2369. 

House of Mr. Duane Armstrong. James 
C. Green, Architect, 2365. 

Hartford Times Building. Donn Barber, 
Architect. 2365. 
New Britain: 

State Normal School Competition. Guil- 
bert & Betelle, W. F. Brooks, Aymar 
Embury, II, Archiects, 2352. 
New Haven: 
House of Mr. B. Austin Cheney. Rossitcr 

& Muller, Architects, 2368. 
House of Mr. Cyril Crimmins. Raymond 

M. Hood, Architect, 2359. 

Primelles Building. Kenneth M. Murchi- 
son, Architect, 2365. 


American Book Co. N. Max Dunning, 

Architect, 2356. 
Bethany Bible School. N. Max Dunning, 

Architect, 2354. 
Building for Beckley-Ralston Co. Hola- 

bird & Roche, Architects, 2364. 
Building for R. T. Ederer Co. Holabird & 

Roche, Architects, 2364. 
Building for Maxwell Sales Co. Holabird 

& Roche, Architects 2364. 
Cosmopolitan State Bank. Richard E. 
Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Architects, 

Hotel Webster. Fridstein & Co., Engi- 
neers, 2362. 
House of Mr. Joseph E. Tilt. Holabird & 

Roche, Architects, 2363. 
Dixpn : 
Dixon National Bank Building. N. Max 

Dunning, Architect, 2356. 
Dixon Telephone Co. N. Max Dunning, 

Architect, 2356. 

House of Mr. Louis A. Ferguson. Hola- 
bird & Roche, Architects, 2363. 
House of Mr. F. C. Traver. N. Max Dun. 

ning, Architect, 2354. 
Lake Forest: 

House of Robert J. Thorpe, John W. Mc- 
Kecknie, Architect; N. Max Dunning, 
Associate Architect, 2359. 
Wesley Foundation, University of Illinois. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects, 2364. 

House of Mr. Robert E. Ward. N. Max 
Dunning, Architect, 2354. 



Noyes-Buick Building. Arthur H. Bow- 
ditch, Architect, 2357. 

Store Building for Penncll, Gibbs & Quir- 
ing Co. H. B. Pennell, Architect, 2362. 
Boston, South: 

Broadway Theatre. Blackall, Clapp & 

Whittemore, Architects, 2369. 

Baldwin-Lyman House, Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2366. 

Cabot-Endicott-Low House. Samuel Mc- 
lntire, Architect, 2366. 

Details of Old Salem Houses. Samuel 
Mclntire, Architect, 2366. 

Jeffrey Lang House. Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2366. 

Old Ladies' Home. Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2363. 

Pickering House. Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2366. 

Pierce-Nichols House. Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2363. 

Richard-Derby House. Samuel Mclntire, 
Architect, 2366. 

Stearns House. Samuel Mclntire, Archi- 
tect, 2366. 

Community Building. Davis, McGrath & 

Kiesling, Architects, 2365. 
Industrial Savings Bank Building. Davis, 
McGrath & Kiesling, Architects, 2365. 


Kansas City: 

National Cloak & Suit Co. N. Max Dun- 
ning, Architect, 2354. 

New Jersey 

House of Mr. E. I. Woodworth. John F. 

Jackson, Architect, 2364. 

House of Mr. Andrew V. Stout. John 
Russell Pope, Architect, 2368. 

New York 

House of Mr. Chapin S. Pratt. Bates & 

How, Architects, 2365. 
House of Mr. Herman Younker. Buch- 

man & Kahn, Architect, 2365. 
House of Mr. John W. Griffin. Dwigbt 

James Baum, Architect, 2367. 
House of Mr. M. A. Shea. Dwight, James 

Baum, Architect, 2367. 
House of Mr. R. E. Lewis. Dwight James 

Baum, Architect, 2367. 
House of Mr. Clarence McDaniel. Julius 

Gregory, Architect, 2362. 

Mendelson Memorial Chapel. Lewis Colt 
Albro, Architect, 2368. 

New York: 
Ambassador Hotel. Warren & Wetmore, 

Architects, 2370. 
Borden Building. Buchman & Kahn, 

Architect, 2365. 
Gotham National Bank Building. Som- 

merfeld & Steckler, Architects, 2361. 
Guaranty Trust Company, Fifth Avenue. 

Cross & Cross, Architects, 2365. 
Loft Building. Robert D. Kohn, Archi- 
tect, 2368. 
Store of Richard Hudnut. G. A. and H. 

Boehm, Architects, 2364. 
Straus, S. W., & Co. Building. Warren & 

Wetmore, Architects, 2370. 
Town Hall. McKim, Mead & White, 

Architects, 2355. 
Riverdale Country Club. Dwight James 

Baum, Architect, 2367. 
Blodgett Vocational School, Delaware 

School. James A. Randall, Architect, 


Westbury, L. I.: 
House of Mr. James J. Hill. Walker & 

Gillette, Architects. 2350. 



Scottish Rite Cathedral Competition- 
First Prize Design. Sutton & Whitney, 
Architects, 2361. 


Chestnut Hill: 
House at Chestnut Hill, Pa. Robert R. 

McGoodwin, Architect, 2369. 
House of Mr. Norjnan Ellison. Robert R. 

McGoodwin, Architect. 2369. 
House of Mr. Spencer Erwin. Robert R. 

McGoodwin, Architect, 2369. 
House of Mr. Norman Mackie. Robert R. 

McGoodwin, Architect, 2369. 
House of Mr. Walter Schwartz. Roberl 

R. McGoodwin, Architect, 2369. 
House of Dr. George Woodward. Robert 

R. McGoodwin, Architect, 2369. 
House of Mr. Laurence M. Thompson. 

Lewis E. Welsh, Architect, 2365. 



House of Mr. C. D. Barnes. N. Max Dun- 
ning. Architect, 2359. 

Kenosha Hospital. N. Max Dunning, 
Architect, 2356. 

Newell Memorial Chapel. N. Max Dun- 
ning, Architect, 2356. 

Office for Simmons Mfg. Co. N. Max 

Dunning, Architect, 2354. 

First National Bank. Childs & Smith, 
Architects, 2351. 

House of Mr. Mowry Smith. Childs & 
Smith, Architects, 2364. 

Menasha Cafe. Childs & Smith, Archi- 
tects, 2364. 

"House of Mr. G. S. Gaylord. Childs & 

Smith. Architects. 2369. 

House of Mr. A. C. Gilbert. Childs & 
Smith, Architects, 2351. 

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The American Architect 

Specification Manual for 1921 

THE American Architect Specification Manual, edition of 
1921, is now being prepared and will be ready for dis- 
tribution about August 1st. 

We publish this volume as a service rendered to the profes- 
sion which supports our publication, and copies of the Manual 
will be supplied (until the stock is distributed) free of charge 
to all practicing architects sending us requests on their office 
stationery. Many requests for the 1921 edition have already 
reached us, and we suggest that promptness in forwarding 
these requests is desirable in order to secure a volume before 
the' stock is exhausted. 

We take this opportunity to express appreciation of the 
cordial welcome given previous editions of the Manual. 
These were supplied to more than 3,000 architects in 
America, and have proved of practical value in the prepara- 
tion of specifications, as evidenced by hundreds of letters 
received by us from architectural offices heartily commend- 
ing the work. 

The 1921 edition will be of greater size and importance than 
its predecessors, and will contain more than 170 specifica- 
tions of standard building materials and processes. These 
specifications embody in condensed language the result of 
many years of experience of hundreds of experts in the use of 
the materials and methods specified. 

Mr. Gardner C. Coughlen, Executive Secretary of the Amer- 
ican Specification Institute, is acting as editor of the 1921 
Manual. This is an indication of the quality of the form of 
the specification material. 

The American Architect 

ll "" l "" l "" i " " ' IIIIIIIIII!J " 11 "' ' ' ' "m. ,, , , ,., , ^J 







NUMBER 2350 

The Practice of Architecture in 1921 

The Future as Viewed by C. H. Blackall, F. A. I. A. 

when the hopes of the great war were at their 
lowest ebb. the writer ventured to make certain 
predictions as to what architecture would be after 
the war. So far not one of those predictions has 
come true. The much anticipated revival of business 
has not taken place. There have been sporadic de- 
velopments, and a' few of the favored ones have been 
very busy, but building as a whole has not flourished 
since the war in any general locality, and if we may 
make some rough approximations from general sta- 
tistics, there are not as many architects in practice 
today as there were in 1918, and the amount of work 
available is very much less. It would be very easy, 
and perhaps quite natural, to deduce from this that 
the prospects are altogether disappointing, that the 
hopes we had cherished in the time of our stress 
were not justified and that the future is no more 
clear now that it was then. Now what is the 
answer ? 

The eclipse which the profession suffered during 
the war has fairly passed away. In fact, even dur- 
ing the latter years of the war some of the most im- 
portant war work was entrusted to members of our 
profession, not merely the housing, which after all 
was simply a pot-boiler, but the more serious engi- 
neering works which assumed the magnitude of mon- 
uments ; and we are as a profession in a better shape 
to handle our work because of the experiences which 
we had, and especially because of the chastening in- 
difference which the public and the authorities evinced 
for several years to our high professional claims. As 
I see it, the profession is more nearly on a business 
basis than ever before. The discussions which took 
place in the last convention of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects were on the whole so eminently 
practical and so free from mere professionalism that 
they showed how we have been forced to look at our 
calling, and there has been such a wide-spread interest 
in the business and the so-called practical side of 
architecture that there must be something behind it 
more than the mere desire of the members of the 
profession to get work. In fact, one of the character- 

istics of the attitude of the profession has been that 
it ought not to try to get work. Perhaps it would 
have been better if we had tried more earnestly and 
more intelligently; perhaps we would have more 
work and more public esteem if we were more ready 
to take part in the constant fight for recognition ; per- 
haps we would stand higher if we were not so re- 
tiring. Surely when so much emphasis is placed on 
the manner of doing and getting our work, and on 
the necessity of 'doing our work right from the busi- 
ness and scientific as well as the imaginative side, it 
is pretty good evidence that the profession has cast 
away a very considerable proportion of the purely 
professional attitude which so hampered it during 
the war. 

From the standpoint of carrying out our work, 
there is every reason to anticipate conditions will con- 
stantly improve in the next few months. Also in our 
offices conditions will improve. Few of the young 
men who entered the service of the government dur- 
ing the war came out of it with credit. They shared 
in the general let-down which affected all classes and 
conditions, not excepting the architects themselves, 
and we were forced to put up with indifferent co- 
operation and inefficient assistance. That is changing 
fast, and by spring we will have a better choice of 
help and more hearty co-operation than we have had 
for six years. That will mean better architecture. 
better satisfaction to our clients and a better feeling 
on all sides. As to what part of the work will come 
to us in the future, opinions may vary, but there are 
a number of cases which have been noted where the 
architect has resumed not only his past importance as 
a director of work, but where he has been looked to 
in a degree which would have been impossible before 
the days of the war. In one city the writer knows 
of a large project involving tens of millions which a 
few years ago would have come to the architect only 
after all the preliminaries were decided, but in this 
case the architects were called in first and were able 
to assist at the very beginning of the whole con- 
ception. This is only one of the many instances 
which are on record. 

Copyright, 1931, The Architectural if Building Press (Inc.) 


As to how much work the architects will have, it 
is my belief that those who have had in the past and 
have shown their ability will have a great deal more ; 
that as a result of the stress of the war period, the 
public will be more cautious about accepting an archi- 
uvt -imply because he is a good fellow, or well con- 
nected, and that the profession will see more than 
ever before the rise of the architect, or architectural 
organization, controlling many millions of work, and 
the subordination of the men of limited experience 
and ability to the smaller work. This is inevitable and 
will mean better architecture, better execution, and 
in the long run better professional feeling. One archi- 
tectural combination is reported as having work run- 
ning up to seventy-five millions of dollars. It is a fair 
probability that this concern with seventy millions of 
work will do it better, more thoroughly, more effi- 
ciently and more economically than would have been 
possible at any time before the war for an architect, 
or group of architects, to do one-tenth part of that 
work. The war lessons have not all been hard. Some 
of them we have been able to take very much to 
heart, and the most valuable, as I see it, is the need of 

association, the impossibility of one man doing it 
all, and the inevitableness of the concentration of 
large work in the hands of the few who are best fitted 
for it. This may seem like restricting the hopes of 
the young men. On the contrary, it greatly increases 
the horizon for every yourig man who will take the 
pains to fit himself properly for his profession, for 
the opportunities of the profession are not measured 
by the average chance, but by the higher prizes ; and 
with the country suffering as it does now from under- 
building in every line, with the vast accumulation of 
wealth in the hands of banks, trustees, insurance com- 
panies and the like, which will be readily available for 
legitimate building operations, I look to see a revival 
of building such as the world has never seen be- 
fore, when we will have opportunities measured only 
by our capabilities, when those who are able to take, 
will have both hands full. But we must not, and we 
cannot, forget the lessons of the war, nor ignore the 
extent to which we must live up to the best of our 
profession and must treat our calling as a very exact- 
ing business, a very definite science and the highest 
art which man can make manifest in this world. 

The Relationship between Architecture 

and Building 

The Present Conditions and Future Prosperity of the Building Industry 

By Louis JAY HOROWITZ, President, Thompson-Starrett Co. 

asked me to express in this article my views 
as to the relationship between architect and 
builder, and the present condition and future pros- 
pects of the building industry. One may, at best, of- 
fer only a surmise as to what is in store for the in- 
dustry in the near future, but of the absolute need of 
co-operation between Architect and Builder in every 
operation, I may be allowed to speak with sympathy 
and conviction. 

I am unalterably opposed to the methods of some 
contractors who seek to dispense with the architect 
and who attempt to embrace in their activities both 
the design of a building and its execution. I am 
opposed to it, not from any sentimental reason for 
the architect, but from purely business reasons for 
the owner. The designing and planning of buildings 
is in itself a special and separate study, and the con- 
tractor who treats it as just one more addition to the 
great variety of his labors is not only slighting the 

architect's profession, but disparaging architecture 
itself, and needs to be reminded (loth as I am to ad- 
mit it!) that architects are remembered when build- 
ers are forgotten. Sir Christopher Wren designed 
St. Paul's Cathedral, but who built it? However, 
the architect's case does not rest on tradition alone, 
but on efficiency. His is a cereer of true specializa- 
tion, and with the constantly rising cost of space in 
modern cities, it is sheer folly to underestimate the 
services of one who devotes his talents to utilizing it 
to the best advantage. 

Obversely, I may be permitted the privilege of 
saying, that the contractor cannot wisely be dis- 
pensed with by the architect. Indeed, this must be 
so, or the other side of the argument falls to the 
ground. A properly-conducted building operation de- 
mands the services of both architect and contractor, 
and, for either to dismiss the services of the other as 
superfluous, is to create a situation inherently un- 
sound and unsafe. I will not assume to define the 


limits of the architect's work, but I violate no con- 
fidence when I say, that the contractor's end of the 
proposition, if skillfully and conscientiously handled, 
will provide his organization with all it can do. In 
these days of collusive bidding, complex transporta- 
tion problems, high wages, shortage of skilled me- 
chanics, and other economic difficulties, a contractor 
has enough to do to cope with his own tasks without 
assuming those for which he is not fitted. It is de- 
plorable that many contractors fail either to appre- 
ciate the gravity of these problems or to overcome 
them, and certainly any attempt to enlarge upon 
their difficulties by adding architecture to the list, 
may be set down as due to an excess of zeal for their 
own interests at the expense of the client. 

Still another advantage in having an architect is 
that he is equipped to supervise and check the work 
of the contractors, and to see that promises of speed 
and economy are kept without sacrificing the spe- 
cifications. Having no financial interest in the build- 
ing beyond his fee, he is detached and impartial, can 
be depended upon to see that justice is done to his 
client, and is ideally situated to act in an advisory and 
supervisory capacity. Obviously, when an architect 
takes the contractor's place, too, he loses much of 
that detachment and impartiality, for however zeal- 
ous his dual labors as both architect and contractor 
his zeal can hardly be expected to include criticism 
of his own work ! And in any event his fee is in- 
adequate to maintain a great organization on his 
payroll, and without such an organization the work 
is bound to suffer in efficiency and to expand in cost. 

Coming to the second part of my assignment, the 
present condition of the building industry is obvious- 
ly due to three changes : 

1. Universal business depression. 

2. Inability in many instances to finance building 

3. Disposition of owners to wait for stabilizing 
of material and labor costs. 

The pre.-;ent depression is, of course, one of the 
aftermaths of the great conflict, and no man can say 
just how long it will continue. One may only hazard 
a guess, and risk the prophecy. But it is my per- 
sonal opinion that most of the drastic processes of 
post-war readjustment should be over in the early 
part of 1921 and that we may reasonably look for 
a gradual recrudescence of confidence from that time 
on. It may be argued that the present chaos in Wall 
street which is the barometer of economic cycles 
hardly justifies a spirit of optimism at this time. But 
my own conviction is, that that is just what it does 
justify. The great consolation in having things so 
bad that they cannot be worse, is that they have 
got to get better. It is blackest before the dawn, and 
swift as have been the disillusionments of recent 
months, the restoration of confidence will be swifter 
still when it starts, for the world reacts to prosperity 
as its rightful heritage, but has no use for trouble. 
With a return of confidence money will be easier, 
building loans more readily available, and to em- 
ploy Webster's famous figure (though times are not 
so bad as when he used it) "The corpse of public 
credit will spring to its feet." 

As for building costs, I do not luok fur any re- 
duction in the scale of wages ; but inasmuch as labor 
is much more efficient today than it has been for sev- 
eral years past, higher wages will be absorbed by 
more skillful and competent workmanship. Neither 
do I look for any substantial reduction in the cost of 
building materials, though it is sure to take place in 
such lines as have been unduly susceptible to in- 
flation. But I believe that many materials, such as 
lumber, for example, are selling well below produc- 
tion cost at this time on account of forced liquidation 
to raise cash. There is, in other words, no serious 
obstacle beyond the cited shortage of confidence and 
credit to prevent much longer a period of great 
building activity to take care of requirements whose 
figures are estimated at five billions of dollars. 

The Relationship between the Architect 

and the Engineer 

An Interview with Kort Berle, M. Am.Soc. C. E., of the Firm of Gunvald Aus 
Company, Consulting Engineers, New York City 

AFTER a very full and free discussion with 
Mr. Berle of the relationship between the 
architect and engineer as it exists and as it 
should be one could not avoid carrying away the 
impression that if the feeling of admiration and 
rstrrm and the attitude of helpful co-operation 
which exists between this engineering firm and some 
of its clients could prevail throughout the two pro- 
fessions there would be no need of any discussion of 
this much debated subject. But Mr. Berle feels 
that ideal relationship does not generally exist, and 
for this condition he believes the architects them- 
selves are largely to blame. 

"What, in your opinion," we asked Mr. Berle. 
"could and should be done to improve present con- 
ditions?" His answer was readily forthcoming. 

"Simply a recognition on the part of architects of 
the highly professional nature of engineering which 
makes possible the erection of structures which 
arouse the awe of our European visitors. The archi- 
tect frequently views the structural engineer as no 
more than a draftsman capable only of pushing a 
slide rule in figuring the size of beams and getting 
out structural drawings. In this conception he is en- 
tirely at fault. The ability to compute loads and 
stresses and set forth the results by drawings is in- 
deed a necessary attribute for the engineer engaged 
in building construction, but engineering is much 
more than this, as any architect of important struc- 
tures will realize. The failure on the part of archi- 
tects to recognize and properly evaluate the services 
of the engineer, and to accord him a place as an as- 
sociate, tends to place the engineer in a position so 
subordinate that it is unfair. How often, event on 
buildings of great magnitude, is the name of the en- 
gineer mentioned? In the presentation of work in 
the architectural press, the engineer's name is almost 
invariably conspicuous by its absence. Surely the 
mention of the man upon whose work the stability 
of the structure depends would in no way detract 
from the credit accruing to the architect. Architects 
decry the practice of the daily press in so often omit- 
ting any mention of the architect's name, yet in their 
own press they very often deny the engineer the same 
recognition for which they however justly criti- 
cise others. 

"I have often talked over this matter with promi- 
nent architects, and they feel that my attitude on this 

subject is absolutely correct, and that in order to 
foster a greater co-operation and a more friendly 
feeling between these brother professions, the archi- 
tect must recognize the engineer as a fellow profes- 
sional man, and not merely as a subordinate. 

"I do not wish in any way to depreciate the splen- 
did work of the architects, and am greatly gratified 
lo see a constant improvement in building design." 

Mr. Berle then led the writer around the office, 
pointing out pictures of various structures ranging 
from the humble warehouse to the lofty Woolworth 
Tower, and called my attention to their excellent ar- 
chitectural treatment, over which he waxed so en- 
thusiastic that one would have thought him an artist 
rather than the keen, calculating engineer that he is. 
Probably his former connection as Chief Engineer 
of the Supervising Architect's office in Washington 
and his many years of close contact with some of our 
foremost architects, have much to do with his high 
appreciation of art in architecture. 

Since in several recent instances structural engi- 
neers have been commissioned by the owners to han- 
dle the entire work both architectural and engineer- 
ing we questioned Mr. Berle as to his views on such 
practices. We found him absolutely convinced that 
such an arrangement was all wrong. To the ar- 
rangement by which the engineer became associated 
with an architectural organization as a member of 
the firm, he saw no particular objection and felt that 
such combinations led to a better understanding be- 
tween the members of both professions, while at the 
same time placing them on an absolutely equal foot- 
ing as professional men. However, except where the 
volume of business handled by an architectural or- 
ganization was very large, he expressed doubt as to 
the possibility of the engineer member of the firm 
keeping busy all the time on engineering work. 
"Some few architects," said Mr. Berle, "have their 
structural work performed in their own office by the 
employment of an engineer and assistants on a sal- 
ary basis. It should be self-evident that such an ar- 
rangement cannot properly fulfill requirements. For 
it is safe to say that no engineer of ability and high 
standing in his profession would be satisfied to hold 
so subordinate a position and which, necessarily, 
would be very limited as to compensation and ad- 
vancement as well as to scope of work." 

"In my opinion," said Mr. Berle, "the best inter- 


ests are served by the architect calling to his assist- 
ance a consulting engineer of the highest reputation 
and one in whom he can place absolute confidence. 
He should call upon him to co-operate in the work 
from its earliest preliminary stages. By such an ar- 
rangement the architect can secure the very highest 
type of engineering service and he is obliged to pay 
only for the work performed." 

The importance of this close co-operation during 
all stages of the work, and of the architect immedi- 
ately calling to the attention of the engineer any 
changes, he illustrated by mentioning an instance in 
which on a certain piece of work a 20 in. by 80 Ib. 
I-beam was to span an entrance opening. Due to a 
change in the fagade requiring a shallower beam, 
the size specified was replaced by two 12 in. by 40 
Ib. I-beams without the engineer's knowledge. The 
result was unfortunate in that the excess deflection 
of the beams caused very serious cracks in the stone 
faqade. In this case 2 + 2 did not equal 4. 

WE next discussed bridges and the desirability 
of architectural treatment on such structures. 
Here we found Mr. Berle placed the highest im- 
portance upon architectural co-operation. He pointed 
to the Hell Gate bridge as a most excellent example. 
But in such work he felt the order should be re- 
vised that while in building design the architect 
should be the guiding head. "We must have a head 
to everything, you know," he said and the engineer 
his co-operating associate, in the case of bridges the 
engineer should be the directing head, and the archi- 
tect the co-operating associate. "I would be the last 
to depreciate the value of aesthetically designed 
structures, and certainly, beauty of line should be an 
object sought for in the design of any bridge." In 
the matter of bridge approaches, he felt the architect 
could render and has already rendered most valuable 

He denounced the practice of some architects who 
seek to obtain "free" engineering services from con- 
tracting firms, such as the design of their structural 
work. "While this service is free to the architect," 
stated Mr. Berle, "it costs money to some one, and 
although it may be indirectly charged, the owner ul- 
timately has to pay for it. It is just as much a viola- 
tion of a proper ethical code to obtain so-called free 
engineering service as to endeavor to have the con- 
tractor furnish free architectural service. Both are 
practised, but neither is conducive to the best inter- 
ests of either the owner or the two professions, and 
no architect can in the long run continue such 
methods and retain either his self-respect or his pro- 
fessional reputation." 

Another point Mr. Berle made was the discrimina- 
tion between the structural and mechanical engineer 
by the code of the Institute. It is here stated that 
the mechanical engineer should be paid a fee (on the 
value of all mechanical equipment) by the owner, 
whereas no such distinction is made in the case of 
the structural engineer, who must conduct his own 
negotiations with the architect as to the amount of 
his fee, which the architect must pay out of his own 
often-too-meager compensation. 

"Why not at least put both structural and me- 
chanical engineer in the same class?" he queried. 
"In justice both to the architect and the structural 
engineer, the Institute code should again be revised, 
so that all engineering services be paid for by the 
owner. This would perhaps, more than anything 
else, tend to make the relationship between the two 
professions more nearly what it should be." 

In closing, Mr. Berle expressed his belief that a 
closer co-operation was already more evident and 
that the engineering profession welcomed it. The 
future binges entirely on a better understanding. 

The Financial Outlook 

By FRANCIS 11. S.SSON. rice-President, Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 

WITH economic conditions in this country 
fundamentally sound, the great need of the 
hour, as we turn from retrospection to face 
the prospects of the New Year, is constructive think- 
ing. If faith alone has moved mountains, surely faith 
plus brain power can put the world on a new and 
stable peace basis. 

We are richly endowed with all the assets for our 
full participation in that task and the wonderful fu- 
ture that lies ahead of us when the task shall have 
been completed but we seem to lack faith. As we 
stand on the threshold of the New Year and of the 
door to the greatest opportunities ever opened to any 
nation in all history, we hesitate and doubt. Like 
those who cannot see the forest for the trees, we are 
too prone to exaggerate our liabilities and not only 
belittle but even ignore our vast resources. 

Leadership that will direct our national thought 
into logical channels and more in accord with our 
manifest destiny is imperatively demanded as we 
enter 1921. And it is the duty of the Government, 
especially Congress, to assume that leadership. 

Congress has never faced more important prob- 
lems than those which confront it today. It is faced 
with the necessity of not only enacting constructive 
legislation but also of repealing obstructive laws. 

\Yhile many changes should be made in our exist- 
ing tax law in the interest of business progress, the 
first and most important step in tax revision should 
be the repeal of the Excess Profits tax. This tax 
may have been justified as a war measure, but it 
clearly has no place in peace-time legislation, and 
few, if any, tenable arguments can be advanced in 
favor of its retention. On the other hand, the argu- 
ments offered against it have become so familiar that 
it is useless to discuss them. Let it suffice to say 
that the inequalities resulting from its application are 
so great as to condemn it absolutely and fully justify 
its repeal at the earliest possible moment. 

Although the adoption of a budget system and the 
introduction of a more economical system of admin- 
istering the Government will materially reduce the 
aggregate amount of revenue required for the sup- 
port of the Government, it seems likely that the rapid 
fall of prices which we are now experiencing and the 
existing depression in business will adversely affect 
the amount of revenue to be derived from income 
taxes. It will, therefore, be incumbent upon Con- 
gress to adopt a new method of taxation which will 
serve to make up the deficit resulting from the re- 
peal of the Excess Profits tax. 

SOME form of sales tax at a low rate seems to 
offer the least objectionable substitute for the 
Excess Profits tax, since it would be most produc- 

tive and would be so widely distributed that it would 
not prove unduly burdensome. Such taxes will not 
have the tendency to encourage extravagance and 
penalize business efficiency, as is the case with the 
Excess Profits tax, and, on the other hand, from the 
standpoint of the Government, will not be subject to 
great fluctuation in periods of business depression 
and may be easily administered. Sales taxes can no 
longer be regarded as experiments, if we can rely 
upon the reports of the success of these taxes in 
Canada, the Philippines, and France, and to a limited 
degree in several other countries. 

The great burden of war taxation has brought 
home to business men with added force the need of 
adopting as a permanent part of our machinery of 
Government, a well-organized budget system which 
will result in the placing of the financial operations 
of the Government on a scientific basis, thereby help- 
ing to eliminate waste and extravagance. Legislation, 
to this end, should be first considered by Congress. 

Of equal importance, as compared with the prob- 
lem of taxation, is the state of our international 
relations and their effect on our present and future 
foreign trade. In spite of the fact that more than 
two years have elapsed since the signing of the armis- 
tice, we are still, theoretically at least, in a state of 
war with Germany and her allies. No doubt exists 
as to the necessity for the establishment, at the 
earliest possible moment, of a state of peace with 
these countries and the strengthening of international 
economic relations with the whole world. While it 
seems probable that the present period of industrial 
depression is but a temporary one and that it is only 
a question of time before our industries will be 
functioning as usual, it is quite evident that our 
future prosperity is largely dependent upon our 
international trade. 

Valuable service can be rendered through the en- 
larging of the Government's facilities for obtaining 
prompt and accurate information in regard to condi- 
tions existing in foreign countries which will affect 
our foreign trade, and the prompt distribution of 
this information to business concerns who can use 

Of equal importance with the enactment of legisla- 
tion necessary to placing the Government on a 
sound business, is efficient administration of existing 

Basically, as I have stated, economic conditions in 
the United States are absolutely sound, and what is 
chiefly needed to preserve our prosperity is just com- 
mon-sense, constructive co-operation between Con- 
gress and the progressive business interests of the 

The Real Estate Outlook for 1921 

A Forecast for the Year by One of the Country's Most Prominent Real Estate 

Operators, Who Believes Architects to Be So Important in Our 

Complex Scheme of Civilization that They "Can Either 

Make or Break Real Estate Values" 


REAL estate, not only in New York City and 
the so-called Metropolitan Zone, but also 
throughout the entire country, has had a 
wonderful period of prosperity during the past year, 
and the outlook is for continued activity during 1921. 
The scarcity of buildings of all kinds has had the 
effect of increasing valuations and also has brought 
this greatest form of investment into stronger hands 
than ever before in the history of the country. 

In the first place there has been and is to-day a 
distinct shortage of places of residence. The war 
brought on a recession of building of this class of 
structure, except in certain industrial centres where 
houses were erected to accommodate the war worker. 
' Private operations came practically to a standstill 
and the high prices precluded the possibility of spec- 
ulative builders erecting houses for the open market. 

Builders, however, went into the field of construct- 
ing war plants and large industrial buildings to meet 
what was then the most pressing demand, with the 
result that apartments and dwellings were neglected. 
This had the effect of increasing values, because the 
demand far exceeded the supply. Those operators 
and speculators who owned multi-family houses 
were obliged to raise rents in order to meet the in- 
creased cost of operation, but, unfortunately, there 
were some. who took advantage of the situation to 
increase rentals beyond reason. This caused the pas- 
sage of certain restrictive legislation in New York 
State and in some other states throughout the coun- 
try, though these laws have a time limit, when it is 
hoped that the supply will be more nearly equal to 
the demand than to-day. 

Students of real estate conditions throughout the 
country are all of the opinion that we are working 
into a period of construction. This will be com- 
menced just as soon as the building material prices 
recede to a sufficiently low level and when labor be- 
comes more plentiful. The trend at the present time 
is toward lower prices and freer labor conditions, 
and unless something unforeseen occurs the building 
move should begin within the next few months. Once 
building starts the market will assume a more 
healthy tone. 

At the present time there is no particular shortage 
of industrial buildings, because many of the war- 
time plants have been built to a far larger than 
peace-time requirements, but this additional space 
will soon be absorbed by other concerns which will 
devote their energies toward making products pre- 
cluded by war needs. 

At the present time the financial interests are con- 
cerned with general business conditions, and they 
are only willing to make commitments where neces- 
sity is shown. The country, however, is so big and 
it has such recuperative powers that the money mar- 
ket should soon be readjusted and normal condi- 
tions again obtain. 

"Booms" in real estate are not desirable. Of 
course money is made, but there is always a "throw- 
back" which interferes with the normal conduct of 
business and in the end hampers real progress. In 
the case of vacant lots, I look to see a forward move- 
ment, which will last for some time to come. When 
the builders again enter the field thousands and 
thousands of vacant lots will be absorbed, with the 
result that not only the actual land improved will 
enhance in value, but the effect will be felt by the 
property in the vicinity. 

So far as realty in the cities is concerned, those sec- 
tions which are served with transit lines will be the 
first to feel the benefits, and then later those more re- 
mote will come in for their proportionate share. 
This is of course logical, and I believe that history 
will repeat itself. In suburban sections, not served 
with real transit, those tracts which are accessible 
by good roads will be developed first and then the 
outlying sections will be marketed. 

AVAST number of people have made money 
during the war, and I look to see an active 
market for country estates in all sections of the 
country, within reasonable distances from the city. 
The automobile has, of course, been a great factor in 
bringing these properties into the market and has 
made them available for this purpose, where hereto- 
fore farming was the only use to which they could 
be put. 


I look to -ee the auction market in vacant lots more 
active than ever before. There are many reasons 
why thi^ should be the case. Let us say that a large 
tract of lanil i> under one ownership and is located 
near transit and within a reasonable distance from a 
city. The owner, to sell this property at private 
treaty, must have a large selling force, do a great 
deal of advertising over a long period, and go 
through a large amount of trouble and annoyance 
before he finally get> rid of his holding. 

The auction market provides a means whereby he 
can di>po-e of all his property at one time, through 
one advertising campaign, assuming, of course, he 
engages an auctioneer with a sufficiently large and 
well equipped organization to handle his property. 
On the day set his property is offered and sold and 
then he is relieved from further responsibility. 
Naturally his property must have merit and the sale 
must be held at a time when there is a demand for 
that particular class of property, but my experience 
is that in a properly conducted campaign of education 
the advantages of buying at auction can be shown 
to those residing in the community and the result 
should be that the seller gets a fair price for his 
property and the buyer obtains a plot which will 
meet his requirements. 

The selling of property at auction takes it out of 
one ownership and places it in the hands of many. 
This means enhancement, because it is frequently 

the case that where a property is long and closely 
held it acts as a detriment to the neighborhood, 
rather than an advantage. 

The country is so large and the interests of the 
inhabitants are so varied that it is hard to lay down 
any fast and set rules which will apply universally. 
One thing is certain, however. Real estate is the fin- 
est investment in the world. The man who owns 
realty is his own "Board of Directors" and he has 
no one to account to, except the municipality. So 
long as he obeys the laws on the statute books he has 
nothing to fear, and it is only right that this should 
be so. If in certain sections there are unjust laws, 
they can be repealed and should be repealed. It is 
simply up to the citizens of that locality. 

There are three essentials to life here on earth. 
The first is food, the second is clothing and the third 
is housing. So long as there are humans on this 
globe these three must be provided. So far as the 
third named is concerned the architect plays a most 
important part. He is a specialist. It is up to him 
to see that proper houses of all types are designed. 
He can either make or break real estate values. Too 
much importance cannot be placed on this phase of 
the situation. I hope that architectural schools and 
colleges will be encouraged and that the standard of 
the profession will always be kept on the present high 

Good Workmanship the True Craftsmanship 

Craftsmanship as Viewed by a Man Who Believes That the Designer of 

Anything Should Be as Familiar with the Best Designing That Has Been 

Done in the Past as He Is with His Own Collar Button, and That 

the Designer of Anything at All Should Be a Profound Student 

Before He Is Allowed Any Freedom as a Craftsman 

By "TRAVI/' Craftsman 

IN this iconoclastic age when little is held sacred 
and nearly everything prostituted, words are 
also taken liberties with, usually through ignor- 
ance, until they through common misuse lose their 
original meaning. As craftsmen now are makers of 
pantaloons and "artists" shavers of men's faces, it 
is rather foolish and misleading to use either of these 
words in connection with this very much in earnest 
work. Craftsmanship is just Good Workmanship, 
judged from the standpoint of an earlier and more 
capable period when workmen's ideals were higher 
and their work as much a matter of religion as their 
church ; when their interest had more to do with the 
excellence of their handicraft and was not entirely 
devoted to the clock and the pay envelope. 

It is work done as conscientiously, as carefully 
finished and in the same reverential spirit as the work- 
done in the past. Consequently it is of no commer- 
cial value and of little interest to anybody from a 
factory standpoint as it takes too long to do and is 
too costly. It is done more or less in the spirit of 
the work done in the seventeenth century and earlier, 
with a striving after the directness and simplicity of 
methods which are necessarily brought about by 
working entirely by hand and "feeling" and dis- 
pensing with any mechanical shortcuts to results. 

Doing this usually necessitates the going back to 
simple, fundamental types of tools (many of which 
the modern workman has forgotten the use of and 
does not even know the names of) and which are 
better suited for fashioning the different materials 
to be used, and to bring about results as near as pos- 
sible to those achieved when the workman knew of 
little or no machinery and scorned to use it if he did. 

In the past, during the periods when the most 
beautiful work was done, the tools used were very 
few. Now there has never in the history of the 
world been so many tools or such an infinite variety 
of them, and of machinery, and yet our world is all 
"messed up" with cheap and inferior performances 
done with both, with the exception of course of tools 
of precision for scientific purposes and instruments 

of accuracy. All of which would very likely better 
fulfill their missions if they were of better design. 

THE primitive (for want of a belter word) in 
man, or his human side, seems never satisfied 
with the things he handles in everyday life, as they 
have little appeal to his imagination. A man always 
likes a tool which he thinks he could have made him- 
self, and sooner or later he usually tries and does do 
so. Man is a creative animal and to be happy must 
use his hands to fashion things with. 

So it seems that the obvious thing lacking in mod- 
ern workmanship is the human note a slight blem- 
ish on a thing or an irregularity gives it more in- 
dividuality and human interest, than something 
turned out "standardized," "inspected," "O. K'd" 
and what not. Another deplorable thing is the lack 
of sense of proportion generally and the small at- 
tention paid to design. Most things in the arts, 
crafts, industries and textiles are poorly designed, 
not well or strongly made. But finished to the last 
degree. Always finish with no merit beneath the 
skin. So everything is more or less covered with 
glitter of some kind varnish, plating or dressing 
"dolled up" in some way, to catch the eye of ignor- 
ance. It is a Jerry-built world we are living in at 
present and man's performance with his hands, of 
every kind, make a sorry showing and are very in- 
ferior to the best which has been done in art, archi- 
tecture and workmanship of the past. 

To go back to our work-bench : 

All the work is done, in whatever material, whether 
it is mural painting or miniature, sculpture or etch- 
ing in metal or glass, enamelling metal, inlaying 
amethyst in lead, carving alabaster or jade, ivory, 
carved wood or brick, pargetry, intarsia, sgraffito, 
scagliola, building buttressed stone walls, forging 
iron work, plaster work, brass, adzing wooden tim- 
ber and inlaying them with lead and bone and harder 
and more precious woods, or mosaic or tiling, all of 
it and any of it is done with practically the same tools 
and with a selection from not more than twenty 


types. The material is of only incidental interest, 
ft is the beauty and character of the design and true 
feeling of it, and tin- "tooling" of the material that is 
the essence. It i- equally pos>ible to put this feeling 
in any of the materials mentioned ahove. 

Modern jewelry, for instance, is designed more 
like left-over designs for Victorian ice pitchers than 
like beautiful trinkets. The spirit of jewelry is not 
there and only the value of the material is consid- 
ered. In other words, that part of the mind which 
"cash regi>ter>" is pleased and not the eye or the 
aesthetic sense, with the beauty of form and design. 

The designer of anything at all should be a pro- 
found student before he is allowed any activity and 
should be as familiar with the best designing that 
has been done in the past as he is with his own collar 
button. But most of them do not read enough, many 
of them do not read at all. Otherwise the libraries 
and art museums would not have the atmosphere of 
churches or have to advertise for visitors. The art 
museums and public libraries, particularly the 
Museum Library in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, are looked upon by the public as sacred 
tombs of dead achievements (very "highbrow" and 
visited and entered by people more or less on their 
"tip-toes") instead of being as they are, like banks 
with untold riches in them to be drawn upon by any- 
one, whenever one feels like doing so. Museums 
and libraries are the friendly temples of modern 
times and have much of the maternal atmosphere 
which built up the early Christian church and made 
it the mighty institution and power it still is. Bless 
them, and all of the kindly folk connected with them. 

People are apt to feel that all of the works in the 
museums are exceptional examples of past work- 
manship when really nearly everything in them with 
the exception of the world famous examples of 
paintings, sculpture, etc., by known masters, are 
simply the average work which every skilled work- 
man was doing at that time. They must have had a 
jolly time in the doing of it there is a noticeable 
sense of humor through it all. 

1AM wholly in sympathy with the modern work- 
men and 1 am for them, and think they have 
been cheated out of all the fun of their work. I be- 
lieve if they could get some of their individuality 
"out of their systems" by more work fashioned by 
their own hands, there would be more happiness and 
pride of work, and less unrest, as I believe every 
man is a potential artist or craftsman of sorts if he 
had the opportunity to develop, and we are mostly 
Cro-Magnon cave-men. 

I know it is so from my own experience. 1 have 
had men who were "failures" and could do nothing 
in particular and were "Jacks of all trades," (which 
last by the way are the most intelligent persons one 
may meet.) They were usually "fond of tools," how- 
ever, and rarely younger than fifty years old, or 
older. And in a month or less they were doing 
amazingly beautiful work. Which proves the over- 
estimation of technique. To me one of the most im- 
pressive thingj in .nature is an unusually intelligent 
man. He can almost without effort or any previous 
knowledge, do anything and understand almost any- 
thing. It is such men who like this work and the 
doing of it. The technical end of the work is usually 
only a matter of explanation, after which he finds 
his own way and individuality and becomes a master 
of it and not a "hand." 

All of this exemplifies the spirit of this way of 
working and it is no "stunt" nor is there anything 
remarkable about it. Nor is it done in the Green- 
wich Village spirit of faddish amateurism and af- 
fectation. It is a man-size job done by real he-men 
of middle age who have a great time doing it as they 
know it is good and they are proud of it and feel 
kindly toward everybody. What is to be lamented 
is that it is so costly that it is only for the rich in 
culture, wealth and knowledge as it is done regard- 
less of time or expense, and for that reason I repeat 
what I said in the beginning "of little commercial 
value and of small interest to the average public." 

Although as "Lo the poor Indian" used to say, "It 
is good medicine." 


What Architects May Think About in 1921 

A Summary of Numerous Conversations with Many Prominent Members 

of the Profession of Architecture, in Which the Subjects 

Treated in This Article Stood Out Above All Else 

Editor's Note: 

To stand as a sign-post of intellectual activity in any 
profession is a rather dangerous and quite often a 
thankless task. Dangerous because the men who com- 
pose any of the professions, and especially that of archi- 
tecture, are not the sort, naturally, given to pliant sub- 
mission in matters affecting their individual processes 
of thinking. Thankless because professional men 
rightly resent any arbitrary attempt to "direct their 

This article has been written with these factors thor- 
oughly in mind. There has not been the slightest idea, 
in its writing, of assuming a "thou shall think thus" 
attitude. Rather, it is an honest attempt to speak 
frankly and more or less fully of certain phases of the 
profession of architecture which appear to the Editor 
of this journal to be the things most important in 
architectural thought for the coming year. It is not an 
editorial, but rather, as has been stated, a summary of 
numerous conversations in which the things spoken of 
throughout the article seemed to dominate the intellec- 
tual activity of many prominent members of the pro- 

WHAT are the important things for architects 
to think about in 1921 ? 
This is a broad question. To answer it 
fully would require volume upon volume, and would 
really get one nowhere. A better approach to the 
subject, and a more satisfactory one, is to limit what- 
ever discussion there is upon the matter to a few 
things which seem to be significant and which ap- 
pear to be the things which architects actually will 
give most thought to during the year. With that 
view in mind, prominent architects in all parts of the 
country were called upon by this journal, either per- 
sonally or by means of correspondence, to tell what 
they considered the big things for 1921. In order to 
get a frank expression of opinion, it was necessary 
to promise that no individual would be directly 
quoted. That promise has been strictly maintained. 

One of the outstanding facts developed in this 
canvass of opinion had to do with the conservation 
of architectural resources. There was not a single 
architect who did not speak of this as a vital affair. 
It was not looked upon as a constantly recurring 
and therefore hackneyed subject. One architect in 
speaking of it, said : 

"It is time we do more in this matter. All archi- 
tects realize that it is a most vital affair. We have 
discussed it from almost every conceivable angle, 
but what have we actually done?" 

Another member of the profession, internationally 
famous, spoke of the conservation of architectural 
resources as it applies to large cities, such as New 
York or Chicago. What he said was both interesting 
and novel, since it got away from what might be 
termed the usual architectural viewpoint. 

"The only way you can conserve architectural re- 
sources," he said, looking down upon a section of 
New York which distinctly emphasized the necessity 
for such conservation, "is to pass a constitutional 
amendment defeated some years ago on excess con- 
demnation. The law provides authority for state or 
city to take what it needs for highways or other pub- 
lic uses by condemnation, but no condemnation in 
excess of actual usage. The New York Times, when 
that paper was in the height of its power, editorially 
opposed it on the ground that it was likely to be mis- 
used and become a powerful factor for graft. That 
may be the price you have to pay for improvement, 
in a public democracy. Central Park itself was built 
by a notorious political administration. The Speed- 
way similarly. Other public improvements have 
been done the same way. But- the Times opposed it. 
If you had the right of excess condemnation the 
scheme suggested could have the right of resale 
under restriction, and when you do that, under re- 
striction, you can restrict and maintain the restric- 
tion. This area where we are now was restricted. 
The zoning law restricted this one. By combination 
of condemnation of streets, and restriction laws and 
zoning laws, you would get an intelligent scheme 
which would give people a chance to live. Develop 
also convenient lines of traffic. In Grand Central, 
for instance, trains pull in and pull out by the same 
place. Instead, let the traffic be continuous in one 
direction. Manufacturers should be at the ends of 
the city, shops in the central portions." 

There are architects who disagreed with this very 
practical viewpoint. Not so much with the sound- 
ness of it, as with its philosophy of accepting things 
as they actually exist and of making the best of 
them. Here is a typical opinion : 

"We know that architectural resources are not 
being conserved, and we know that by accepting 
certain facts in the political make-up of cities .or 
towns such resources could well be conserved. But 
why should we accept the thing that way ? Why not 
start at the bottom and work properly? It may well 



be said that ROCK! comes from evil practices, but it 
must bi- remembered that the (lay of reckoning must 
come. 1 believe the only way to attack the problem 
is m start at the bottom. Clean house thoroughly or 
don't clean it." 


Kt'lHTF.t Tl'KAL resources naturally give 

ri-c in some thought concerning regional types 

of architecture. This, in the opinion of almost every 
architect whose opinions regarding architectural 
prospects for 1921 were obtained by this journal, 
is one of the big things to think about. There are 
those who believe that regional types can be more or 
less forced upon communities, in the sense that ar- 
chitects can definitely give a certain style or color to 
the architecture of those communities. Theirs is the 
"immediate" view which holds that regional types 
will develop only when architects emphatically insist 
ujjon a correlated attempt by members of the pro- 
fession to put into certain communities a definite 
scheme of treatment. They agree with one of the 
world's must prominent architects that "the thing 
cannot be done by anything like a propaganda or 
fiat," and that climatic conditions of the country 
"would assert themselves in time." But they insist 
that climatic conditions governing such matters exist 
nou', and that Nature having done her work, it is up 
to the architect to contribute his share. 

Regional types, states this prominent architect, can- 
not be attained by fiat. In that part of the thinking 
vorld in Italy, when people lived in isolated commun- 
ities, communication was to some extent interrupted. 
Regional development then took place, and more 
particularly when the regional character had become 
more or less crystallized. In the early days when 
Rome ruled the world it would be difficult to deter- 
mine whether a Roman arch built in Syria or a 
Roman bath in England or a Roman theatre in 
France had been designed for the location in which 
it was built or for somewhere in the environs of 
Rome itself. But when the Roman Empire had dis- 
solved and Italy had become a country composed of 
separate states each protesting its individuality, com- 
munication to some extent having been interrupted, 
the national views of the people of each community 
began to express itself along the lines of precedent 
with which it seems to develop its type, in accord- 
ance with its needs, and so you find' in Sienna and 
Florence, cities not farther apart than an easy after- 
noon's automobile ride, a very good development of 
lonal architecture. So one thing must have been 
lorence, another in Sienna, another in Rome It 
was the expression of the natural instinct of the peo- 
) some extent, and to some extent the reversion 
back to original regional ideas. The Lombard built 
as a Lombard. The Etruscan built from the stand- 

point of the Etruscans, although the race had disap- 
peared. The Neapolitan built a conglomerate sort 
of thing that indicated the conglomerate population 
from which he sprung Greece, Spain, Arabia, 
Rome and all the mixed races of the world. Hence 
the mixed and conglomerate sort of development. 

JT will be so in America, and you will find that as 
time goes on and our 144 years of national life 
has developed into 500 years of national life and, 
let us hope, peaceful development, the individual 
sections of the country will come to self-conscious- 
ness and self-expression, and that new needs will 
create new types. That cannot be clone in a month. 
There are so many analogies in nature that indicate 
that nature works in the same way. A pine tree 
grows on a high altitude where a palm tree would 
not and each grows to its own needs. The branch 
of the pine slopes to a base that would carry the 
weight of snow and resist wind and the palm does 
not. Nature works in the same way whether with 
inanimate or animate things. Architecture shows a 
growth of evolution. There may be a powerful in- 
telligence in some receptive community and around 
him will be a group that will accept his dicta and 
from him develop a cult. In Hildesheim a bishop 
centuries ago developed an artistic community where 
the neighboring Huns fell back into barbarism. In 
Spain is the constant recurrence to two great factors 
in civilization : one the Roman, the other the Ara- 
bian, neither Iberian in character, neither indigenous 
lo the soil, but both the result of a powerful and 
dominating intelligence that had at one time occu- 
pied that area and familiarized the people with types 
that best seemed to meet their needs. 

Therefore no artificial development of a national 
style can be looked for. I look for it just when the 
national need requires it, and that we are accomplish- 
ing such a development at the present time can be 
perceived. The English at a certain period tried their 
best to import the Italian Renaissance architecture 
and made wonderful successes in Renaissance, but 
no one for a moment would contend that Wrenn's 
churches had anything of the aspect of an Italian 
church. They are English and always will be. Cli- 
mate influences a country's sense of design. Certain 
details are obtrusive, but it is necessary that they 
should be so if they are to be seen at all in an atmos- 
phere which so large a part of the time is dull and 
colorless. The English country house with mullioned 
windows results from the same climatic conditions 
Our own country houses developed from climatic 
conditions. Southern California, for example Cli- 
matic conditions, and regional construction. It is a 
happy thing that types of this sort are being de- 



WE are evolving a regional type and regional 
characteristics and it is not at all difficult to 
perceive it. But it will not develop into definite sty- 
listic forms for a long time. 

How can you expect a regional type to develop 
when the country absorbs at least from one to ten 
per cent, of its population from foreign countries? 

But was not the whole country at first "foreign"? 
arises immediately in a listener's mind. 
Here is the answer to that : 

"The Colonists built towns but did not intermingle. 
They were isolated. Those that were close together 
were very largely from the same Anglo-Saxon root, 
so there was not a material difference between the 
influence of the Dutch in New Amsterdam and New 
Jersey, the Swedes in Delaware and the Germans in 
Pennsylvania, and especially was that true because 
those countries were themselves very closely related. 
Did not the Puritans in England go first to Holland 
before they came to America ? This had no influence 
on architecture, but shows the interrelation between 
England and the Netherlands." 

A man who is unquestionably one of the world's 
great architects gives the practical application in the 
following comment : 

The development of regional types in architecture 
naturally implies a building program. "But when?" 
is the big question of the day. The answer to this 
question was almost unanimous, and is very well 
expressed in the one quoted below. There is quite 
a bit in that answer regarding paternal legislation in 
building activities. That, in the opinion of a great 
number of architects questioned by this journal, is 
a big thing to think about in 1921. 

THERE will not be a quick resumption of build- 
ing,'' this architect holds. "The weight is too 
great to move quickly. But it is bound to come. I 
am very optimistic about it. But it will not come if 
we have excessive labor prices or combinations of 
material supplies. You have got to normalize condi- 
tions and I am optimistic that we will be able to do 
so. I do not think the banks have retarded resump- 
tion. The chief source of retardance is high prices. It 
is fundamental that no one wants to pay more than 
a thing is worth. Only extreme necessity drives him 
to do it. Any one who invests in a building for rent, 
no matter what type of building it is, has to keep his 
average income for a period of years. He cannot af- 
ford to build on a high market unless he is sure to 
have high rents for sufficient time to amortize what 
he pays and what competitors will pay in ten years. 
Renting is a business. It invites investment by rea- 
son of opportunity for reasonable profit. Laws that 
obstruct reasonable profit and discourage men from 
taking risks are not going to produce more buildings. 

As a general proposition it is a debatable one that the 
attempt to legislate in a paternal way is contrary to 
the interests of democracy. The large portion of the 
distresses that communities suffer is from excessive 
legislation. Think of the old independent spirit of 
the American people, who scorned to take refuge 
under legislative action and built up a spirit of per- 
sonal independence. 1 do not believe at all in pater- 
nalistic legislation. You cannot legislate the law of 
supply and demand out of existence. 

WHEN communities come together the condi- 
tions of human life vary from when individuals 
live apart. The more there are, and the closer to- 
gether, the more necessity there is for the main- 
tenance of the rights of individuals one against the 
other. Only for that would I legislate. 

The moment you begin to fix values, of farm prod- 
ucts for example, you have interfered with the bene- 
fits of the farmers. You have not done any good. 
He was induced to plant wheat to meet a great neces- 
sity, not on the basis of supply and demand, but be- 
cause the government guaranteed $2.35 for wheat. 
When the price of wheat went up the cost of bread 
went up. Then everybody thought they would get 
what was coming to them because they thought they 
could get it, and also because they needed it. Then 
the farmers had to pay more for labor. The efficiency 
decreased. The farmers found the price of wheat 
falling. The supply was met. For a time he could 
not get his product to the market because no rail- 
roads were available. Over-legislation attacking 
railroads caused confusion to transportation. Hill 
said ten years ago that to put railroads back would 
cost $50,000,000. The government took the railroads 
for the war. The government broke the railroads 
down by congestion. Ten yards of ten shipways each 
would have been better than one yard with 100 ship- 
ways. The farmer sees that while he thought that 
at $2.35 he was going to make money, he has to pay 
$10 a day to harvest his wheat, so he does not make 
so much as he did when he got only $1 a bushel 
for it. 

Such comment brings to mind the oft repeated 
question : "Is architecture a business?" A very 
prominent architect recently termed this a "banal" 
question, but he gave an answer to it which in itself 
is something to think about every day of the year. 

He referred to the subways of New York, and to 
the insistent demand that new subways are sorely 
needed. The present interest paid by the city, he said, 
is about $45,000,000 a year. A little over four hun- 
dred millions more is contemplated for subway con- 

"Four hundred million is spent on rapid transit, 
to say nothing of the interruption to business during 

(Continued on page 15) 



Old Shop, Litchfield, Conn. 

(See reproduction of original drawing by 0. R. Eggers on opposite page) 

T ITCHFIELD'S history dates from its settlement in 

/ 1720. // grew as all New England towns of earlier 

J-^ settlement grew with winding streets and shaded lanes 

which truly typified the simple characters of the early 


Its builders built as did all the early New Engenders 
with a fine regard for the basic elements of good architecture 
and even the humble shop was not too insignificant to receive 
the careful thought of its designer. There is a most satis- 
factory indication of good design and honest building in 
the present subject so well presented by Mr. Eggers, who 
found many equally satisfactory subjects for his book of 
sketches during a visit to old Litchfield. Litchfield pre- 
serves its traditions, which teem in historic association, and 
it is equally proud of its record as the birthplace of many 
illustrious men. 

The first law school founded in the United States was at 
Litchfield, as was also the first "woman's seminary," the fore- 
runner of the woman's college. Lyman Beecher, the father 
of Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe, was 
a much respected pastor of a Litchfield church, and it was 
in Litchfield that Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher 
Stowe were born. Ethan Allen was also born in Litchfield. 

When the murmurings that marked the days before "the 
shot heard round the world" was fired at Lexington, and the 
Revolutionary struggle was begun, Litchfield had rounded 
out a half century of growth. Many old buildings stand 
today that stood then as silent witnesses to the part this 
quaint New England town played when it sent its manhood 
forth to join the Continental armies. 


X.V/EJJ/CXA' ARCHITECT Siries of Earl, Ameritan Arthiticturi 


(Continued from page 13) 

construction, also a cost. The interest on that at 4 
per cent, would be $16,000,000 per annum. If you 
took only half of that, namely $8,000,000 a year, 
and spent it in building a series of diagonal avenues 
linking up east and west sides of the city with facili- 
ties for playgrounds, short cuts across town, con- 
venience in traffic to the business section, you would 
open up a section now in bad condition and do it at 
least as well as Naples thirty years ago, when they 
re-zoned that city ; and for $6,000,000 to $10,000,000 
a year you could have a permanent investment that 
would amortize, that provides a convenient living 
place, that would do away with a large portion of 
your subways and save original cost to a considerable 
extent. With diagonal avenues you would not have 
the north side of the street with all the sun and the 
south side with no sun at all. You could have both 
sides of these dwellings exposed to the sunlight. 
You would have broad avenues ; you would have 
places where people might promenade and for streets 
carrying traffic and would assume at minimum cost 
that instead of carrying the live human people in 
holes in the ground our of the sunlight like a lot of 
moles, and the freight or traffic in the sunlight, you 
could have some traffic subways to take freight and 
let the people occupy the surface where they belong." 
Now, that opinion is extremely valuable, and most 
certainly furnishes something to think about, when 
it is remembered that the man who gave it to this 
journal is an Immortal, a member of the Legion of 
Honor, has won the Medal of Honor for Architec- 
ture, and has >achieved distinction and fame as one of 

the finest artists, in every sense of the word, in the 
profession of architecture. If he can give time and 
thought, as he undoubtedly has, to matters as com- 
mercial and material as taxation and subway con- 
struction, as well as to the more aesthetic side of 
life, it would seem that the consideration of the time- 
worn and timely "Is Architecture a business?" ques- 
tion would well merit very serious thought this year. 

Last, but not least, is the matter of the registration 
of architects. Full comment on this would require 
many issues of this journal. We print the following 
comment, because it is rather new and seems to us 
to be a thought-provoking statement : 

"Registration does not make for any better archi- 
tects or any better service to the people. It adds to 
taxation. It would not keep out incompetents. You 
cannot pass a law stopping the country carpenter 
from building a barn. I believe that branches also on 
paternalistic legislation. The best protection for the 
public and the architect both is the establishment of 
high standards of public information in regard to 
what constitutes good design and good building. The 
survival of the fittest does not necessarily hold good 
because a man may make up in activity of solicita- 
tion, like any other quack, what he lacks in genuine 
ability, and get the business." 

These are some big things to think about in 1921. 
They are not the only things worthy of serious con- 
sideration, but most certainly they are the big ones, 
if opinions gathered from all over the country can be 
taken as an accurate gauge of worthwhileness. This 
journal believes it is an accurate gauge an ex- 
tremelv accurate one. 


The Building Outlook in the Middle West 
and on the Pacific Coast 

Corrcspoiuicnfc to THE A.MKKK AN ARCHITECT) 

(.'ill CAGO. 

Tl I K building fraternity in Chicago is welcom- 
ing the new year with much more than the 
usual acclaim because of the potential prog- 
ress in the industry which the incoming year seems 
certain to possess. Everything points to an early 
and comprehensive resumption of building activity, 
which will keep all hands busy during the year and 

Practically no one who is in a position to gauge 
present indications dissents from the general tone of 
optimism. Real estate men, contractors, builders, 
architects everybody who touches the building in- 
dustry seems well assured that the long-needed ex- 
pansion is certain to begin early in 1921 and to con- 
tinue without interruption for an indefinite period. 

The psychology of the situation favors this expan- 
sion; the labor problems are becoming simplified; 
material costs are being reduced ; the need of build- 
ings is growing more acute and the financial aid ne- 
cessary to make the building program possible now 
seems more easily available. With all of these con- 
comitants so favorably disposed, there is really noth- 
ing in the way of the forward march. Even the mild 
weather now prevailing seems auspicious and may 
mean the opening of many important projects much 
earlier than could be usually expected. 

A very optimistic expression comes from Henry 
K. Holsman, president of the Illinois Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, who believes that 
the approaching season will be marked by great build- 
ing activity. 

"I am constantly in touch with a great many archi- 
tects," says Mr. Holsman, "and my information is 
that the architects are going to have all the work they 
can possibly do. A great deal of work is already on 
the boards, with many plans already completed and 
merely awaiting the word for actual work to begin." 

Charles M. Bostrom, Chicago commissioner of 
buildings, is another who predicts record-breaking 
activity. Chicago's greatest building boom will short- 
ly begin, according to Mr. Bostrom, and before it is 
finished living quarters for the present unaccommo- 
dated 100,000 families will have been built. He es- 
timates that at least ten square miles of property 
now vacant in and around Chicago will be covered 
with homes and apartments during the building re- 

Mr. Bo-trom's records show that the first eleven 

months of 1920 saw the issuance of permits for 
buildings valued at $74,000,000 as compared with a 
valuation of more than $95,000,000 for the same 
period in 1919. Permit valuations for December of 
this year are estimated at $3,000,000. 

Chicago's record building year thus far was 1916 
when permits representing a value of $113,000,000 
were issued, but it is Mr. Bostrom's belief that the 
building in 1921 will set a new mark for progress in 

A word of very great encouragement comes also 
from S. W. Straus, head of an important Chicago 
financial house. He points out that there has been 
great improvement in the conditions which have pre- 
viously hindered building and he expects an imme- 
diate resumption of building activity as soon as 
weather conditions become more settled and favor- 

"While construction is at a low ebb at this time," 
said Mr. Straus, "conditions are favorable for the 
resumption of building on a large scale." 

Even "more emphatic emphasis of the encouraging 
outlook than that given expression in mere individual 
views may be found in the news of the actual build- 
ing improvements under consideration at this time. 
Most of these projects have passed through the 
nebulous stage and are definitely under way. 

It is reported that the building program of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago which was held up by the war 
is about to be resumed. Very vast expenditures are 
contemplated, among them the erection of the im- 
portant medical group of buildings at the university. 
Northwestern University on the north of Chicago 
also has some very important building plans which 
are shortly to be revived. 

Announcement has recently been made of plans 
to raise $1,000,000 for a new hospital on the Chi- 
cago Southside. The site is that now occupied by 
the Woman's Hospital at 460 East 32nd street. This 
property has been sold to a new corporation known as 
the Illinois General Hospital which will be the name 
of the new and larger institution. Clubwomen in 
Chicago are behind plans to start an early drive to 
raise funds for this new project. 

News of a 21 story hotel project to cost $5,000,- 
000 is also current in Chicago. The site of the pro- 
posed new hostelry is the now popular Union Station 
district, the exact location being at Canal and Clinton 
streets. Property has already been secured by the 





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VOL. CXIX, No. 2350 


JANUARY 5, 1921 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^" ^M.-KS^ v' 



VOL. CXIX, No. 2350 


JANUARY 5, 1921 




VOL. CXIX, No. 2350 


JANUARY 5, 1921 





VOL. CXIX, No. 2350 


JANUARY 5, 1921 



Arthur R. Jones Syndicate which has the project in 
hand. The buildings on the property will be the hotel 
already mentioned and an office building to supply 
the needs of this important business section. The 
hotel will be connected by means of a boulevard sub- 
way with the station, after the fashion of the Grand 
Central station in New York with its hotels adjoin- 

The Union Station improvement will give new im- 
petus to building in this part of the city and a gradual 
upgrowth of the entire wholesale section in that vicin- 
ity is anticipated. Rents, in fact, are already feeling 
the pull of the improved situation and new leases 
are being made on a higher rate. 

Chicago's greatly needed new postoffice building 
is also to grace this same general locality. The exact 
location is at the northeast corner of Jefferson and 
Quincy streets, a half block west of the Union Sta- 
tion. The building will cost in the neighborhood of 
$1,500,000. It will not displace the general post- 
office in the Federal Building at Dearborn, Clark 
and Adams streets but will be utilized to relieve 
the mail congestion which results from the inadequate 
size of the present building. Alfred L. Alschuler is 
the architect of the new postal station, upon which 
work will begin in early spring. 

Theatrical progress is to add its share to the build- 
ing boom. Three new theatres in the downtown dis- 
trict are said to be in contemplation by the Shubert 
interests, though nothing very definite has been given 
out as to plans. More tangible is the proposal of an 
unnamed eastern syndicate to erect in Chicago a chain 
of outlying vaudeville houses at a cost of approx- 
imately $4,000,000. The first of the chain will be a 
$300,000 building on West Roosevelt Road near 
Ashland avenue. 

Definite plans for the new Federal Reserve Bank 
building, for which excavation is practically com- 
plete have lately been made public. This building to 
be located at La Salle Street and Jackson Boulevard 
will be fourteen stories in height, with provisions 
made for the addition of four stories should the 
first limit prove inadequate. Architecturally, the 
building will be a free interpretation of Greek and 
Roman classic style, the outstanding feature being a 
front colonnade, sixty-five feet high. 

The cost of lumber and other building materials 
has taken no important decline during the past week 
or so. The feeling is general in the lumber industry 
that the building boom will drive prices upward and 
this hope is doing a great deal to firm the market. 

Following recent revisions, the materials manufac- 
turers are also holding firm, with no change of im- 
portance in the list of prices. 

A general summary of building and materials quo- 
tations follows : 

Yellow pine: B. & B. 1 in., $95 to $130; 13-16, 

3y 4 flat flooring, $85 to $90 ; 2 by 4, 10 to 16 feet, 
No. 1 long leaf, $51 ; 2 x 6, $48 to $49; 2 x 8, $49 
to $50; 2 by 10, $52 to $54; 2 by 12, $54 and $56. 

Northern Hardwoods, carload lots, Chicago : 

Birch, four y 4 No. 1 and 2, $155; select, $130 to 
$138; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

Hard Maple, four % No. 1-2, $135 to $140; select, 
$115 to $120; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $32 to $50. 

Red gum four ]A, No. 1 and 2, $148 to $152; 
No. 1 common, $88 to $92 ; No. 2, $43 to $47. 

Birch, four Y^ No. 1 and 2, $155 to $160; select, 
$130 to $139; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 
2, $60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

Douglas fir, 12 by 12, No. 1 up to 32 feet, $65 to 
$75 ; 14 by 14, $68 to $75 ; 16 by 16, $70 to $75 ; 
18 by 18, $75 to $80. 

Cement : Universal, $3 ; Lehigh, $3.00 ; Portland, 

Bulk lime, $1.70 to $1.90; face brick, octagons, 
$68 to $75 ; fire brick, $32 to $40 ; 12 in. .24 to .27, 
18 in. .46 to .54. 

Crushed stone gravel $3.40 to $4 ; lake and bank 
sand-torpedo, $3.40 to $4. 


NOT until an American dollar will buy 100 
cents' worth of steel and hardware will 
building over the Pacific Coast be resumed in the 
proportion hoped for, and American business go on 
a basis that will be safe, sane and profitable. This 
was the tone in which large hardware, sheet, pipe 
and nail operators defined the situation for 1921 
this week. It is contended that the steel mills have 
not responded to the demands of the hour, and that 
other marketing avenues, in guaranteeing prices on 
building essentials as they are offering to do to- 
day to jobbing houses are outside their rights if they 
propose to aid the country in getting back to norma' 
The general tendency of jobbing houses on the 
coast, which include all steel and shelf hardware, 
sheets, roofing, cement and wall board is to refuse to 
buy, taking on only what can meet the narrowed re- 
quirements of the year-end. In this way, with indi- 
vidual action prolonged, it is felt that stocks will 
accumulate in the hands of manufacturers and that 
a price tumble will be inevitable. Corroboration of 
this position is shown in the fact that salesmen have 
increased in number, eastern steel mills have found 
it necessary to personally scan, cultivate and tactfully 
view the field in person. However, the minds of job- 
bers seem to have been made up, particularly since 
it is known that gross margins in the North Pacific 
jobbing trade were not moved upward during the 
war as in other sections, and the jobbing trade pro- 
tected its customers by keeping as close to reasonable 



proth-. U WW p08fi2>l at that time. Jobber, claim 
tliat il i- impossible lor any one of the many lines ot 
construction material to yuarantee prices to-day until 
March .>!. a- i> proposed, or for twenty-four hours. 
and the point has been raised as to whether it can be 
done in conformity with law. This attitude of inanu- 
irers has -lined jobbers into a belligerent mood, 
and Inning will be limited in the Pacific coast terri- 
tory until the future basis is modified. 

There is an ample supply of nails, pipe, all but 
halves and three-quarters galvanized, and nails. 
Stocks of roofing, cement, fire brick and plaster wall- 
board are ample to take care of the estimated need 
for i he next ninety days. Jobbers in steel products 
announce that they will follow all declines in the 
market regardless of cost. 

\\ henever steel mills more thoroughly reflect the 
national temper in their price list, at that time the 
reconstruction period will begin. This is the crystal- 
lized sentiment of nine out of ten of the heads of 
corporations engaged in distributing these products 
over the Pacific coast territory. 

It is believed that fir lumber has struck bottom. 
A good many price lists are going to eastern com- 
mission houses, but save in the case of financial pres- 
sure prices are being held taut. The larger mills are 
refusing to accept business on the market of to-day 
and wages have fallen $1 to $1.25 per day, to $3.75. 

Production for the week was 38J/2 per cent, below 

normal, and fir mills of the west coast territory sold 
only 769 carloads, 30,000 feet to the car, in the rail 
or eastern building trade. The mills hold orders for 
2.736 carloads, still unshipped. The cut at the mills 
and the shipments were only 1.50 per cent, apart, a 
.situation that has not been paralleled in months. 

Negotiations for moving fir lumber and shingles to 
New York, Boston and Baltimore intercostal are 
going forward rapidly. Association authorities took 
up with the steamship lines the subject of low rates 
immediately after the railroads instituted what has 
become a prohibitive transcontinental rate, and com- 
parison shows that the water haul to New York har- 
bor will save shippers $14.60 per 1,000 feet on lum- 
ber alone. 

Lightering rates in New York harbor and to Bos- 
ton and other ports that have yardage space for lum- 
ber cargoes have been filed here, and a rate of 17 
cents per hundred pounds from New York to Buffalo 
via the Erie Canal has been named. The railways 
stand to lose the lumber as they have lost the steel 
tonnage west bound, as well as the backhaul to in- 
terior points. 

The fir mills this week sold mill base at $51 to 
$57 for vertical grain flooring, $29 to $31 for slash 
grain, $63 for finish, $27 to $29 for ceiling, $28 to 
$30 for drop siding, $18 to $20 for boards and 
shiplap, and $13.50 to $16 for common dimension. 


The Outlook as to Building Material Costs 

in 1921 

By A. R. KRIECHBAUM, Eastern Editor, Lumber 

THE fundamental soundness of America is a 
guarantee for better business in 1921. This 
applies more particularly to the building indus- 
try than to many other lines of industry because the 
nation is at least four years behind in its building con- 
struction. The war taught the* people of America 
many things, the most important of which was econ- 
omy. Economy in housing space as now practiced 
would have been considered intolerable a few years 
ago, but this very thing has created business in the 
building material industry at a time when retrench- 
ment in all lines has been general. The remodeling 
of buildings to provide more space for housing ac- 
commodations has furnished the principal demand 
for building materials during the past several 
months. This remodeling work, creating two apart- 
ments where there had been but one, is purely an 
emergency measure, and while it answers the pur- 
pose just now, it does not lessen in the slightest de- 
gree the potential demand for housing in this country. 
This demand must be met sooner or later. It remain , 
for someone to start. Under existing business con- 
ditions the large investor has not been anxious to put 
his money in the building field when he could lay it 
away in tax-free securities. That this chief adverse 
element even now shows signs of improvement, how- 
ever, is indicated by the fact that the larger insurance 
companies, building and loan associations and bank- 
ing institutions are displaying a much more liberal at- 
titude towards the building industry, particularly with 
reference to loans on individual housing projects. 

Following as it did the artificial boom which be- 
gan immediately after the signing of the Armistice, 
the period of depression of the past few months was 
fully expected, and, in fact, did not reach the propor- 
tions anticipated. It resulted largely from public 
sentiment. The public was sick and tired of high 
prices and it simply "struck." That the "strike" wa 
won is easily attested by the present prices of all 
commodities, including building materials. Lumber, 
steel, brick and cement, the four basic building ma- 
terials, are wholesaling cheaper today than at any 
time in 1920, and in many instances this is true of re- 
tail prices as well, but as a general rule the retailer 
has not taken his loss in proportion to other branches 
of the building industry, except, of course, the la- 
borer. He is taking his loss jnst now in non-em- 

Building construction will begin during 1921. 

Whether it starts in early Spring or later, it is bound 
to start, and when it is finally under way it will con- 
tinue for at least three years to come. There are 
several important, elements which bear on the situa- 
tion, the foremost of which is legislation, both ex- 
isting and prospective. The "anti-landlord" rent 
laws enacted by the last New York Legislature vir- 
tually placed all rented property in the hands of the 
courts, and landlords as a general rule prefer to have 
supervision over their own property. Such legislation 
offers little inducement to the prospective apartment 
builder. On the other hand, the law-making body 
passed another law giving cities the power to exempt 
from taxation for a period of five years all new con- 
struction, and the City of New York is now working 
on an ordinance to this effect which may become a 
law in the Spring. This undoubtedly will encourage 

The sensational disclosures of the Legislative Com- 
mittees, which have been investigating the building 
industry for several months, have proven a revela- 
tion and have undoubtedly resulted in breaking up 
several "rings" which in the past have exacted great 
toll from the public. Prospective builders this year 
can proceed with the assurance that they will get a 
dollar's worth of building for every dollar they spend. 
This, again, will encourage building. 

In the matter of material supply, there is every- 
thing in favor of the builder, at least for the one who 
builds early in 1921. The retail lumber yards as a 
rule are well stocked with lumber, the cement plants 
have a goodly supply of cement to start with and 
there is enough brick to keep things moving until 
summer when the brick plants resume operation. 
Material prices (the big factor) are very much in 
favor of the prospective builder. The basic mate- 
rials are cheaper today then they were at any time 
during 1920 and the market will probably remain 
around its present level until Spring. The trend of 
the market during the last half of 1921, however, will 
undoubtedly be upward, but prices will never reach 
the peak of last year, at least, not for some years to 
come. And it is well that they will not. Any at- 
tempt to force prices up to last year's peak would 
be immediately followed by a stoppage of building. 
The labor situation will be favorable to the resump- 
tion of building by Spring. Labor is getting more 
plentiful every day and it is merely a matter of a 
short time until wage scales will be reduced in the 



building track- ju-t a- they are being reduced at 
manufacturing center- throughout the country. 
And another imjiortant factor is the change in the at- 
titude of labor. The individual is growing more effi- 
cient and k-s, dictatorial. He is more willing to per- 
form a lull day'- work for a full day's pay, which ne- 
ci---arily mean- a reduction in labor costs, even if 
wage- ;ue not actually reduced. 

Trans]xjrtation. another factor in the building in- 
dustry, is almost 100 per cent, better now than it was 
at the beginning of 1920 and railroad officials promise 
continued improvement throughout this year. Ship- 
ments of building materials from producing points 
are moving smoothly. There are plenty of cars and 
the terminals are cleared of traffic, a condition which 
is just the reverse of that of last January. For 
the first half of this year the big trunk lines will 
undertake only improvements which are absolutely- 
essential and the roads will be operated with as few 
men and at as little cost as possible. Their retrench- 
ment policy, however, will not be taken to the point 
where it will interfere with service to the public. 

In all branches of the building industry there is a 
better feeling of confidence than there has been at 
any time since the close of the war. Everyone knew 
that the boom which followed the signing of the Ar- 
mistice was artificial and could not continue. They 
knew that the prices which prevailed last winter 
were entirely too high for the best interests of the 
industry. For the most part, they welcomed the turn 
downward, for while many of them lost money by 
the break in the market, they were able to take their 
loss because they realized a good profit during the 
months preceding. 

During 1920 more buildings were planned than 
ever before in history and yet actual construction 
fell considerably short of that of the previous year. 
Millions of dollars in new construction, represented 
by plans and blue prints, are now held in "cold stor- 
age" by architects. They have all been approved and 
in most instances the money appropriated. The archi- 
tects are waiting until they think prices have reached 
the bottom before they ask for bids. A survey of 
architects' offices reveals the fact that housing proj- 
ects and educational and religious institutions pre- 
dominate, although there are quite a number of com- 
mercial and office buildings in the list. The general 

curtailment of produciion in all lines indicates there 
will not be such a great volume of industrial build- 
ing this year. The building now under way is con- 
fined largely to the completion of structures started 
many months ago and to repairing and remodeling. 

Manufacturers of building materials are very, op- 
timistic as to the outlook for this year. Both the 
cement and the brick manufacturers declare there will 
be a shortage of materials. One cement manufac- 
turer pointed out that more than 31,000,000 barrels 
of cement will be used in highway construction this 
year, or about one-third of the nation's production. 
Cement producers are refusing to accept orders on 
present prices for spring delivery. In a good build- 
ing year approximately 1,200,000,000 bricks are 
used. Last year the consumption was only 350,000,- 
000. At present there are only 300,000,000 brick on 
hand at producing points and this supply would be 
exhausted in 60 days' time if building was resumed in 
any volume. The brick plants are closed down for 
the winter and will not resume operation until after 
May 1, the exact date depending upon weather con- 
ditions. Brick manufacturers will not accept orders 
for future delivery on the present market values. 

In the lumber industry the producers have re- 
sponded more readily to the downward price ten- 
dency than probably any other branch of the build- 
ing material industry. Most low grade lumber to- 
day is wholesaling at less than cost of production. The 
mills are making some profit on the better grades, but 
not enough to offset this loss. This means that lum- 
ber prices, as a whole, must be higher after spring 
buying begins than they now are. A great majority 
of the lumber, shingle and lath mills on the West 
Coast and in the South have been closed down since 
the middle of November and most of them will not 
resume operation until buying begins in some volume. 
Stocks of lumber at the mills are not up to pre-war 
normal, but are considerably larger than those of 
last January. This surplus will be exhausted, how- 
ever, with sixty days of active buying. 

No one looks for a great boom year or the sky- 
rocketing of prices, but for the last nine months in 
1921 is generally predicted a period of good, sub- 
stantial business, and from then on business generally 
will continue prosperous for the next five years. 



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The Cleveland Auditorium 

A Notable Example of Architectural and Engineering Skill 

ONLY the ordinary palls. And because the 
world is largely composed of ordinary peo- 
ple, ordinary buildings and many other ordi- 
nary things, they fail to excite interest. But the big 
men, the unusual things, are those that never fail to 
arouse our interest, our curiositv and often our ad- 

investing money, part of which has been raised by a 
bond issue, in a structure which its citizens firmly 
believe is a most excellent investment and which will 
pay handsome dividends in the form of increased" 
business for Cleveland citizens. Although it is not 
here desired to discuss the economics of the question,. 


miration. We look on with awe and wish that we 
also might do big things. 

The city of Cleveland, while not ranking with the 
largest cities, is yet a most progressive one. Just now 
Cleveland is doing something big in the building 
business. While private building lags behind and 
business in many lines is unusually dull, this city is 

a consideration of the structure itself is worthy of 

The accompanying illustrations will more readily 
convey an idea of the magnitude of this structure 
than any lengthy description. 

The Auditorium, now under construction, is the 
fourth building to be erected in what is known as the 




Cleveland Group Plan. It occupies a site on the east 
side of the proposed Mall and is bounded by Lake- 
side Avenue on the north, St. Clair Avenue on the 
south and East 6th Street on the east. This build- 
ing is 230 by 430 ft., while the arena or public hall 
proper is to be 220 ft. wide and 370 ft. long. In this 
vast auditorium there will not be a single pillar to 
obstruct the view of the army of spectators it will 
seat. The whole auditorium will be lighted from the 
ceiling, where the use of incandescents with a total 
wattage equivalent to 218,000 ordinary lamps is be- 
ing planned. 

Modern fireproof steel construction is used 
throughout. The exterior is faced with granite and 
limestone, while the interior k finished in marble, tile 
and decorative plaster. The requirements to be met in 
the auditorium were such that the plan could not be 
well expressed on the exterior by the type of classi- 

cal Roman architecture that prevails in the other 
public buildings of this group. It was found how- 
ever that facades designed in the spirit of the Italian 
Renaissance were applicable to a true expression of 
the plan, and this type of architecture was therefore 
adopted, although the exterior details are classical 
and harmonize with the other buildings of the Group 


The Auditorium is an exceedingly interesting 
building because of the many varied functions that it 
is intended to serve. Many special features are in- 
corporated in plan and equipment in order to fulfill 
these functions. The purposes for which the Audi- 
torium is designed and equipped to be used may be 
classified as follows : 







(e) Political. 

(f) Religious. 

(g) Sales and business, 
(h) Scientific. 



Musical Conce r t s. 
Grand Opera. 


(a) Athletic, 
(b) Balls. 
(c) Carnivals, 
(d) Circus, 
(e) Motion pictures. 


(a) Aeronautical. 

(b) Animal shows. 

(c) Automotive. 

(d) Machinery. 

(e) Electrical. 

(f) Chemical. 

(g) Flower shows, 

(i) Farm products (raw) 

(j) Building materials. 

(k) Textile. 

(1) Industrial methods & 
and Special process. 

(m) Plumbing and heat- 

(n) Forestry. 


Food products 


The seating capacity of the Auditorium for con- 
certs and operas is 12,000 ; during conventions, how- 
ever, this capacity may be increased to 13,500 by 



placing 1,500 additional seats on the stage. The main 
floor and basement combined offer 61,000 square feet 
of exhibition space, 32,000 on the main floor and 
29,000 in the basement. Steam, gas, compressed air, 
vacuum and electric current (A. C. and D. C. 110 
volt and 220 volt) are among the services available 
to exhibitors. 

One of the primary functions of the building is the 

72 ft. ice skating rink or swimming tank from the 
basement to the stage level. The stage wings are 
provided with 28 private dressing rooms and chorus 
rooms with a total capacity of 200. One of the finest 
pipe organs in the country is to be installed. Special 
care is being taken to design the interior acoustically 

South of the arena will be a unit housing a com- 


Note the two traveling derrick towers in foreground 

housing of national conventions. Every dependency 
required by such conventions is provided. These 
include suites of large committee rooms with sepa- 
rate entrance foyers, scores of telephones with a pri- 
vate exchange, taxicab service, lunch room, flower 
shop, barber shop, shower baths, and numerous other 
accommodations for the convenience of the busy con- 
vention delegates. 

The stage is equipped in accordance with the best 
modern theatre practice. It is one of the largest in 
the world and provision r /nade for raising a 30 by 

plete theatre capable of seating an audience of 2,700 
and with facilities for a company of 200 players. 
The stage of the theatre unit will also be the stage 
of the main auditorium and has a proscenium arch 
of 72 ft. span, a depth of 48 ft. and an overall width 
of 108 ft. Fly galleries are to be done away with, 
and nothing but modern stage-setting machinery 

To the north of the arena will be located another 
complete unit of the same approximate size as the 
theatre unit on the south. The northern unit will be 




: Wj - 




six stories in height and will include the formal 
lobby and some twenty convention halls, with seating 
capacities ranging from 300 to 1,200. 

Curving runways will be built from the basement 
to the arena floor to take care of circus parades and 
pageants. It is stated that the Cleveland public hall 
will be able to take care of a much bigger circus audi- 
ence than Madison Square Garden in New York 

Two great steel derrick towers, movable on wood- 
en trestles, played an important part in erecting the 
framework of this structure. The four trestles, two 
for each tower > were built within the side walls, and 
parallel with the longitudinal center line of the build- 
ing. Upon these trestles the towers were built. On 
top of each tower was erected a large derrick, oper- 
ated by a hoist at the tower base. The most difficult 
task handled by the towers was the placing of the 
roof trusses, each over 200 ft. long and weighing 
200 tons a piece. They were put in place without 
trouble, however. As riveters went to work on one, 

the cables were removed from the derricks and 
anchored to the ground. The hoists then pulled them- 
selves and the towers rearward, into position for lift- 
ing j:he next truss. The bottom chord of each truss 
came in seven sections. In placing these the center 
section was laid first, after which the other sections 
were connected and wedged up to proper elevation. 
When the complete chord had been bolted up and 
connected to the wall columns, all web members were 
set and finally the top chord (shipped in four sec- 
tions) was set in place. The truss was then riveted 
complete and swung by cutting loose the blocking. 

It is planned to complete the building by October 
1, 1921. The total cost will be aproximately $5,- 
000,000. The building was started during the ad- 
ministration of Mayor Davis and will be finished 
under the administration of Mayor Fitzgerald. Floyd 
E. Waite has served as Director of Parks and Pub- 
lic Property during these administrations. F. H. 
Betz has been succeeded by J. H. MacDowell as 
architect. F. R. Walker is the consulting architect. 



An Improvement in Hollow Tile Floor 



THE use of hollow tile floor arches was com- 
ci.U-nt with the erection of the first steel 
franu- l,uil.lin K s and until the introduction 
of reinforced concrete it was universally used 
first arches to be used were of the segmental type_ 
The fireproofing of the tie rods was an item c 
considerable expense and rather uns.ghtly in ap- 
pearance, the plastering of the ceiling was costly and 

voussoirs are standard for each depth of arch the 
skewbacks vary with each depth of supporting floor 
beam and the keys vary with the length of the spans 
The function of the key is to close the arch winch 
is built towards the center from each supporting 
beam It will be seen that in a building m which 
several depths of floor beams are used and several 
span lengths occur, there are quite a number of spe- 


Note ceiling, showing an excellent surface for plastering, also small amount of debris 

the finished appearance unsatisfactory. In buildings 
of the better character a suspended ceiling was used 
in order to secure a flat ceiling, thus entailing a con- 
siderable added cost. The rise of these segmented 
arches was generally one inch per foot of span. 

A later development was the flat arch, the first of 
which were of the side construction type, succeeded 
by the better end construction type. A flat arch is 
made up of skewbacks, voussoirs and a key. The 

Structural Engineer, Marquette Building, Chicago. 

cial tiles which are expensive to manufacture and 
are conducive to confusion in sorting, distributing 
and placing. Every tile' in this type of construction 
has some feature which adds to the cost of its pro- 
duction. These arches range from ten to sixteen 
inches in depth and are generally set with a three- 
quarter inch camber. On striking the centering the 
mortar joints adjust themselves in such a way that 
the ceiling becomes practically level. This type of 
arch is very satisfactory for steel frame buildings. 



Economy in construction is secured by decreasing 
the cost of materials and labor. In making a study 
to develop a less expensive type of flat arch con- 
struction attention was first given to the materials. 
The cheapest hollow tile material is that known 
as partition tile which have rectangular sides and 
square ends as opposed to the radial joint ends of the 
voussoir tiles. Partition tiles are made in full and 
half lengths, twelve and six inches long respectively. 
It is obvious that a floor constructed with standard 
partition tile, soffit and channel tiles would be eco- 
nomical as to the tile material. The next element to 
be considered was labor. If the arch could be con- 
structed of medium weight pieces and placed with- 
out the necessity of making accurate closures in each 
arch, a labor saving would be effected. The elimina- 
tion of the usual three-quarter inch tie rods would 
also make a saving of steel and in the labor of fitting 
the tile about them. The cost of centering would be 
the same in both cases. 

These factors were embodied in the design of the 
floor arches installed in the Old Colony Life Insur- 
ance Company building now being erected in Chicago. 
This building is located at 168 West Jackson Boule- 
vard and extends through the block to Quincy street. 
The building was designed by C. A. Eckstorm, archi- 
tect, the fireproofing erected by the T. G. Nicholson 
Company and the writer was structural engineer for 
the floor construction. 

In constructing these floors an 8 x 12 x 12 in. par- 
tition tile was used in full and half lengths. The tile 
was laid on its eight inch face making the depth of 
the arch twelve inches. Two rows of tile were laid 
from beam to beam with cement mortar joints be- 


tween all adjoining surfaces. Between these two 
rows of tile was placed a four inch channel tile and 
the space between the partition tiles filled with con^ 
crete in which was embedded a 3^-inch steel rod as 
shown in the design. The partition tiles were laid 
from the center of the span to the supporting floor 
beams and the skewback closure made with con- 
crete, poured with the concrete joists and thus sur- 
rounding the tile construction with monolithic con- 
crete on ends and sides. No provision was made to 
prevent the slight inflow of concrete into the tiles 
at the skewbacks. This was inconsiderable owing 
to the size and shape of the cells but is an appre- 

ciable element of strength. The soffit tile under steel 
floor beams had a metal fabric under it and extend- 
ing up into the concrete skewback as shown. This 
provided a most effective anchorage for the soffit 

The four inch concrete joists and the ^-inch steel 
rods were largely a concession to the Chicago Build- 


ing Department requirements. Some few panels have 
been constructed with two inch concrete joists with 
no apparent differences in strength. When tested 
under the supervision of the Chicago Building De- 
partment with an applied load of 900 pounds per 
square foot, no deflection was indicated by the gauge. 
The first arches were laid with a three-quarter inch 
camber but no settlement took place when the cen- 
tering was struck twenty-four hours after the arch 
was laid. The balance of the arches were laid with 
an one-eighth inch camber. 

The fine level ceiling surface secured for plaster- 
ing is indicated in the illustration on the opposite 
page. The installation was made with unusual speed, 
the contractor being compelled to stop work two 
times to enable the steel erector to get ahead of him. 

An interesting comparison of cost was made re- 
cently between a long span combination tile and con- 
crete system of floor arches and this new short span 
system is a sixteen story steel frame building now 
under construction. Three steel floor beams were 
added in each bay for the short span system and this 
cost of steel was more than compensated for by the 
cheaper erection cost of tile and its erection, less 
reinforcing steel and yardage of concrete. The total 
dead load was slightly less for this system. 

The advantages of this system are those relating 
to cost and speed of construction. The elimination 
of the radial jointed voussoirs, special skewbacks and 


key-, re-ulting in tlie use of from seven to fourteen 
different shape-, and the substitution of Standard 
full and half length partition tile, standard one-size 
and channel tilt- reduces the cost of manufac- 
turing, tran-i>ortation and handling and obviate- the 
delay- due to the \vn.nn distribution of the sizes at 


the building and simplifies the work of the tile setter. 
Patents have been applied for covering several fea- 
tures of this system of construction. 

[Among the several departures from the usual types 
of building construction made necessary by the cost or 
scarcity of materials and labor, the above article describes 
an interesting improvement in methods. It also is one 

tore indication of the facility with which plastic concrete 

can be used in connection with materials difficult to alter 

after manufacture. It is evident that the use of concrete 

mbination with other materials offers a field for 

'her investigation and invention. In this case, Mr. 

Uwen, who has had an extensive experience in the manu- 

<eture and use of hollow tile wares, has made a notable 

%**"*?***, '" "'f'liods of hollow tile construction.- 
The Editors.] 

Not Educated Up to Sprayer 

That architects may oftentimes be shortsighted 
is indicated by the following instance, which came 
under our observation : 

A local painting-contractor had a contract for the 
painting of the large steel trusses of an auditorium, 
[n this work he contemplated the use of an air 
sprayer as being more efficient for that type of work 
than brush work. The architect, learning of that 
intention, notified the general contractor that since 
the specifications did not state that a sprayer might 
be used, forbid that method, claiming that it was 
impossible to get the paint into the cracks and 
crevices. December Bulletin, Associated General 
Contractors of America. 

[Editor's Note: The subject of Spray Painting was 
treated very fully in the June 23, 1920, issue of THE 

A Correction 

Reference is made to a photograph of the Plaza 
Hotel on page 713 of our issue of December 1, 1920. 
This was in error attributed to Warren & Wetmore 
as the architects. Mr. H. J. Hardenburgh was the 
architect of the original building, while the addition 
is the work of Warren & Wetmore. 

Publications Received 

The Atlas Portland Cement Company has just 
published "The Atlas Handbook on Concrete Con- 
struction." This book is bound in cloth, and con- 
tains 144 pages, 4" x 6 l / 2 ", of solid information on 
concrete mixing, reinforced concrete, concrete forms, 
concrete building construction. The information 
contained in this booklet is well illustrated by 135 
pictures and 40 tables. It is classified for ready 
reference in both a Table of Contents as well as an 
alphabetical index. 

The chapter on concrete mixing gives valuable 
tables, information on methods and tests, etc. This 
is followed by a discussion of reinforcements, taking 
up beams, girders, floor slabs, etc. Bending steel 
reinforcements receive considerable attention. The 
discussion of the building of typical concrete forms 
is good. 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

Small House Competition for 

Mr. Henry K. Holsman, president of the Illinois 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and 
architectural adviser to the "Own Your Home" Ex- 
positions to be held in New York City and Chicago 
early next year, is sending to architects the general 
program for a "Small House Competition" which is 
to be conducted in connection with these two events. 
The Chicago exposition, as previously announced, 
will be held March 26 to April 2, 1921, while the New 
York City exposition opens April 16 and closes April 
30. In explaining the purpose of this "Small House 
Competition" Mr. Holsman, in a letter to architects, 

"The American Institute of Architects realizes 
that the architectural profession and the services it 
can render to society are not properly appreciated 
by the people, greatly to the detriment of the pro- 
fession and the community. 

"The architectural profession has not received as 
much public recognition as other professions because 
it has not hitherto performed as much public service. 
The logical way to keep the value of architectural 
services in the minds of the people is to do some con- 
spicuous public good. 

"The country is now confronted with a lack of 
private initiative in home building and home owner- 
ship. The government is beginning to realize that 
homeless citizens and families, whether rich or poor, 
are not potentially the best citizens that every addi- 
tional home owner makes an additional credit pos- 
sibility, an additional property security to the nation's 
wealth, and an additional urge for all other forms 
of permanent construction. 

With a view to stimulating home building and 
home ownership, "Own Your Home" expositions 
have been inaugurated to be held in various large 
centers to show the people the value of a good home 
and how to obtain it. Realizing that the majority 
of homes are not designed by the most competent 
architects, and that small house plans are not usually 
profitable work for the established architect, the 
architects will make their contribution to this move- 
ment at present in the form of a Small House Com- 
petition, program of which is herewith enclosed. 

"You. are invited to participate in this movement 

and send in the best solution of the small house prob- 
lem that can be devised for your particular locality. 

You will notice that the cash prizes to be awarded 
are considerable, and that the other prize conditions 
are more important to the architectural profession. 
The plans securing the prizes will be widely pub- 
lished, will be made available, complete with spe- 
cifications ready for execution, at small cost to home 
owners, architects and builders. These plans will 
bear the architect's name and address so that he may 
receive not only compensation for every reproduc- 
tion of his plan, but may be placed in contact with 
the builder. Furthermore, arrangements are being 
made to reproduce the first-prize designs in the ex- 
position in facsimile and other prize designs in 
small models. One large house-furnishing store has 
offered to reproduce the prize designs in full size, 
furnished and decorated, in their store and it is ex- 
pected that other stores throughout the country will 
do similar service. 

"We trust that you will consider this matter of 
enough value to yourself, the profession and the pub- 
lic to prepare and send a design which will be the best 
that your combined office force can produce. If 
you cannot participate, will you be kind enough to 
hand this program to some draftsman who would 
be competent to participate." 

The program may be had by addressing Hr. Hols- 
man at 175 West Jackson boulevard, Chicago. 

New York Society of Architects 

This society held its regular monthly meeting 
Tuesday evening, Dec. 21, at the United Engineer- 
ing Societies Building, West Thirty-ninth street, 
New York City, President James Riely Gordon in 
the chair. A full quota of members was present, and 
great interest manifested in the various important 
topics discussed. 

A communication was read from the chairman of 
the Board of Standards and Appeals, in regard to 
the proposed rules requiring rat-proofing of build- 
ings along the river fronts. After somewhat ex- 
tended discussion, in which the element of humor 
was not lacking, the meeting, on motion by Mr. H. 
Holder, passed a resolution that "the society is op- 
posed to the structural requirements under consid- 
eration before the Board of Standards and Appeals, 



in <l that this matter can be more effectually dealt 
of Health, each indmdua 1 hou*- 

that .In- good 

buildings, would not warrant the 
ed, and , ha, .her. arc stapte and more eco- 
I1( , m k,,l expedients, such as wire netting applied. to 
which are largely infested by rats; the hlling 
i,-, with broken glass or concrete between studs of 
partitions, and closing up runways of these vermin. 
which would suffice to meet the emergency. At the 
same .inn-, as regards new buildings, the proposed 
additional precautions might, if only in a mod 
form, be adopted. 

In response to an inquiry from a member as to 
whether a corporation can practice architecture under 
the title of Registered Architect, the information 
was elicited that such practice is illegal, since the 
title of R. A. is conferred only upon individuals, and 
a corporation, even though employing registered ar- 
chitects, may not assume such title. 

President Gordon asked for suggestions from 
members which might assist Senator Dunnigan's 
Housing Committee, and the discussion brought out 
the general opinion of members that reforms are 
necessary in the practice of dealers and manufactur- 
ers refusing to give price quotations to architects or 
their clients. It was pointed out that corporations 
doing business in the state owe a duty to the public, 
by whose sufferance they are permitted to do busi- 
ness as such, and such corporations should be placed 
under a legal obligation to sell to any bona fide cus- 
tomer at a fair market price. Material men and 
dealers at present will not quote prices to anyone ex- 
cept contractors in their particular or affiliated line. 
This ignorance of costs prohibits the architect from 
giving a comprehensive estimate to prospective in- 
vestors, entailing a loss of prestige and confidence in 
the architect. Another point brought out was the 
wasteful methods encouraged by the rules of the 
labor unions, which make necessary a great deal of 
work in the field which could be done in the shop at 
half the cost. 

The idea of the open shop was strongly favored by 
the meeting, as being thoroughly American, and in 
accord with the principle that the fight to work shall 
not be denied to any man. 

The Society deplored the fact that there does not 
appear to be a man in public life who has courage 
to uphold the right of the individual as against com- 
binations, whether of capital or labor. This same 
principle of class interest appears to dominate the 
commercial life of the community, to the grievous 
limitation of individual liberty. 

Severe comment was also made upon the fact that 
architects as a class have been the chief sufferers 
from the conditions which have prevailed for 

term architect in its original and 
nS; signifies Master Builder, 
such the man who bears that title ought to be 
to control all classes and interests included m 
domain of building construction ^f*^ 
f fact however, the architect is held to be of little 
account in these days, and as to compensation for his 
^ ces-essential to the welfare of the commun. y 
as those services are-he is probably the most poorly 
paid of all professional men: the average emp oyee 
in an architect's office receiving perhaps about the 
same pay as a common laborer on the building he 
designs and superintends. 

A 2,000-Year Old Definition of an 

In a recent address before the Western Society 
of Engineers, Mr. John W. Alvord, past president 
of the society, gave a definition of an engineer 
made by Marcus Vitruvius, who wrote 150 years 

B. C. 

"He should be a good writer, a skillful 
draughtsman, versed in geometry and optics, expert 
at figures, acquainted with history, informed on the 
principles of natural and moral philosophy, some- 
what of a musician, not ignorant of the sciences, 
both law and physics, nor of the motions, laws and 
relations to each other of the heavenly bodies. 
* * * Moral philosophy "will teach him to be 
above meanness in his dealings and. to avoid arro- 
gance. It will make him just, compliant and faith- 
ful to his employer, and what is of highest import- 
ance, it will prevent avarice gaining an ascendency 
over him, for he should not be occupied with 
thoughts of filling his coffers, nor with the desire 
of grasping everything in the shape of gain, but by 
the gravity of his manners and a good character, 
should be careful to preserve his dignity." 

The Architectural League of 

The Architectural League of Indianapolis is a new 
organization based upon that of the Architectural 
League of New York City, with some changes that 
were considered necessary to adapt it to local con- 

Charter membership is still open as it is hoped 
to reach everyone personally who might be inter- 
ested or benefited by an organization of this charac- 

It is the purpose to bring about a closer associa- 
tion and co-operation of the architects, sculptors, 
landscape architects, draftsmen, painters, decorators, 
and all the allied artisans. 



Arrangements have been made whereby the 
League will have use of lecture and class rooms at 
the John Herron Art Institute. The League is re- 
sponsible for the local atelier of the Beaux-Arts In- 
stitute of Design, which has a following of about 
thirty-five students. Courses have been arranged 
in Architecture and Interior Decoration. Beginners 
will have a special class to train them in the elements 
of design to prepare for Beaux-Arts problems. 

An interesting course of lectures is planned for 
the winter. Several small exhibitions will be held 
and later it is hoped that some large exhibition of 
local work may be arranged for and advantage taken 
of some of the large traveling exhibits. 

The League is a post-war effort to revive interest 
in artistic organization and to increase public appre- 
ciation of the arts. All lectures are open to the pub- 
lic. The secretary of the League would be glad to 
correspond with other organizations, for the purpose 
of exchanging ideas which would be of mutual bene- 
fit, and to learn of possible lectures and exhibits. 

Billions for Construction in 1921 

Early resumption of home building and other 
forms of construction is assured if reports of con- 
templated building projects may be taken as a cri- 
terion for the coming year. 

These reports show that contemplated building 
projects for the territory north of the Ohio River 
and east of the Missouri will probably reach the tre- 
mendous amount of $4,800,000,000, which under 
normal conditions would indicate actual construction 
during 1921 of approximately $3,200,000,000. 

The low lumber market now prevailing paves the 
way for a big reduction in building costs. Thou- 
sands upon thousands of homes, so badly needed, will 
be built under these conditions. This will neces- 
sarily call upon thousands of men from all trades for 
the production of building materials. 

Such demands will naturally lead to steady pro- 
duction and universal employment which in turn 
will make for better business activity and general 

Largest Concrete Building 

The largest concrete building yet erected on Man- 
hattan Island is now being built at 395 Hudson 
street. New York. The building, partly an 11 -story 
office building and warehouse and partly a five-story 
and basement warehouse, will occupy the entire block 
surrounded by Hudson, West Houston, Greenwich 
and Clarkson streets. The construction will cover 
an area 338 by 200 feet and will be throughout of 
reinforced concrete with the exception of a veneer 
of brick on the exterior walls. McKenzie, Voorhees 

& Gmelin are the architects. The work is being done 
by the Turner Construction Company. 

This operation furnishes a most interesting side 
light on the trend of building design in the greater 
city. For many years it has been an accepted fact 
that reinforced concrete was an ideal building mate- 
rial for industrial buildings, but loft buildings, apart- 
ment houses, office buildings and institutional build- 
ings have still been built almost exclusively of struc- 
tural steel, brick, stone and terra cotta. With the 
present labor and material price situation, the econ- 
omy in favor of reinforced concrete is so big that 
many people, who through prejudice or inertia, had 
refused to consider reinforced concrete, are now 
turning to this material as the only way out of their 

The building is of a type which up to a year or so 
ago, would have been built of structural steel. To- 
day it is going ahead, the largest building of its kind, 
or reinforced concrete without any structural steel in- 
volved at all. There are many office and loft build- 
ings, twelve stories or less in height, which could 
be efficiently, economically and expeditiously built 
of reinforced concrete at this time. This building 
will be occupied by the Western Electric Co. and the 
New York Telephone Co. 

The American Standard of Living 

Much is said about an American standard of liv- 
ing, remarks the Boston Transcript editorially. Much 
is said of the necessity of minimum wage scales in 
industry. It is time that there should be some well- 
formulated ideas as to what constitute an American 
standard of housing, especially in the congested dis- 
tricts of the great cities. Of what avail is it to erect 
hospitals and maintain clinics for the treatment of 
the sick if disease is to spread and multiplied in its 
extent by the overcrowding of tenements ? How 
much permanent good will follow efforts at combat- 
ing vicious tendencies in city life, if many thousands 
of city dwellers are deprived of any semblance of 
decent privacy in their living quarters, and if the 
lure of the streets is enhanced by the lessening of 
home accommodations, already, in many cases, piti- 
fully inadequate? 

It is questions such as these that are evidently mak- 
ing strong impression upon the minds of judges who 
hear cases involving the meaning or the validity of 
laws passed during the present crisis. These laws 
are emergency measures. But back of them is the 
fact that, while there may be only temporary need of 
drastic measures such as have recently been enacted, 
there is urgent and permanent need of the mainte- 
nance of an American standard of housing, in accom- 
plishing which a well-considered and reasonable body 
of law, of course, will be essential. 




Charles K. Cummings, architect, is located at 8 
Beacon street, Boston, Mass., formerly of 6 Joy 
street, that city. 

W. D. Johnson & Co., architects, have changed 
their firm name from Johnson & Burns to the 
above. They are situated at 174 Bond street, Hart- 
ford. Conn. 

Bruno Wozny, architect, formerly located at 381 
Main street, Springfield, Mass., has moved to 94 
State street, that city. 

Marshall J. Smith, architect, has opened new 
offices at 411-412 Oxford Building, Washington, 
D. C. 

William C. Noland, architect, has become located 
at the Old Dominion Trust Building, Ninth and 
Main streets, Richmond, Va. Mr. Noland formerly 
was a member of Noland & Baskerville, architects, 
of the same city. 

Simpson & Githens, architects, moved from room 
833, Reibold Building, Dayton, O., to room 869 of 
the same building, for the larger quarters the latter 

News from Various Sources 

Of the 110,000,000 citizens of this country, 45,- 
000,000 are physically imperfect, 15,000,000 die an- 
nually, 3,000,000 are in bed all the time, and 1,000,- 
000 have tuberculosis. Only 37,500,000 are fairly 
healthy, and only 19,500,000 are in full vigor. There 
are more persons in the insane asylums in this coun- 
try than in the colleges and universities, and it costs 
more to maintain the former than the latter. 

* * * 

The Illinois Legislature will be asked to provide a 
total of $8,000,000 for the new state hospital in Chi- 
cago. A million dollars have already been appropri- 
ated, the foundations have been laid and bids are be- 
ing received for the construction. Frank I. Bennett, 
director of public works for the state, has the matter 
in charge. 

* * * 

The new Ambassador Hotel, at North State and 


Interest in the "Own Your Home Expostiion," to 
be held at the Coliseum, March 26 to April 2, is in- 
creasing. Practically all exhibition space has been 

sold, it is announced. 

* * * 

Addressing itself to the proposition, "Is Chicago 
a Jay Town," the Chicago Tribune says editorially : 
"Architecturally we are anarchy, lacking the unity 
and harmony and high standards which stamp with 
character all the great cities of the world even nou- 

veau New York." 

* * * 

Sweden may spend $2,500,000 to establish wire- 
less communication with the outside world, espe- 
cially with the United States. 

* * * 

The largest industrial eating place in the world, 
capable of feeding 3,100 persons at one time, is 
operated at the Westinghouse plant in Pittsburgh. 

* * * 

President Wilson's annual message, transmitted 
to Congress Dec. 7, recommends revision of tax 
laws, economy in Government, a "workable" budget 
system, a loan to Armenia, independence of the 
Philippines, rehabilitation and training of disabled 

soldiers and efforts to reduce cost of living. 

* * * 

Senate, Dec. 7, received and referred approxi- 
mately 17,000 nominations, chiefly those made dur- 
ing recess of Congress. They included officials of 

all ranks and about 15,000 army nominations. 

* * * 

Senator Knox, for Senator McCormick (R.)., 
Dec. 7, introduced a bill reorganizing the executive 
departments and various Federal agencies. 

Senator Kenyon (R.), Dec. 7 introduced a 
to create a department of public welfare. 


Representative Rogers (R.) introduced a bill, 
Dec. 7, providing for co-ordination of functions of 
War Risk Insurance Bureau, Public Health Ser- 
vice and Federal Board for Vocational Training to 
be combined in a bureau of veteran re-establish- 
ment of Interior Department. 

A Correction 

In the article on Post- War Housing in our issue of 
December 22, page 817, it was stated that only about 
three per cent, of all building in this country is de- 
signed by architects. This is a typographical error, 

dispute is now bang waged as to the as the correct amount in value should be 73 per cent 
the name "Ambassador." The Hotel Sherman In our issue of Dec. 15 page 787 the President 
my owns the new Chicago hotel, and the Am- of the Cleveland Cliffs Iron 
ssador Hotel organization objects to the local use noted as W G Mather 

consulting architect. 

Mr. George W. Maher was 



V .fV//. 







War Memorials 

Impressions of an Interview with Cass Gilbert, Jr. (Who Served As Second 

Lieutenant, 17th Field Artillery, 2d Division, A.E.F.), in Which 

Mr. Gilbert Comments on War Memorials Generally and the 

Proposed New York State Memorial Particularly 

WHAT form should a war memorial take? 
In that question is summed up a vast 
amount of contention which has seriously 
affected a substantial portion of our population since 
the signing of the Armistice and which remains to- 
day as far from a satisfactory solution as it was at 
the very beginning of that period when war memo- 
rials came seriously to mind with so large a part of 
the nation's population. There appear to be two 
schools, the one believing purely in beauty which 
will inspire the ideals for which the Army and Navy 
fought, as opposed to utility; the other in a com- 
bination of the two. Both schools have in mind the 
commemoration of an ideal or ideals. Those who 
speak for utility do so in relation to the community 
as a whole, and usually have in mind such ideals 
as citizenship (Americanization programs, for ex- 
ample), fraternity, democracy and the benefits 
which are offered the living through such a medium 
as the proposed Victory Hall or similar types of 
community centers. They believe that the com- 
memoration of ideals can go hand in hand with any 
sort of memorial designed primarily with a view to 
utility, and that the spirit with which the men fought 
and died can be most appropriately remembered and 
cherished through the medium of utility which seeks 
to benefit, and materially .better, the citizenship of 
any community, large or small. 

To these contentions serious objections were 

"A war memorial," Mr. Gilbert explained, "should 
be so designed and executed that it gives one impres- 
sion only, and that impression should be one of sheer 
beauty, strongly suggestive of the ideals for which 
the memorial stands; namely, Courage, Bravery, 
Liberty and Victory. It should be thought of only 
in relation to those who were most actively and in- 
timately engaged in the war. I am speaking of 
those who not only gave their lives on the field of 
battle, but of the men and women alike who gave 

themselves entirely to the aid of the Government in 
helping the men on the battle line. 

"With those basic principles in mind, it is difficult 
to understand how anything other than the strictest 
interpretation of a memorial would suffice. The so- 
called utility which has been spoken of is not at all 
fair to the men who fought. Think of a so-called 
Community Center, Public Hall or other utility 
which should perhaps, on its own merits, be pro- 
vided by the community in the normal progress of 
its development as opposed to a magnificent monu- 
mental memorial, and analyze the value of the two. 
The community idea, expressed by such a structure, 
would not be used to any great degree by the men 
most concerned with it. It would not be enough 
merely to provide some sort of 'forum' where 
people could meet to further citizenship. Supposing 
even that the scheme worked as contemplated, and 
that the 'forum' proved its worth as anticipated. 
What of it ? What would there be in that to remind 
people in future years of the ideals for which men 
fought and for which men and women alike gave 
their all? 

"Practically nothing. A public gathering place in 
New York, regardless of its beauty, does not inspire 
much reverence, or idealism, or thoughts of the past 
as related to the future. The city is too huge. There 
are too many other buildings. Such a memorial 
would not stand out ; it could hardly make itself felt 
so effectively as a detached memorial. 

"That, in a general way, is true of all cities. There 
is only this difference, that in New York it loses its 
purpose because of the city's hugeness, and in smaller 
cities or towns it becomes commonplace, regardless 
of its beauty. Commonplace because it is, after all, 
merely another building, another public gathering 
place. Sheer beauty of the structure cannot take 
away from the fact that it is designed primarily as 
a common meeting ground for the community ; and 
there are few persons idealistic enough to detach 

Copyright, 1921, The Architectural & Building Press (Inc.) 


where ii '^ ' /v - * *t> - 

ideal. And if they cannot do so, the 

failure, hcrai^i- any memorial should be 


i , if anv societv or group of citizens sets out 

h. ,n,m a gathering and ihink of the place rue tha if any oaet y org^ p ^ ^ ^ 

fa, being held a. a a.mmeiuorat.on of an ^ buy^M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ F^ ^^ ^ ^ 

An<1 ' with which to carry out their intention? 

pour in upon them with a mere mention 
n? Not at all. They must campaign 
for it, even if the home to be bought was once that 
of a well-known and very much loved public figure, 
"There is another objection to the community o ^ , Monticello> . the home of Jefferson, 
scheme which seems to me a very serious ^^ ^ much more difficu]t wom(1 it be to 
i:,, _,,.,!]> flip nallhearer of idealism. It is . , , j. . i , 

OI IIIC SUICIIUIU ell I lit- vv-iivni. "- i ---- 

to the actions of the present or future. Its purpose 

is retroactive. 


Utility is usually the P^^^f^J^ maintain a war memorial dedicated to no one in par- 

ticular, but to an ideal ? What chance would it stand 
of being saved from sale for commercial purposes, if 

necessarily a fact that utility in itself implies the 

subordination of sheer idealistic beauty, else such 

beauty would be considered alone in the first place ^"comn^unhV'foIlnd'it to" be a matter 'related de- 

I do not mean that beauty and utility cannot exist ^.^ ^ ^ of tQ assessments of some form or 

_ m tQ assessments o some orm or 

side by side, but I do mean most emphatically, tha 9 Memorial Hall were endowed. 

if a memorial is considered from the utihtanan pom m ^ ndowed funds have come down to us 

of view every other element of the scheme must 
necessarily be thought of ,n Us proper relation t, 
utility, and not to beauty or to the interpretation of an 

of view every other element of the scheme must , We are ti this 

necessarily be thought of ********** memoria l not for the present (the present knows 

remember), but for the future so that our 


"Such a viewpoint holds true for all who enjoy descendants may know what this generation did for 

i T-U t u- the country in the Great War. 
the privileges of any utihtanan memorial. The thing ' Q{ memorial th would 

begins as a building consecrated, so far as it is pos- . 

il i vr hr ' 

sible to consecrate it, to an ideal ; but in a very short 
while it becomes a building and nothing more. What- 
ever idealism may have existed at the beginning 
gives way to thinking of that memorial as a building 
where one may go, precisely as one goes to a hotel 
or theatre or other public place. 

"Idealism, or the commemoration of idealism 
through the medium of any community scheme, 
which is after all merely a gathering place for peo- 
ple, inevitably gives way to thinking of that scheme 
of commemoration primarily as a gathering place, 
and nothing more. Consider Carnegie Hall as an 
example. People go to Carnegie Hall with no 
thought of Andrew Carnegie, and the name has 
become merely an address rather than a memorial." 

"There are purely material objections as well, are 
there not?" the writer asked Mr. Gilbert. 

"One particularly suggests itself at the moment," 
he replied. "Death will reduce the ranks of the 
American Legion or other patriotic organizations to 
whom a memorial is built. As they become fewer 
and fewer, it becomes a harder matter to support the 
memorial, to furnish funds for its continued exist- 
ence. It falls into a slow and gradual decay. It is 
sometimes lost entirely and goes its way under the 
auctioneer's hammer. 

"Now, this is not a guess or a prophecy. It is 
ased on fact. Precisely that has happened to cer- 

rnemorials' of the Grand Army of the Republic, beauty and i 
ilso based upon observation. Consider for a 
moment how difficultt it is to raise money 

urmrn **- K<i.,. J 

The idealistic sort, the purely beautiful sort, 
which would most certainly serve the community with 
its idealism and its beauty, but which could not pos- 
sibly be confused with a public gathering place in the 
sense that a building would be so confused. 

"There are innumerable sorts of such memorials. 
Arches, monuments, symbolic statues, and so forth. 
In its planning and execution I would like to see 
a close co-operation between the architect and the 
sculptor. If it were to be set by itself, apart from 
any but a natural background, and not as a part of 
a structure, it may become then a matter more for 
the sculptor alone; but this is dependent upon its 
extent and importance; and where planning is 
required the services of the architect are essential. 
If it is to be a structure arch, monument or the 
like in which the sculptor will contribute his 
share, I believe the architect should have complete 
supervision of every detail, so that whatever the 
sculptor produces will fit' into the structure and not 
the structure into the sculptor's work. 

"As an example of a very appropriate memorial, 
let me cite a proposal for New York. A splendid 
memorial for the state could be erected at Fort 
Wadsworth, facing the Lower Bay. It is very 
nearly the last bit of land one sees in leaving these 
shores and the first on coming in. There an impres- 
sive memorial could be erected that would express 

Kfi.-,,,4-,, . J I J _ 1 j .. 

would inspire our fighting forces to 
stronger efforts as they sailed out to war. It would 

which to buy or support the homes of our great be < 
men in this country. Isn't that a fact? Y tnousand s who go in and out the bay, 

s >t not whether to or from foreign ports or to the recrea 



tion centers along the neighboring coasts ; and, in 
fact, its environment could be made a park of great 
beauty, available to the people. So situated it would 
not rival the Statue of Liberty further up the bay, 
but would reinforce the ideal for which it stands. 
In some appropriate place it would have the name 
of every New York man who took part in the war 
as a soldier or sailor." 

"But why not place it somewhere on Fifth Ave- 

"There are various reasons why that could not be 
done, on Fifth Avenue itself. One of the most per- 
tinent, I believe, is that there are only a very few 
streets in all the world along which troops may 
march properly, and Fifth Avenue is one of them. 
Anything, however small, placed in the Avenue 
would naturally break that wonderful straight 
stretch for marching. Troops would have to go 
around a column of any sort, and that would spoil 
the effect of any magnificent parade. 

"The traffic signal towers to some extent already 
constitute obstacles to effective marching of troops 
on parade. These towers can readily be removed, 
however, for such parades as would march up Fifth 
Avenue. This was done in 1919. A permanent 
monument could not be removed for a parade, nor 
would it be desirable to remove a memorial to 
Victory for a Victory Parade. 

"Secondarily, the matter of scale must be taken 
into consideration. A monument for such a pur- 
pose should be the dominant and unrivalled feature 
of the location in which it is placed. Where on the 
Avenue do you find any considerable number of 
buildings less than five stories in height? Where, 
except at its upper end, could you put up a suitable 
monument or arch which would not necessitate the 
tearing down of expensive improvements? 

"At Madison Square. Yes, the space exists, but 
what would the proportions of any monument there 
have to be in order to dominate the place? The 
Metropolitan Tower would dwarf anything less than 
700 feet high, and even at that height, the eye would 
be taken up too much with the surrounding build- 

"It may be urged that an arch would not obstruct 
marching troops. That is true, but it presupposes 
either that the arch should span a sufficient width to 
permit of 'columns of platoons' as wide as those in 
the parades of 1919, when the marching troops 
filled the full width of the avenue from curb to 
curb ; or that the column formation should be 
changed to permit it to pass through an arch of 
smaller width. The narrower the columns of troops 
the longer it takes for the march past. The old 
Roman arches are far too small for a modern 
column to pass through. Moreover, there must be 
sufficient width for the piers and sufficient height 

for good proportion. In any event the modern 
towers and skyscrapers would form an unrelated and 
unsympathetic environment for such a monument." 

"Are there no other locations?" 

"Yes, there are other fine locations. At 59th 
Street and Fifth Avenue, at the entrance to Central 
Park, for an example. Another fine site would be 
Mt. Morris Park, which is at the north end of Fifth 
Avenue. Here property could be restricted and 
building height limited at the present time so that a 
memorial situated on the rocky knoll would be the 
dominant feature of the section. Troops would 
march up to it and disburse around its base. It 
could be seen from way down the Avenue. The 
Washington Arch is at the south end of the Avenue, 
and what would be more appropriate than to have a 
memorial to valor at the north end of the Avenue? 
Other sites may be found, as, for instance, the 
heights at the northern end of Manhattan Island, 
where a memorial of sufficient size could be seen 
from way up the Hudson and from Long Island 

"But the finest you believe to be the site near 
Fort Wadsworth?" 

"I do. And incidentally, let me say that the theory 
that a memorial to a present achievement should go 
where the greatest number of persons can see it is 
not always correct. A monument should be as con- 
veniently located to the center of population as pos- 
sible, but it should always be located in a completely 
proper setting, with the right kind of background. 
There are very few places in New York City where a 
fitting memorial can be put up. Rather than risk a 
poor background, I believe in the more or less iso- 
lated location, so far as the center of population or 
the heaviest circulation is concerned. 

"Grant's Tomb is an example of a memorial which 
is not at all centrally located, but which is most cer- 
tainly visited by thousands of people who find it con- 
venient to get there. 

"I believe in people seeking the memorial, and not 
the memorial seeking the people." 

Mr. Gilbert was then asked by the writer whether 
he believed it advisable to postpone the building of 
memorials for either definite or indefinite periods, 
until, as has been suggested by the advocates of post- 
ponement, "crystallization of thought takes place." 

"Not at all," was his answer. "An ideal will 
not be more apparent nor finer ten years from today 
than it is at the present moment, because it is a 
basic and fundamental ideal : the maintenance of 
common justice. There is nothing about it which 
requires perspective, as the character and achieve- 
ments of a man require perspective ; and it is prob- 
able, if anything, that we could build a much finer 
and more fitting memorial at present than we could 
when enthusiasm has cooled. 



The fundamental ideals of civilization need no 
inquiry into the motives which prompted them, and 
tlK.-n.-fon- it is not necessary to wait for any 'crystal- 
lization of thought,' as there usually is in regard to 
the character or public services of an individual. 

"The achievements of the present should be com- 
memorated in the present. What the good men do 
is too soon forgotten. We are too much given to 
criticism of things present and praise of things past. 

"There is one thing I wish to add," Mr. Gilbert 

concluded. "Too much emphasis cannot be given 
it Such a monument as we have been discussing 
is' to memorialize a great event, and it is to honor 
those men and women who gave themselves and 
their substance to service. Is it not fitting, then, for 
those who served and who came through to deter- 
mine the form, character and location of the 
memorial which shall be erected? The best is none 
too good, nor in the ranks of those who served is 
there lack of talent to create a fitting memorial." 

A New Attempt by Labor to Organize 
Architectural Draftsmen 

A Review of the Recent Newark, N.J., Controversy, with Impressions of a 
Conversation with One of the Most Prominent Architects of the 
Metropolitan District and Opinions of the Situation 
from Various Sections of the Country 

EDITOR'S NOTE : The architect quoted in this ar- 
ticle, u>ho requested that his name be withheld, is very 
well knozvn to the profession throughout the country 
and in the Metropolitan District in particular. It was 
thought best by the Editor that no personal aspect be 
given to opinions quoted herein, and for that reason 
no names have been printed. A free and frank opin- 
ion of the situation has thus been obtained. 

THE recent attempt on the part of the Build- 
ing Trade Council of Newark to unionize 
the architectural draftsmen of that city marks 
what might be termed a new policy on the part of 
organized labor. 

There would appear to be three vital points at is- 
sue. First, what would be done in the case of archi- 
tects who draw their own plans ? Secondly, is there 
precedent for the formation of such a union ? Third- 
ly, do the draftsmen themselves desire it ? 

As to the first point, one of the prominent 
architects of the country admits frankly 'that he 
does not know, nor does he believe the labor leaders 
of Newark know, what would be done about the 
small architect who draws his plans, and is there- 
fore a draftsman. 

"To intelligently grasp the situation it is necessary 
to review its brief history. Some time ago I re- 
ceived the following letter : 

"To All Architects, Engineers and Contractors of 

Newark and Vicinity. 
"Gentlemen : 

"This is to inform you that Local No. 34 of the Inter- 
national Federation of Technical Engineers', Architects' 
and Draftsmen's Unions affiliated with the Building 
Trades Council of Newark and vicinity is actively 
engaged trying to better the material and social con- 
ditions of technical men. We are aware of the fact 
that all fair-minded employers of draftsmen and engi- 
neers are welcoming the advent of our union, which, 
it is hoped, will prevent further depletion of the ranks 
of technical men. 

"Due to the unorganized state of the drafting depart- 
ments, many employers, regardless of their desire to 
increase the wages and salaries of their technical staff, 
can not possibly do so without running into com- 
petition with employers who do not take the same view. 

"To ameloriate this condition, Local No. 34 has been 
prosecuting for some time a vigorous campaign of 
organization among the draftsmen and architects in 
the building industry, finding full support in the Build- 
ing Trades Council of Newark and vicinity, which at 
its session of May 14, 1920, passed a resolution, setting 
November 1 of this year as the date on which all the 
plans and drawings to be acceptable in the field, must 
be made by union architects and draftsmen, belonging 
to the International Federation of Technical Engineers', 
Architects' and Draftsmen's Unions. 

"Trusting this information will obviate all possible 
misunderstanding in the future, and bring about mutual 
co-operation of all concerned, we are, 
"Sincerely yours, 

"President Building Trades Council." 

"Now, you will note that the letter is headed 



"Technical Men of Newark and Vicinity (Local No. 
34) International Federation of Technical Engi- 
neers', Architects' and Draftsmen's Unions.' That 
is a very important point, because the existence of 
the International Federation of Technical Engi- 
neers', Architects' and Draftsmen's Unions might 
be taken as precedent for the formation of a drafts- 
men's union here. 

"The fact of the matter is this: On July 1, 1918, 
upon application of six local unions, which had been 
operating as units for some time, the American Fed- 
eration of Labor granted an International Charter, 
under the title of 'International Federation of 
Draftsmen's Unions.' Subsequently, this name was 
changed to the present one. The reasons that 
brought about the formation of this International at 
that time were as follows : 

"The marine draftsmen, then organized in several 
independent Unions, made an attempt to appear be- 
fore the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board (al- 
so known as the Macy Board) and to present a pro- 
posed classification for the marine draftsmen 
throughout the shipbuilding industry. Their appear- 
ance before this board was prevented on the ground 
that the Board could consider such matters only 
when presented by organizations that were represen- 
tative national or international bodies. 

"These several unions, realizing this fundamental 
weakness in their position, made immediate applica- 
tion to the American Federation of Labor for a char- 
ter. This application was tentatively approved about 
the 28th day of May, 1918, and recognized them as 
an international body, pending the granting of a for- 
mal charter on the date first above state. As an In- 
ternational of the A. F. of L., a hearing was prompt- 
ly granted by the Macy Board. Sitting on this board 
of three was A. J. Berres, Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Metal Trades Department of the A. F. of L. 
The result of this hearing was that all marine drafts- 
men in Government, as well as in private employ, 
were granted a wage increase of about 36 per cent. 

"Those facts are taken from a pamphlet issued by 
this particular Federation, entitled 'A Practical Or- 
ganization : What It Is, What It Has Done.' 

"Now, let me emphasize the fact that I believe the 
unionization of marine draftsmen in the Govern- 
ment employ or in private employ, or of drafts- 
men in terra cotta works, pipe factories, or the like, 
is a legitimate procedure. Everyone knows well 
enough that draftsmen in the Government employ 
could not get a hearing without organization of some 
sort. That is due to a multiplicity of reasons. Every 
one knows that draftsmen in terra cotta factories, or 
in factories of any sort where one finds about three 
draftsmen to three hundred union workers, are hope- 
lessly out of everything unless they are affiliated with 

some organization through which they can make 
themselves felt. 

"Apart from that fact, however, is the very ap- 
parent one that the architectural draftsman is dis- 
tinctly apart from the marine or even the architectu- 
ral draftsman in the Government employ under civil 
service regulations. The architectural draftsman in 
private life has something ahead of him, for he looks 
forward to the time when he will become an archi- 
tect himself and go into the open market in compe- 
tition with other architects. The government em- 
ployee, on the other hand (and this Federation of 
Technical Engineers, Architects and Draftsmen is 
composed principally of Government employees) 
looks forward to practically nothing. He usually re- 
mains a Government employee for the greater part 
of his life. He has little, if any, desire to get into the 
open market in competition with other draftsmen or 
architects. Hence he has need of some sort of or- 
ganization through which he can make himself felt, 
or through which he can secure an audience with 
the powers that be." 

The speaker paused for a moment and searched in 
his files for a letter, which he handed to the writer a 
moment later. It was an application for a position 
as draftsman by a man duly registered in New Jer- 
sey as an architect. 

"There you have quite a problem," the speaker 
continued. "What is that man? Is he a draftsman 
or an architect ? I look upon him as a draftsman be- 
cause he makes application for a position as such and 
because architects as a whole regard him as such. 
But what does this proposed draftsmen's union term 
him? Supposing they did call him a draftsman? He 
comes into my office today, and is admitted into the 
union. Six months from today he leaves my employ, 
becomes an architect himself, and employs a drafts- 
man. He then becomes an employer. What happens 
to his union membership? Unions dori't want em- 
ployers in their organizations, do they?" 

"It's not the usual procedure." 

"I should say it is not. Yet, that architect 
who draws his own plans is actually a draftsman, 
so far as the union is concerned, and the union seal 
would necessarily be placed upon all his works. 
Now, there must be some sort of fee for the use 
and privilege of the seal, and the small architect 
would be obliged to pay that fee precisely as would 
the draftsman employed by any architect. What 
would he be given in return? If he could not belong 
to the union he would gain none of its privileges. Is 
it exactly fair to ask a man to contribute something 
to a union without the slightest advantage to himself 
for that contribution? 

"But above all these facts there is a very vital point 
which seems to have been overlooked by the Build- 
ing Trades Council," the speaker emphasized. "I 



want KI cmpha-i/f it, because I believe it to be the -tan. ling factor in the whole situation. 

The draftsman in our offices is the architect of 
the future. I le is closely affiliated with the architect 
in all his dealings. Draftsmen are often delegated to 
in-pivt work, interpret drawings, and make decisions 
on Miaif of the architect. It is therefore vital that 
the draftsman, if he is to render impartial service, 
shall not be affiliated with a labor organization. 

"I'.y the forming of a draftsmen's union, the em- 
ploying architect is driven into an employers' asso- 
ciation and the draftsman is enlisted on the side of 
labor. Under such circumstances, how is it possible 
for either party to make just and equitable decisions ? 

"It is important for the proper conduct of the 
building industry that there be one set of men who 
are neutral, to whom both the owner and contractor 
can look for just decisions. This body of men should 
be the architects and their draftsmen. 

"If the organizers of labor would think for a mo- 
ment they could readily see our point of view. It i-> 
for their advantage, and the advantage of society 
in general, that the architects and their draftsmen 
should not be affiliated in any way with either the 
owners, contractors, or labor, but be free to render 
just and impartial service in the future as they al- 
ways have in the past. 

"Furthermore, an organization of draftsmen and 
architects along labor union lines is wholly unsuited 
to a profession, and a fine art like architecture. We 
already have two societies in New Jersey, the New 
Jersey Chapter of the Institute and the State Society 
of Architects. Architects are admitted to both, and 
draftsmen to the latter. How much better it would 
be if all the architects and draftsmen in New Jersey 
joined the same society. We could then get together 
and discuss any problem and settle it to the satis- 
faction of all concerned. If the draftsmen cared to 
have an association as a side issue of the society, 
they could do so after they became members, and 
they would receive the fullest co-operation from the 

"Do the draftsmen care to become members of a 
union ?" 

"The best answer to that is summed up in the 
meeting of all architects and draftsmen of Newark 
and vicinity, held October 16, for the purpose of 
discussing this union, at which not a single drafts- 
man could be found who in any way desired to be- 
come affiliated with such a union. This is a resolu- 
tion unanimously passed at that meeting: 

Whereas, The Building Trades Council of Essex County 
has notified architects, engineers and contractors that 
after November 1, 1920, "all plans and drawings to be 
acceptable in the field must be made by union archi- 
s and draftsmen belonging to the International 
Engineers, Architects' and Draftsmen's Unions" 

Whereas, The draftsman is the future architect in 
training for his profession, he being a part of the 
architect's organization, representing him in inter- 
preting the drawings and specifications as a part of 
each contract, as such the draftsman necessarily 
being in the same position of neutrality in his 
decisions as the architect himself. Even the inde- 
pendent architect not being in a neutral position if 
his men were allied with the draftsmen's unions 
and he (the architect) allied with the employers, the 
contractors whose work he has to judge and control, 
be it 

Resolved, That the architects and draftsmen here 
assembled do hereby agree to ally themselves 
with the New Jersey Society of Architects (if not 
allied thereto already) for the purpose of having a 
truly representative organization in which all ques- 
tions affecting the interests of architects and 
draftsmen alike may be fully considered and equit- 
ably and fairly adjudicated. 

"Have you ever attempted any inquiry into vari- 
ous sections of the country regarding this matter ?" 
"I have. These letters" handing a thick batch of 
correspondence to the writer "are answers to a cir- 
cular I sent to leading architects in representative 
sections of the country. Not one of these answers in- 
dicates in any way that similar attempts at unioni- 
zation of architectural draftsmen in private offices 
has been successfully attempted in any of the sections 
of the country to which the answers have reference. 
In other words, there has been no other such attempt. 
"What is even more important, you will notice that 
the sentiment of draftsmen in the various sections 
of the country represented in those letters not at 
all interested in unionization, much less desirous of 
becoming members of a draftsmen's union." 

Glancing through the letters, the writer noticed 
that from practically all sections of the country this 
sentiment seemed to prevail : 

First, that no known effort (except in one or two 
unusual instances) has been made to organize 
draftsmen's unions in the states represented in the 
answers. Draftsmen in various states have been 
questioned regarding their desire to become union- 
ized, and expressed themselves as against any sucE 

Second, where any effort has actually been at- 
tempted to unionize the draftsmen, the movement 
has failed almost completely, so far as the archi- 
tectural draftsmen in private offices are concerned. 
As one draftsman in a large western office expressed 
it : "I look forward to the time when I will practice 
for myself and, if for no other reason than this, I 
would not wish to affiliate with any labor 

Third, the draftsmen in a number of cities have 
expressed themselves emphatically satisfied with 
things as they are. 

"Such is the sentiment in almost every section 
of the country. That being the case, I cannot 
see how the Building Trades Council can advocate 



a draftsmen's union on any sort of precedent what- 
soever. It does not exist." 

that I do not know of a single Newark architect or 
draftsman who is a member. That alone should 

'But there is a local of the International Federa- indicate the feasibility or advisability of a drafts- 

tion of Technical Engineers, Architects and Drafts- 
men's Unions in Newark, is there not?" 

"Well, if the local exists, I can say pretty definitely 

men's union in Newark. The letters I have showed 
you indicate its feasibility in other sections of the 
country. It is a local and national impossibility. 

An Insight into Japanese Life 

A JAPANESE house is one of the simplest 
things ever built for it consists of little more 
than four posts and a roof. But such imper- 
manence, says the New York Herald, which is also 
seen in other things, is a part of the strength of 
the nation, for no people in the world have so few- 

The Japanese have no bread, no beds, no fires, no 
boots or shoes, no trousers for the men, no petti- 
coats for the women for both sexes wear several 
dressing growns, one over the other. In their 
houses they have no windows, no doors, no walls 
but paper shutters fixed in grooves, no ceilings, no 
chests of drawers, not even a washstand. 

In the kitchen they have no range, no pots, no 
pans, no flour bins, no kitchen tables. But then 
they have no tables or chairs in the drawing room, 
and in the real native house the drawing room itself 
is only a lot of bed rooms with the paper shutters 
taken down. There is no reason why you should 
find anything in a Japanese house except mats and 
a charcoal stove for warming your fingers and-mak- 
ing tea. 

These and a cushion or two and a quilt to sleep 
on, with an elaborate conventional politeness, con- 
stitute the furniture of a Japanese house, except 
the guest chamber. And the articles in the guest 
.chamber consist of a screen, a kakemono and a 
flower vase. 

Along with his magnificent want of wants, so to 
speak, the Japanese combines a capacity to get huge 
pleasure out of what we would regard as trifles and 
after labors and sacrifices that we should think in- 
tolerable. This extraordinary patience and whole 
hearted enjoyment under all the niggardliness of his 
lot marks the Japanese as unique among the peoples 
of the world. 

He lives on next to nothing and thrives on it. He 
always has a smile. He works whenever he can get 
any work to do. They are all week days to him. 
Instead of a seventh day, Sunday, he has his festa, 
a national holiday or a temple festival. In either 
case he goes a-faring to some temple and takes his 

children or a friend. He is never too poor to have 
money to treat them. 

He gives himself a holiday only when he is out 
of work, and his holidays are inexpensive. He 
just walks a hundred miles to see some famous gar- 
den in its glory. He carries his baggage in a box, 
wrapped in oil paper, and gets a bed at an inn for a 
sum equivalent to a cent of our money. His food 
is almost as cheap, and when the last turn in the 
road shows him the irises of Horikai or the house 
and cherry trees of Yoshino on the day of all the 
year he would not change places with the King 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Judging by Western ideas, Japanese babies have 
a hard time, yet there are no healthier children in 
the world. The Japanese baby is dressed and un- 
dresed in a frigid temperature in winter, and in 
summer no care is taken to protect its tender little 
eyes from the full glare of the sun. In winter 
the small head is covered with a worsted cap of the 
brightest and gayest design and color. The black 
hair is cut in all sorts of fantastic ways, just like 
the hair of the Japanese dolls imported into this 

The babies of the lower classes are generally 
carried on the back of the mother or- little sister ; 
sometimes the small brother is obliged to be the 
nurse maid. The kimono is made extra large at the 
back, with a pocket of sufficient size to hold the 
baby, whose round head reaches the back of the 
neck of the person who is carrying it. 

It is not an uncommon sight to see children who 
are barely old enough to toddle burdened with a 
small brother or sister sleeping peacefully on their 
backs. At first one expects to see the child stagger 
and fall beneath the weight, but apparently none of 
its movements are impeded and it plays with the 
other children as unconcernedly as if it were not 
loaded down with another member of the family. 

At Nagasaki among the women coalers who coal 
the ships one sees many who carry babies on their 
backs in this way. The mothers work all day in 
the rain or the sun or the snow, and the baby seems 
indifferent to everything. 





The Roman Catholic Church of St.Clare 

Great Kills, Staten Island, New York 

EGGERS & HIGGINS, Architects 

IN a western city there is now being brought to 
conclusion, under the direction of a large church 
organization, a scheme for an educational group 
of buildings. The promoters of this undertaking 
contemplate the adoption of a Georgian Colonial 
type of architecture and further propose to include 
in the group replicas of many of the structures that 
are to-day landmarks of our Colonial history. The 
idea is based on the complete Americanization of 
every student and incidentally to serve to inculcate 
a viewpoint of patriotism. 

Methods of Americanization in this country have 
been carefully studied and important work is being 
done. The Catholic Church in the United States has 
undoubtedly largely aided in seeking to inculcate a 
correct attitude on the part of its members towards 
their duties as citizens. The small church now being 
erected at Great Kills on Staten Island shows on 
the part of its clergy and congregation a fine sense 
of the fitness of things, of the duty of the Church in 
the promotion of every patriotic impulse, and in a 
much to be commented appreciation of its neighbor- 

We do not recall, and we doubt if ever before there 
has been built in this country a Roman Catholic 
church of any size that took for its architectural 
expression a style so purely American. And we are 
sure that now so excellent an example has been set 
that there will follow a further building of Roman 
Catholic Churches that will express in the finest way 
the high ideals of the Church in the United States, 
both religious and civil. These things are the well 
placed milestones on our path as a nation toward our 
highest ideals. 

Great Kills, on Staten Island, formerly known as 
Gififords-by-the-Sea, was for many years a quaint 
old fishing village. The lives of the people were the 
lives of others in similar towns the length of our 
North Atlantic Coast. Its men were the sturdy ele- 
ment-braving type that fared forth at all seasons and 
at all hours. Its women, equally sturdy as a type, were 
of the quiet, reserved character that is bred in women 
who daily wait the uncertain return of their men 
folks from their fishing. The houses were the typical 
fishermen's cottages, with a sprinkling of the better 
type that showed the material prosperity of the vil- 
lage. The whole amosphere of the town was purely 
American, the growth of American customs and the 
establishment of American ideals. 

While no reasonable person will question those 

matters of tradition that have for centuries caused 
the Roman Catholic Church to avail of a purely 
Roman type of architecture as an expression of its 
church edifices, yet, like all precedent it is but the ac- 
quirement of a habit based on a custom that no one 
has been disposed to question. 


A church in this typically American town would 
naturally need to be of the town itself. It is there- 
fore something worthy of mention when a commun- 

(Continved on page 51) 



Door of a Dutch Farm House, 
North Paterson, N. J. 

(See reproduction of drawing by O. R. Eggers on opposite page} 

/A a preceding issue there was illustrated a gambrel-roof 
louse, located on Staten Island in New York Harbor. 
While, as stated, this type of house was typical of the 
earlier form built by the Dutch when they settled along the 
Hudson River Valley, the later coming of the English and 
the intermingling of settlers from two countries so widely 
differing in their architectural traditions undoubtedly 
exerted certain influences, one on the other. 

While the doorway which Mr. Eggers has drawn for the: 
present illustration is strongly influenced by the later 
Georgian motives as developed in this country, it appears 
to be an original part of an otherwise typically Dutch house. 
The door is divided after the Dutch fashion into two 
separately movable leaves and the stone door sill un- 
doubtedly has its placement as part of the Dutch custom 
But the general detail of the frame of the door is equally 
and unmistakably a relic of our early English Colonial 

The paneling at the sides of this doorway is apparently 
hinged so as to close and form an outer door, a wise precau- 
tion in a section where the winters were often extremely 
rigorous It becomes interesting in studying a detail of this 
character to note the effect of social conditions on the 
development of architectural details 



THE AMERICAS ARCHITECT Serin of Earl, Araeritan Arifiilidur, 

Confidence, Commonsense and 

EVERYONE, without exception, of the authori- 
ties who contributed articles to the preceding 
issue of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT on the present 
and future of architecture and building, optimistical- 
ly feels that conditions are daily becoming better. 

Each one conservatively states the belief that ow- 
ing to the enormous shortage that now prevails, there 
will be no sudden advance, the bulk being too large. 
But the feeling is generally expressed that within a 
few months building in this country will be generally 
resumed and will gather momentum to an extent that 
there will be a revival and activity greater than we 
have ever before experienced. 

As to the profession of architecture, it is, as C. H. 
Blackall states, more nearly on a business basis than 
ever before, and has cast away a very considerable 
proportion of the purely professional attitude that 
has so long hampered it. This makes for a closer 
and more efficient relation with the engineer and 
builder, and will go a long way toward the restora- 
tion of architects to their erstwhile proper relation as 
master builders. These things mean better archi- 
tecture, better satisfaction of clients and a more har- 
monious relation throughout. 

Basically economic conditions in the United States 
are financially sound, states Francis H. Sisson, vice- 
president of the Guaranty Trust Co. of New York. 
Further, he offers the very sound advice that it is es- 
sential that to preserve our prosperity we practice 
just common sense, give the best constructive co- 
operation to Congress and the progressive business 
interests of the country. Co-operation in its highest 
sense is the keynote of future prosperity in the con- 
struction field. It has been lacking in the past, and 
its performance should be the duty of all in the fu- 

Not the least important element of this co-opera- 
tion, so far as architects are concerned, will be the 
promotion of a better relation between their own 
profession and that of engineering. Each profes- 
sion, as Kort Berle emphasizes in the interview pub- 
lished in the preceding issue, must recognize the 

members of the other as fellow professional men 
and not as subordinates. 

Louis J. Horowitz, president of the Thompson- 
Starrett Co., expressed the opinion that most of the 
drastic processes of post-war readjustment should be 
over in the early part of 1921, and that we may rea- 
sonably look for a gradual recrudescence of confi- 
dence from that time on, is something that may be 
accepted with confidence. 

The keynote of our future course should be con- 
fidence, common-sense and co-operation. With these 
basic things always in mind, the future presents 
only the most hopeful prospect. 

A Fund to Assist Young Architects 

IN order to add encouragement to young archi- 
tects in pursuing the long and arduous train- 
ing necessary to prepare them for successful prac- 
tice, an unknown donor has announced to the Board 
of Directors of The American Institute of Archi- 
tects, through Mr. D. E. Waid, treasurer, that he 
will give to the Institute a sum amounting to $25,000. 

This amount is to create an education fund, the 
income from which is to be used at the will of the 
Institute for the benefit of the profession of archi- 
tecture. The donor has suggested that the Board 
of Directors of the Institute appoint a committee to 
act in co-operation with the American School at 
Rome, to establish and administer one or more trav- 
eling scholarships, for which $1,500 per year will be- 
come immediately available. 

A condition of the gift is that when once the use 
of the income of the foundation is determined, such 
use can be changed in future only by a two-thirds 
vote of the delegates at two successive conventions 
of the Institute. 

Every architect will learn of this new foundation 
with much satisfaction and will feel grateful to the 
man who has so liberally established it. 

There are many men of large means in this coun- 
try seeking to pose as patrons of the Fine Arts. The 
accumulation of large collections, bought with the ut- 
most commercial sense of values, and often dispersed 



at large profit, while accomplishing a certain end has 
not that permanent value that a fund affords. 

Let us hope that so good an example as is shown 
in this gift of $25,000 will result in additions to this 
fund which will afford the most practical encourage- 
ment to young men of demonstrated talent in the 
field of architecture. 

Congress and the Housing Shortage 

IN an address delivered by Senator William M. 
Calder of New York before the Marquette Club 
at the Hotel Commodore, he stated that Congress 
might find it necessary to appropriate millions of 
dollars to build houses and apartments to relieve the 
present shortage. 

Senator Calder on his own part and that of the 
committee of the Senate of which he is chairman, 
has performed a valuable service in the investigation 
of the causes that have produced the stoppage in 
building operations. The facts this committee has 
developed will be of the utmost service to the build- 
ing industry throughout the country. It is believed 
that the early resumption of construction may very 
well be left in the hands of those who are most di- 
rectly interested. The appropriation by Congress 
of money to provide housing takes the whole matter 
into the field of politics and that is just exactly where 
it should not go. 

If the government will continue in the future as it 
has in the past, and is now doing, to use its adminis- 
trative and legislative authority in searching out 
causes, detecting dishonest combinations, and those 
activities that are in restraint of building progress, it 
will render a most valuable service. 

The conduct of building now and in the future 
may safely rest in the hands of the architect and the 
builder, whose work in the past has been of the most 
practical and efficient character and on whom not 
ven the slightest responsibility rests for present con- 

The organization of the offices of architects and 
builders has always been based on the highest effi- 
ciency, and it is certain that that efficiency continues. 
If Congress will disperse the illegal combinations 
now known to exist, if the banks will make available 
mortgage money, if labor will recede from its profi- 

teering, nothing can stem the wave of building con- 
struction that will sweep over the United States. 
Congress may very valuably act in stabilizing all the 
conditions that affect building and leave the result in 
the competent hands of the building industry. 

How Much Will It Cost? 

AFTER the prospective client has outlined his re- 
quirements to his architect, the first question he 
asks, nine times out of ten, is : "About how much will 
such a building cost?" Before the war, when prices 
were somewhat stable, it was not impossible to give 
a fairly accurate answer to this question, even before 
sketches or plans were made. Since the armistice, 
however, price changes have been so great and sud- 
den that the problem of determining with a fair de- 
gree of accuracy the probable cost of a contemplated 
building before plans and specifications have been 
drawn has been a difficult one. The editors of THE 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT have had the subject under 
consideration for some months, and have even had 
typical plans and outline specifications drawn for 
various classes of buildings with the idea of having 
them priced in various sections of the country, and 
these prices revised from time to time to show 
changes and trend. However, after doing some 
work on this plan it was found to be impractical and 
abandoned for the simpler one of showing actual cu- 
bic foot costs of buildings of various types in differ- 
ent sections of the country. The first and rather 
meagre installment of these figures is given in the 
table on page 58. 

It is hoped that future tables will be more compre- 
hensive, and show better distribution. This will de- 
pend, however, upon the co-operation given by mem- 
bers of the profession. Without that it will be im- 
possible to furnish the required data, but with it there 
should be no difficulty in making this service feature 
of very real value to practicing architects. Inciden- 
tally, it will enable them to overcome the impression 
that is all too general, to the effect that architects are 
unreliable in the matter of preliminary estimates. 

To assist in making this feature of value, readers 
are requested to send in the information shown on 
the table printed on another page in connection with 
any buildings upon which they have taken figures 
within recent months. 









VOL. CXIX, No. 2351 


JANUARY 12, 1921 





VOL. CXIX, \o. 2351 


JANUARY 12, 1921 



VOL. CXIX, No. 2351 


JANUARY 12, 1921 



VOL. CXIX, No. 2351 


JANUARY 12, 1921 




















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The Fate of High Bridge 

Do the Facts in the Case Warrant Its Reconstruction or Demolition 

SPANNING the Harlem River at approxi- 
mately a continuation of West 174th Street, 
New York City, is High Bridge, a multiple 
arch masonry structure, over which a controversy is 
now in progress. The issue is, whether this bridge 
shall be altered or demolished. In considering the 
subject, it might be well to sketch briefly its history. 
High Bridge was built as a part of the old Croton 
Aqueduct system constructed between 1837 and 1843, 
the new supply being first introduced on July 4, 1842. 

hazardous for self-propelled vessels and very diffi- 
cult for tows. 

The aqueduct supported by this structure was in 
use until a short time prior to this country's declar- 
ing war with the Central Powers. Various reasons 
have been given as the cause for its present disuse. 
The statement that it is no longer of any value does 
not hold in view of a statement made by Merritt 
H. Smith, Chief Engineer of the Department of 
Water Supply, who, at a recent meeting of the 


The outlines of Washington Bridge are visible just behind High Bridge 

The original plans appear to call for 15 circular 
arches, 8 of which had a span of 80 feet and the re- 
maining 7 of 50 feet, with a clear height of 100 feet 
above mean high water. As the current is very swift 
at certain elevations of the tides owing to the dif- 
ference in the elevation of the waters of the Hud- 
son and East Rivers, the threading of the arches is 

American Society of Civil Engineers, at which 
the subject of High Bridge was under discussion, 
made the following statement : 

"Let me tell you when it (the High Bridge Aque- 
duct) was shut down, and why it was shut down. On 
February 3, 1917 do any of you remember it? we 
sent back the German Ambassador. We had four 




aqueducts bringing water into New York City, three 
aqueducts and a pipe line. It was easier and safer 
to patrol two aqueducts than it was four ; and if any 
devil had tried to destroy any part of any one of 
those aqueducts, the principal damage would have 
been done by the rush of water, not by the bomb ; 
and for that reason, and that reason only, on Febru- 
ary 3, 1917, the old aqueduct was closed down by my 
orders. The Kensico pipe line, which was also run- 
ning at that time, brings Catskill water from the 
Kensico Reservoir. On the following day. the 4th 
of February, that was closed down, and for the same 
reason. That meant that we had two lines that could 
carry water to New York City and which would not 
be seriously damaged by bombs placed in the cul- 
verts, or at any other vulnerable points, because the 
damage would not be done by the rush of water, but 
would be done locally by the explosive." 

According to Mr. Smith, in case the bridge was re- 
moved, it would be necessary at the very least to con- 
nect the old aqueduct on the Bronx and on the Man- 
hattan sides of the river in order to crowd the water 
that comes through the old aqueduct through the new 


aqueduct tunnel. To do that, in carrying 225,000,- 
000 gallons of water from the new aqueduct, and 
60,000,000 from the old aqueduct, there would be 
a loss of between two and three feet of head at the 
155th Street gatehouse, which it is stated would be 
a very serious loss, considering the difficulty now in 
delivering the old Croton service at sufficient eleva- 
tion in a considerable part of the territory in which 
that water is used. If the bridge were removed, it 
was estimated by Mr. Smith that this new con- 
nection; on account of the alterations necessary, 
would cost about $800,000. 

THE suggestion for the removal of certain ob- 
structing river piers of High Bridge dates back 
to 191 1 . The matter first came up in a letter to the 
City of New York from the Corps of Engineers, U. 
S. Army, in which attention was called to plans that 
had been received from time to time by the Secretary 
of War and by the United States Engineers' office 
for the First District, concerning the obstruction to 
navigation caused by the river piers of this bridge. 
Some two years later, a number of property 











owners and business men along the Harlem River 
in the Borough of the Bronx, made complaint of the 
obstruction along the Harlem River, and it 
seemed necessary then to present a report to 
the city authorities. Such a report was pre- 
sented in 1915. While the bridge .crosses a nav- 
igable stream, this report pointed out that it is an 
aqueduct rather than a bridge. It incidentally car- 
ries a footway. It is not a highway bridge in the 
ordinary sense of the word. It is one of the most 
notable structures in or about the City of New York, 
and its removal or the serious mutilation of its ap- 
pearance would be a public misfortune, and should 
only be considered in case it was shown that it forms 
a serious obstruction to navigation, which could not 
be removed or mitigated except by taking out one or 
more of the piers. The removal of the bridge was 
not considered at that time. 

Apparently the War Department did not press the 
matter for some time and it was not until the early 
part of 1920 that the matter was brought to a head 
by the following notice being served on the New 
York City authorities : 

The Secretary of War having good reason to believe 
that the bridge over the Harlem River, New York City, 
known as "High Bridge," is an unreasonable obstruc- 
tion to the free navigation of said river, on account of 
insufficient clearance between piers, it is proposed to 
require the following changes to be made in the bridge 
within one year from the date of service of order by 
the War Department, to wit: Two alternate piers to 
be removed, and a vertical clearance of at least 100 feet 
above mean low water to be provided in each of the 
proposed widened spans. 

This required action. Although but a short pe- 
riod remains before the expiration of the time stated 
in the order, no work of reconstruction has been 
started. Public hearings have been held and various 
suggestions have been made. 

THE suggestion which advocated the entire re- 
moval of the bridge has brought forth a storm 
of protest. This suggestion was made by the Com- 
missioner of Plant and Structures in a communica- 
tion to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment. 

Since this communication states the case for the re- 
moval of High Bridge, the retention of which, with 
suitable alterations, the American Institute of Con- 
sulting Engineers, the New York Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers and the American Institute 
of Fine Arts have gone on record as favoring, it is 
here published in full. 
To the Honorable 

The Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
of the City of New York : 

"In the matter of improving the navigation facili- 
ties on the Harlem River, in the vicinity of High 
Bridge, the various plans for treatment of High 
Bridge submitted to the Board of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment have been given full consideration, and 
it appears to me that the proper action to be taken 
by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment is the 
removal of this bridge. 

"This Department assumed this position at the 
hearing of the New York Harbor Line Board on 
March 30, 1920, when it was proposed by that Board 
to remove two alternate piers. Following the sug- 
gestion of the Harbor Line Board, plans were pre- 
pared by this Department providing for the removal 
of two alternate piers and the construction of two 
spans of steel and concrete. An arch effect was to 




be obtained by the use of these materials. The aque- 
duct line on the bridge was to be maintained, and the 
cost of the work was estimated at $630,000. 

"On June 11, 1920, the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment referred two communications in ref- 
erence to High Bridge reconstruction to this Depart- 
ment for report, as follows : 

Communication dated June 2, 1920, from Mr. 
Wm. J. Wilgus, submitting on behalf of a Com- 
mittee of the American Institute of Consulting 
Engineers and the New York Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, arguments in 
favor of retaining High Bridge, and that necessary 
alterations be so made as not to mar the beauty of 
the structure. 

loading on this pier, have elements of uncertainty 
that might entail failure. 

"In the removal of two alternate piers no piles are 
to be driven and the loads on the various piers are 

"There are no record drawings extant showing 
how this pile foundation for Pier 12 was constructed, 
and in my judgment in the reconstruction of this 
pier we would have to rely a great deal on what we 
would find after making excavation in a cofferdam. 

"The camouflaging referred to by Mr. Wilgus in 
connection with the removal of alternate piers should 
receive little consideration as the term can be ap- 
plied to many of the city's important structures where 
steel and masonry are used in conjunction ; as for ex- 



This shows the best treatment of any of the schemes so far suggested. 

Communication dated June 3, 1920, from 
Charles Paff & Co., Architects and Engineers, sub- 
mitting for consideration designs for the improve- 
ment of the water spans at High Bridge. 

"The plans submitted in these communications pro- 
vide for the removal of two adjacent piers and the 
building of one masonry arch. No estimate was 
submitted by Charles Faff & Co. The estimate sub- 
mitted by Mr. Wilgus called for the expenditure of 

"The Engineers of this Department have examined 
in detail the estimates as furnished by Mr. Wilgus 
and find that the cost would be about 50 per cent, in 
excess of his estimate of $830,000 or $1,250,000. 

"The driving of additional piles at Pier 12 and 
the attaching of new masonry to the present pier 
masonry, which will mean additional and eccentric 

ample, the Municipal Building is a steel structure 
covered with granite and not a granite building. 
"Your board has before it three propositions : 

1. Removal of High Bridge cost $500,000. 

2. Removal of two alternate piers $630,000. 

3. Removal of two contiguous piers $830,000. 
(Wilgus), which the Department's Engineers be- 
lieve will cost at least 50 per cent, more or $1,250,000. 

"High Bridge, if reconstructed, will provide chan- 
nels with vertical clearance of 101 feet at mean high 

"Washington Bridge to the north of this structure 
has a clearance of 135 feet at mean high water. 

"All the East River bridges have similar clear- 
ances, while the Hell Gate Bridge has a clearance 
of 140 feet at mean high water. 

"Thus the clearance at High Bridge, if recon- 




^tructed, will always be the limiting height for ves- 
sels navigating around Manhattan Island. 

"No one can say that the Harlem River with the 
improvements contemplated will not be used by ocean 
going vessels. Note the class of vessels now op- 
erating in Newtown Creek which is only 250 feet 
wide Harlem River 400 to 440 feet channel. 

"The question of continuing High Bridge as an 
aqueduct is one that might have some weight if the 
city did not have the Catskill supply in addition to 
the new Croton Aqueduct supply which is carried to 
Manhattan by a tunnel under the Harlem River. 

"The High Bridge conduit which connects the 
old Croton aqueduct with Manhattan has not been 
used in many years, and I would suggest that if this 
old aqueduct is to be used in the future, it should be 
for the purpose of increasing the water supply in the 
Borough of the Bronx, which to-day has a larger 
population than the old City of New York had when 
the old Croton aqueduct was opened. 

"The old City of New York in 1850 had a popula- 
tion of 515,547 and the population of the Bortfiigh 
of the Bronx in 1920730,016. 

"If it be decided to remove the bridge entirely the 
stone can be stored along the Harlem River Speed- 
way until required for use in the building of the hulk- 
head wall along the Harlem River at and near the 
location of High Bridge. The Bulkhead walls of the 
Speedway will require reconstruction in the near fu- 

"The contemplated improvement of the Harlem 
River is a matter that affects the whole City of New 
York. This improvement would mean the bulkhead- 
ing and the dredging of the River to provide facility 
not only for the present traffic but for the future 
that will ensue after these improvements will have 
been made. 

"It wjll mean much in the cost of handling food 
products, supplies and materials. 

"The proposed work of straightening the Harlem 
Ship Canal at Spuyten Duyvil and the dredging at 
the Harlem Kills connecting the River direct with 

Long Island Sound, as a matter of business policy, 
should mean the removal of this Bridge. The En- 
gineers of this Department have fully considered this 
entire question and I believe that the only proper ac- 
tion to be taken by your Honorable Board is the 
entire removal of this bridge." 

Yours very truly, 


THE future of the Harlem River is a matter of 
pure speculation. It is entirely within the realms 
of possibility that ocean going vessels may some 
day ply its waters. Still one can hardly view the 
present High Bridge and contemplate its removal 
without a tinge of regret. Surely this is an age of 
Commercialism if such things must be. A far more 
satisfactory solution, to the minds of all lovers of art, 
would be the reconstruction of the bridge according to 
the design already referred to. This, however, does 
not comply with the order of the War Department in 
that it would cause the removal of two adjacent and 
not two alternate piers. To obtain such approval, the 
design would have to be submitted to the War De- 
partment by the City of New York. The entire sub- 
ject will be discussed by the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment at its meeting on January 21, 1921. 

From the standpoint of historic interest, sentiment 
and the preservation of structures of artistic merit as 
well as for utilitarian reasons, the bridge should be 
retained, with only such alterations as will remove 
its objectional features without marring its beauty. 
As a further argument in favor of its retention with 
suitable alterations, it is pointed out that it is the only 
bridge across the Harlem River between Washington 
Bridge (181st St.) on the north and Central Bridge 
(155th St.) at the south. In reconstructing the bridge 
it could be altered to function as a highway bridge 
by being provided with an effective roadway approxi- 
mately 20 ft. wide with a sidewalk on either side sup- 
ported by brackets, and an effective connection made 
with the street system on the Manhattan side. 


A New Idea in Lighting Fixtures 

The Portable Feature Has Many Advantages 

THE general public, as well as the electrical 
contractor, has been interested in a new de- 
sign of electric outlet for use in homes, of- 
fices, public buildings and everywhere that electric 
wiring and electric lighting are used. The purpose 
of these outlets is to give every house or building a 
system of wiring that will be flexible enough to meet 
all conditions without the necessity of alterations or 
additions to the circuits already installed. 

The design and construction of the new outlet are 
shown clearly in the accompanying illustrations. 
They are intended to be located in different places 
in the walls and ceilings so that wall lights and ceil- 
ing lights may be attached to them directly without 
the use of an extension cord. In fact, any electrical 
appliance may be readily attached to these outlets. 
Each room has more outlets than are necessary at 
any one time. When not in use they are covered by 
paintings or they are painted in keeping with the wail 
decorations, so that they are invisible. The plugs for 
the ceiling outlets are designed strong enough to 
carry the heaviest chandeliers made. 

The provision for many more outlets in each room 
than are necessary at one time permits the lighting 
to be arranged to suit the individual taste of the oc- 
cupant. It permits a ceiling light here, a desk light 
there and a wall light in the alcove. When the furni- 
ture is rearranged, the lights may be located to suit. 

It is often desirable that the lighting fixtures in a 
room be in keeping with the style of furniture. When 
moving into another house this is not easily possible 
if the lighting is fixed, but it is easily accomplished 
with the new outlets and changeable lighting fix- 

tures. The lighting then becomes a part of the room. 
The style of fixture is selected to harmonize with the 

In offices these outlets are also valuable. When it 
is necessary to move to new space or for any reason 
to alter the partitions in the present space, these out- 
lets lend themselves readily to the new arrangement. 


The ceiling plug is 
designed to support 
the heaviest chande- 
lier, and its rigidity 
increases in propor- 
tion to the weight 
that it supports. 

Partitions may be run without thought of the wiring 
on the floor, because there will always be an outlet 
where it is needed. 

The expense and inconvenience of making altera- 
tions in electrical wiring has often prevented changes 
in the lighting of buildings, rearrangement of furni- 
ture and rearrangement of office partitions, even 
though such changes would be desirable and eco- 
nomical. The new outlet system of lighting elimi- 
nates the expense, the dirt and the inconvenience. 

The Electric Outlet Company, New York City, is 
making these new outlets. This company foresees 
the day of standardization of electrical fixtures. 


The method of placing a 
portable fixture in a wall 
outlet is shown here. The 
operation is simple and is 
accomplished in the same 
way that a plug is inserted 
in a socket. Such outlets 
as these are located in 
convenient places in the 
room. The lighting scheme 
then becomes entirely 
flexible and may be readily 
suited to the style or 
arrangement of the 



(Continued from page 41) 

ity now largely composed of many different elements 
as to taste in art, in social ways and daily habits of 
living, so unanimously agree on establishing a prece- 
dent that one wonders has not heretofore been at- 

The structure wanted had to be at least 40 by 80 
feet to provide for its known requirements and to 
give room for normal expansion. A small fund of 
approximately $25,000 was available, and the prob- 
lem has been to provide an attractive, well construct- 
ed edifice that would meet requirements and which 
could be built within the money at hand. This the 
architects have accomplished in the most successful 

The feature of the plan is placing on either side of 
the main structure of extensions approximating 
twelve feet in width. This provides the additional 
space for the necessary seating and does not detract 
from the symmetry of the plan, which follows the 
best precedent of the Georgian. 

Further, this arrangement of side extensions in- 
sures better interior lighting and also better circula- 
tion of air and natural ventilation. By introducing 
the side wings and confining the present main struc- 
ture to a comparatively narrow plan (it is but 20 
feet in width) the costly construction of a 40-foot 
span has been avoided, and a much more practical 
and better architectural result obtained. 

The choir loft has been placed at the front of the 
church over the entrance. The organ will be of an 
early type, low in cost, but adding to the feeling that 
the architects have so successfully attained, of an 
early American church interior. 

The low tower on this church with its balustrade 
and cupola further carries out the feeling of a fish- 
ing village church. It was in these cupola that was 
hung the bell that served many purposes besides that 
for which it was consecrated. Its notes announced 
the arrival of some long overdue fishing fleet, it 
called to council on occasions of public interest, and 
often when the church was used as a schoolhouse. 
hastened the lagging steps of school children. 

Around this cupola is a narrow platform, which in 
earlier New England churches and in many preten- 
tious houses, was built as a "Captain's walk." It 
was on these balconies that retired sea captains took 
exercise and scanned the horizon for a glimpse of 
some expected sail. 

St. Clare's at Great Kills is an innovation in the 
architecture of Roman Catholic Churches that every 

patriotic man will commend. We believe it is the 
forerunner of many such, or, at least we hope so. 

Criticism and Comment 


Your editorial in the Dec. 15 number has greatly 
interested me, as I believe the subject is one of vital 
importance in the development or even maintenance 
of architecture as a profession. 

Architects are much inclined to consider architec- 
ture purely as a Fine Art, as something apart from 
the scientific features, or from the engineering in- 
volved in various forms. In this I believe the pro- 
fession is making a serious error. The public taking 
the cue from the architect is naturally inclined to 
turn to the engineer or even to the contractor for 
advice which should come from the architect. Con- 
tinued to its natural conclusion this leaves the archi- 
tect in a position of being merely a planner who ap- 
plies to his plan the purely artistic principles of form 
and detail on paper, and without assuming any re- 
sponsibility whatever, and with little claim to knowl- 
edge of the scientific or engineering features in- 
volved in detail, undertakes to supervise the execu- 
tion of the building, only so far as its artistic features 
are involved. Is this what the profession of archi- 
tecture is leading to? Some, including many engi- 
neers, seem to think that this point has already been 

As stated in your excellent editorial, "engineering 
is (or should be) an essential element of architec- 
ture." The various forms of engineering, scientific 
in their nature, should be considered as highly spe- 
cialized branches of architecture, .not as something 
apart from it. 

Architecture should be considered as the combined 
Art and Science of Building, and the practice of 
architecture conducted accordingly, co-operatively 
with engineering. The architect then might become 
the true Master Builder. The tendency of the 
schools, however, is to set up two distinct profes- 
sions, one of which is Architecture or the Fine Art 
of Building, the other being Engineering, which so 
far as it applies to building refers to the Science of 
Building. The public it is hoped will continue to ad- 
mire the Art, but it will undoubtedly pin its faith 
to the Science every time, and therein lies the danger. 

Chicago, 111. 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

From the Library of Congress 

The Library of Congress of desirous of securing 
copies of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT of November 
3, 1920, to complete its files, and would appreciate 
the courtesy of the gift of this copy to the library. 
Our supply of this issue has been exhausted. We 
therefore suggest that if any of our subscribers can 
spare a copy of November 3 they communicate with 
Yale O. Millington, Periodical Division, Library of 
Congress, Washington, stating their willingness to 
extend this courtesy. 

Johns Hopkins Plans $11,500,000 

Plans involving an expenditure of $11,500,000 
have been formulated by the Johns Hopkins Hospi- 
tal, Baltimore. They include rebuilding all the prin- 
cipal buildings of the hospital group and providing 
improvements required because of the growing de- 
mand on the institution. 

The principal new structure is to be a dispensary 
420 by 100 feet and seven stories high. There will 
be a pathological building costing $600,000. Other 
portions of the plans follow. Two million dollars 
for general improvements, $400,000 for women's 
clinic, $1,714,000 for out-patient or dispensary build- 
ing, $1,000,000 for dispensary, $100,000 to $500,000 
for extension of heating and power plant, $500,000 
for additions to nurses' home and $250,000 for school 
of nursing. 

from the Bureau of Public Lectures, Board of Edu- 
cation, 157 East 67th street, New York City. 

Course more particularly for the professional pub- 
lic will start on January 11 at the West Side Young 
Men's Christian Association. The speakers are 
representative men of wide repute in their field. The 
series includes fifteen lectures. 

Y.M.C.A. Real Estate Lecture Course 

In view of the general interest in real estate buy- 
ing, selling,' renting, legislation and building, the 
Educational Department of the West Side Branch 
Young Men's Christian Association and the Board of 
Education of New York City have planned a most 
timely co-operative series of real estate lectures of 
mound educational value. 

The lectures given under the auspices of the oBard 
of Education are for the buying and general public, 
are offered free, and are given at certain public high 
school auditoriums and at other places in Manhattan, 
the Bronx, and in Brooklyn and Queens boroughs. 
A schedule of the Board of Education real estate 
lectures covering the topic thoroughly has been an- 
nounced and further information may be obtained 

Great Roosevelt Memorial Proposed 

Decision that the Theodore Roosevelt memorial to 
be constructed in Washington would be "in no way a 
utilitarian structure," but a monument "comparing in 
grandeur and impressiveness" with the memorials to 
Washington and Lincoln, was reached at a meeting 
here yesterday of the committee of the Theodore 
Roosevelt Memorial Association, headed by Elihu 

The committee announced that it had considered 
several sites for the memorial, which will require a 
tract of land of about sixty acres, but would reach 
no decision on a site until it had made a further 
study of possible locations. It is hoped, the announce- 
ment said, that a design for the memorial which 
would "meet the approval of the whole American 
people" can be completed within three months." 

Architectural Exhibit for Ghent, 

The Provinces of East and West Flanders, com- 
prising the Ghent consular district, were among the 
greatest sufferers from war devastation. All indus- 
tries were more or less ruined, and the year 1919 
was spent in reconstructing buildings, putting in new 
machinery, obtaining raw materials, etc., in order to 
renew factory operation. At the present time, most 
of the linen and jute mills have been rebuilt and 
some of the cotton mills. 

To collect useful and artistic information which 
will aid in rebuilding this devastated area, an Ex- 
position of Architecture, Building and Similar Indus- 
tries will be held at Ghent in April and June, 1921, 
at the Palais des Fetes, under the auspices of the 
National Government, the Province, and the city. 

Full information may be obtained from the "Ex- 
position Internationale d'Architecture, du Batiment 
et des Industries Connexes" 15 Coupure. Ghent. Bel- 



Chicago News Notes 

Decrease in building activity during 1920 has cut 
the tax assessment value of Chicago and Cook coun- 
ty real estate by at least $1,000,000. This is the esti- 
mate of Stephen Griffin, chief clerk of the Board of 
Tax Review. 

Superintendent Mortenson of the Chicago Public 
Schools has asked the Board of Education for ap- 
propriations aggregating $30,000,000 to be spent for 
thirty new public school buildings in Chicago. The 
request is being considered in committee. 

The Illinois Society of Architects has recently 
admitted several news members. Among them are 
J. Bernard Barthel, Allen L. Barnes, Murray D. 
Hetherington, Richard Griesser, Carl Harber, 
Arthur Jacobs, Edward A. Klamt, William H. 
Lautz. Charles O. Liska, James R. Morrison, Francis 
W. Puckey, Issac S. Stern, William Stuhr, Carl 
M. Teutsch, Theodore C. Visscher, Dwight G. Wal- 
lace, Maurice Roy Wallace, Leo H. Wiesfeld. 

Wealthy residents of Evanston, Chicago's largest 
northshore suburb, are objecting strenously to the 
zoning plan of that town, which will permit the in- 
troduction of business houses, such as stores, in cer- 
tain exclusive residential sections. 

The upper Michigan avenue property owners 
are planning to try the New York gold medal plan 
for keeping up appearances in the new district. A 
gold medal will be awarded to the property owner 
in the north central district as the district is offi- 
cially termed during the year. 

Greater New York Miscellanies 

Travelers to Manhattan 

According to statistics compiled by the general pas- 
senger agent of the Long Island Rairload, 295,814,- 
532 persons were handled by the railroads, ferries 
and tubes which connect Manhattan with the trunk 
line railroads with terminals in New Jersey during 
the current calendar year. He estimated the in-and- 
out movement of people during 1919 at 250,000,000. 

The Size of Queens 

Queens is about the same size as Manhattan and 
Brooklyn together, but has only about one-ninth of 
their total population, according to the last census. 

Long Island Land 

There are 1,000,000 acres of land on Long Island, 
populated by 2,721,000 people. The Borough of 
Brooklyn has 49,680 acres. The total extent of the 
land on the island that can be devoted to industrial, 
residential and gardening purposes is 881,000 acres, 
all of which is within easy access of New York City. 

First Stage to Boston 

In 1700 New York was first connected with Bos- 
ton by a regular stage, which took forty-one hours 
to make the distance. An air line now covers the 
distance in about three. 

Will Consider Housing Problems 

Most of the sessions of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States at Washington, January 27 
and 28, will be devoted to housing problems. The 
three main topics will be : The social and civic effects 
of housing shortage ; effects of building stagnation 
on business conditions, and the housing of employes 
by industrial concerns. John Ihlder, formerly field 
secretary of the National Housing Association, is 
head of the newly created Civic Development Depart- 
ment of the Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States, the headquarters of which are at Washington. 

Gotham National Bank A Large 

Eight floors in the new Gotham National Bank 
Building, now nearing completion, at Broadway 
and Fifty-ninth street, New York, have been leased 
by a graphophone company for a term of years at 
an aggregate rental of over $1,000,000. This, it is 
believed, is one of the largest transactions of its 
kind closed north of Thirty-fourth street, and in- 
volving a record rental for the Columbus Circle 

The lease serves to accentuate the uptown trend 
of business and the desirability of a business loca- 
tion accessible from all points of the Greater City. 
Many downtown firms have recognized the im- 
portance of Columbus Circle as a new centre of 
business. To date leases have been signed with a 
number of firms whose former location was below 
Canal street. If the demand for space continues at 
its present rapid rate, this building, which is the 
highest of all business structures north of Forty- 
second street, will be entirely rented at the time of 
its completion, February 1, 1921. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 

IT is extremely gratifying to know that this jour- 
nal's optimistic attitude regarding business condi- 
tions during 1921 is shared by a very important 
group of bankers and industrial leaders of the 

Judge Elbert H. Gary, chairman of the board, 
United States Steel Corporation, looks forward to 
a promising year. 

"If I read aright the signs of the times," he says, 
"we may look forward with confidence to marked im- 
provement in business results, perhaps not so soon 
or so rapid as we could wish, but as certain and as 
satisfactory as the disposition and the action of the 
majority of the people themselves will permit. 

"With its great and increasing wealth, its natural 
resources, its productive capacity, its location, and 
with a well-defined and settled policy to foster and 
encourage its industries, who can measure the future 
natural growth and strength of the United States? 
We have the opportunity to remain the leading 
nation of the world, financially, commercially and in- 

Daniel Guggenheim, of Guggenheim Brothers, be- 
lieves that optimism will replace pessimism in this 

"There will soon be the beginning of a new era 
of prosperity for the people of the United States," 
he points out. "Such depressions as we are now 
going through rarely last long in this country. The 
tremendous deflation now taking place is going to 
bring into our country great prosperity. There is 
no need for a long-continued business depression in 
the United States if the leaders of industrial enter- 
prises will rid themselves of unfounded fear of the 

This opinion is shared by Bernard M. Baruch, 
formerly chairman of the War Industries Board 
Mr. Baruch emphasizes the fact that "we have a 
vast opportunity in making up for the work that has 
been long left undone, as well as in the performance 
of the current profitable tasks that await us. These 
tremendous works will require labor, capital, brains 
and materials in ever-increasing volume. We have 
scarcely scratched the resources of our own country 
as yet, and there are limitless fields in foreign lands 
for our enterprise and our capital. The world is 
ours in a wealth-making sense." 

To preserve this prosperity of which Mr. Baruch 

speaks, there is chiefly needed "just common sense 

constructive co-operation between Congress and 

the progressive business interests of the country " 

according to Francis H. Sisson, vice-president of the 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York. "Basic- 
ally," he emphasizes, "economic conditions in the 
United States are absolutely sound." 

Their soundness is vouched for in the fact that 
the year just passed was the "record year of Ameri- 
can railroad operation," according to the review of 
the railroad situation for 1920 by Thomas de Witt 
Cuyler, chairman, Association of Railway Execu- 

As to the future, Mr. Cuyler has this to say : 

"In my judgment the American railroad companies 
during the present year have fully justified, and 
during the coming year will make every effort to 
continue to justify, the support and confidence which 
public opinion . . . has already accorded them." 

Samuel P. Colt, chairman, U. S. Rubber Company, 
who comes constantly in contact with the many con- 
ditions affecting the export trade, has this to say 
about it : 

"I am optimistic as to the future of our foreign 
trade and the ultimate restoration of new levels in 
exchange, which, while far from normal, will be 
reasonably steady and permit the interchange of 
goods with foreign countries." 

Current wholesale prices for the New York mar- 
ket, for the week ending January 9, follow : 

LUMBER : Yellow PineE & Btr F G Floor- 
ing, 2y 2 " face, $59.50; Long Leaf Dimension, 
SISIE, Nb. 1 Com., 2x4", $37 ; Merchantable Long 
Leaf Timbers, 12x12, 10 to 20 ft., $61. 

North Carolina Pine Roofers, 12/16x6" (Air 
Dried), $28.50; No. 2 and Better Flooring, 2y 2 " 
Face, $61.50; Tonawanda White Pine, Fine Com- 
mon, 4/4x8 and up, $106. 

Douglas Fir No. 1 Clear Flooring, 1x4 (VG), 
$71.50; Dimension, SISIE, 2x42, 16', $42.25. 

W. Va. Spruce 2x4", 16', $54.50; Adirondack 
Spruce, 2x4", 16', $42.25. 

Penn Hemlock Base Price, $50. 

Cypress, Factory Selects, 4/4, $105 ; Spruce Lath, 

Current retail prices (except brick) are as 
follows : 

BASIC: Brick Hudson Common, $16-18; Fire 
Brick, Standard No. 1, per M, $85; "Haverstraw" 
Hollow, $25. 

Cement Domestic Portl. bbl., N. Y. yd., $4.80 
Gravel Delivered to job site, $4.25 per cti. yd. 

Grit Delivered to job site, Cow Bay, $3.50 per 
cu. yd. 

Iron and SteelWire Rods, No. 5, Common Basic 



or Bessemer Rods to domestic consumer, $57 ; Chain 
Rods, $57. 

Structural Steel From N. Y. stocks, small lot 
quantities, cents per Ib. Bars Refined iron, base 
price, 4.70c. per Ib. ; Swedish bars, base price, 20c. 
per Ib. ; Soft steel bars, base price, 3.48c. to 3.70c. 

Beams and Channels, Angles and Tees 3"xJ4" 
and larger, base 3.58c. to 3.80c. per Ib. ; under 
3"x%", base 3.48c. to 3.70c. 

Lime Delivered job site, standard 300-lb. bbl., 
per bbl, $5.20. Common Lime, standard 300-lb. bbl., 
per bbl., $5.20. Hydrate Fin. Lime, per ton (cloth, 
paper bags), $31 and $29. Common Hydrate Lime, 
per ton( cloth, paper bags), $25 and $23. 

Sand Per cu. yd., delivered job site, $2.75. 

Stone Broken, cu. yd., delivered job site, $4.00. 

Stone, Building Indiana Limestone, $1.81 to 
$1.85; Ohio Sandstone, $1.75 to $2.35; Kentucky 
Limestone, $2.07 to $2.07; Marble (Tenn.), $5 to 
$5 ; Granite, $2 to $3.50. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE, January 10. With the stock taking 
period over and adjustments made for income taxes, 
Pacific coast business men are asking each other 
the question daily, "When?" and how the construc- 
tion revival so long deferred is to be brought about. 
Architects in many instances have their hands full 
of new projects while awaiting the word from inves- 
tors as to the time they believe the prices have hit 
bottom, in order that this section can go on a normal 
basis. It is apparent that in the steel industry lies 
the answer. 

That reconstruction must be begun after prices 
have fallen lower is generally believed by jobbers in 
the most advantageous position to judge. Liquida- 
tion of stocks in the hands of manufacturers, jobbers 
and retailers is one plan. Another is to attain a 
price level that will hold long enough to restore con- 
fidence in the new prices. 

In the event that manufacturers, jobbers and re- 
tailers did this thing and converted stocks into cash 
and strong accounts, there would follow a resump- 
tion of buying on the part of all, and the banks 
would have sufficient cash to loan at low interest 
rates. A proper level of prices, however, must be 
struck before there can be any change. Buyers 
must know that tomorrow's list will not show that 
they have lost. 

Large operators, regarding these questions as 
vital, are studying on plans for solution. That 
there is a surplus of all merchandise and a shortage 
of credit and that to get rid of both, stocks must 
be converted into cash and loans liquidated is the 
feeling. When this is accomplished business will 
expand in volume and interest rates made low, these 

operators assert, and an immediate start now when 
production is low would bring about the change 
with the least injury to all. 

In the liquidation process prices must naturally 
seek a lower level, because lower prices are necessary 
to stimulate consumption and buying. Large opera- 
tors have it in mind that the level has been reached 
when there is evidence of renewed buying. What 
this level will be is only conjectural, proven by the 
lack of uniform opinion as to the future values and 
low points on commodities. Jobbers and manufac- 
turers who believe that future values will look right 
and clear are increasing in number. Stability of 
prices will precede an upward tendency. 

Jobbers in steel intimate that the necessity of re- 
placement value cost must be the basis of readjust- 
ment of prices. This readjustment, to be far sweep- 
ing and conclusive, jobbers point out, must begin at 
the mills and continue on down the course until it 
reaches the consumer. Many interested jobbers and 
manufacturers are strong in the conviction that this 
level will be considerable above pre-war prices if 
legitimate profits are to be maintained. 

Large operators who have outlined the cource of 
economic events as stated declare that after the 
period of readjustment no stronger exponents of 
optimism and faith in the country's business welfare 
can be found than among those who are endeavoring 
to direct and aright the route of American commerce 
now rocking on a practically uncharted sea. 

There is an ample supply of nails, pipe and sheets 
for all immediate demands. Jobbers are not operat- 
ing with any idea of accumulating stocks on a fu- 
ture demand, but are preparing to take care of what 
may arise with the early spring prospects. Prices 
are stationary. 

The fir lumber market is steady. Production by 
119 associated mills, which represent the bulk of the 
cut in the West coast lumber territory, was 54 per 
cent, of normal, due to the year-end closing down, 
interruption of which is indefinite. Wages in the 
mills and camps have been cut 25 per cent., and the 
men have uttered little protest. The mills hold un- 
filled orders for 2,485 carloads. 

Pacific coast architects, particularly those in this 
territory, state that they have many big jobs in pros- 
pect, with orders to refrain from proceeding farther 
until investors are satisfied that prices have settled 
to a substantial bottom. 

(.Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO, January 10. The new year opens 
here with every indication pointing to an early re- 
sumption of building activity. Only favorable 
weather now seems necessary to bring the industry to 
life after several moribund months. 

Lumber and materials are gradually settling in 



pn , t - so that .he cost of construction is consider- 
ably Lower than during the spring and summer of 1 
vear and labor IS showing a much more docile atti- 
tade, both as to its willingness of endeavor and its 
Standpoint on wages. A very significant recent 
movement was the voluntary offer of some 9 OC 
em, .loves of the Pullman Company, many of 
in the' woodworking trades, to accept a wage reduc- 
tion of 20 per cent. This offer was made without 
suggestion or coercion from the Pullman Company, 
the step being taken by the shops committee as a 
concession to the spirit of readjustment of industry. 
The movement has, of course, no direct bearing 
on the building trade except that it emphasizes the 
growing improvement in the labor situation, which in 
the past has been one of the most stupendous stum- 
bling blocks in the path of construction in the Chi- 
cago district. 

For the holiday period a somewhat general dull- 
ness prevailed in the building industry, as was to be 
expected, but the improved mercantile situation 
brought about by Christmas and pre-inventory buy- 
ing left the general public in a better frame of mind 
and the new year opened in Chicago with very en- 
couraging expressions of optimism from the leading 
men of finance and industry. 

So far as Chicago architects can foresee there is 
nothing now remaining in the list of objections to 
new building activity. A great deal of work is now 
on the boards and much more in contemplation. . The 
line of prospective activity covers virtually all lines 
of construction. There are many important office 
buildings to be erected. Hotel construction will also 
figure prominently, while the increase in the build- 
ing of apartments will be unusually great, accord- 
ing to the best predictions. Home building will go 
forward as never before, owing to the fact that the 
flat dwellers having felt the lash of the unfeeling 
apartment landlord are now prepared to venture on 
homes of their own. The heavy present call for 
suburban realty indicates that many of these homes 
will be pretentious and engaging, therefore, the 
services of many architects. 

Industrial building is at present dull and may not 
show the important revival expected in other lines, 
but there is a sufficient indication of industrial build- 
ing need to firm up the prospects in that department, 

It is interesting to observe the different attitude 
which the public is taking toward building as com- 
pared with its viewpoint on business in general. The 
man in the street, as well as the business man and 
the capitalist assumes, as a matter of course, that 
building will open as soon as the weather permits. 
Other lines of business are viewed much less cer- 
tainly in regard to normal resumption. This matter 

of fact attitude is one of the very encouraging 
aspects of the building prospect. 
" All hands in the industry are fostering this sense of 
assurance One of the important contributions tc 
this optimistic propaganda is a pamphlet on the build- 
ing situation recently issued by the Universal Port- 
land Cement Company. "A period of depression i, 
largely a state of mind" says the pamphlets. ' We 
had one after the armistice. We are experiencing 
one now." As a panacea for this condition, the 
pamphlet urges construction, because all factors in 
the building situation are now favorably disposed to- 
ward construction work. 

Interest in the "Own Your Home" Exposition to 
be staged at the Coliseum, March 26 to April 2. Ar- 
chitects in Chicago are particularly interested in con- 
tributing to the success of the exposition and under 
the leadership of Henry K. Holsman of the Illinois 
Society of Architects, the local members of the pro- 
fession are doing all that they can to further the 
Exposition plans. Letters have been sent out to 
6,000 architects submitting to them a prize offer for 
the best architectural solution of the small house 

Real estate dealers are of the opinion that the 1 
position will do a great deal to stimulate home build- 
ing throughout Chicago and there has been no lack 
of co-operation from the realty interests. As a mat- 
ter of fact, all lines of business interested in home 
building have assured the committee of complete 
co-operation and all of the display space has long ago 
been contracted for by those anxious to exhibit ma- 
, terials and the like. 

Charles Bostrom, Chicago's, building commis- 
sioner, in reviewing the building situation over the 
last year is not as optimistic, however, as some others. 
"There is not much hope of a very great renewal of 
building activities in sight at present" says Mr. Bos- 
trom, "but it is hoped that by spring conditions will 
have so adjusted themselves that a marked improve- 
ment in building operations will be shown." 

Mr. Bostrom notes that the building trade con- 
tinued rather briskly up to May 1 of 1920 and that 
from that date up to the present activities have de- 
clined. During the first eleven months of 1919. 
building permits in Chicago totalled 6296, while for 
the same period in 1920 the total was only 3574. 
The cost of the building contemplated in the 1919 
permits up to December 1 was $95,224,100, as com- 
pared with $73,794,650 for the corresponding pe- 
riod in 1920. December permits are late in being 
announced, but the final month in the year will show 
a loss as compared with December of 1919. 

Business continues to be dull in lumber and other 
building materials in this market. Holiday apathy 
has been felt in all lines and this superimposed upon 
an already dull market has left the demand very list- 



less. All factors in the lumber and building mate- 
rials trades, however, are expecting an early begin- 
ning of business for the new year. 

They also feel that bottom price has been struck 
for the present both in lumber and in the minor ma- 

Prices hold at the levels of previous weeks in prac- 
tical all items on the lumber and materials list as will 
be seen by comparing the following prices with 
those of earlier weeks : 

Yellow Pine: B. & B. 1 inch, $95 to $130, depend- 
ing on thickness ; 2 x 4, No. 1, 10 to 16 ft. length, $51 
to $53 ; 2 x 6, $48 ; 2 x 8, $50 ; 2 x 10, $53 ; 2 x 12, 
$55 ; 13-16 x 3% z & b flat flooring, $85 to $90; 1 x 
6, No. 2 common, $48 to $90. 

Douglas Fir: 2 4 S, in sizes up to 12 x 12, in 
length up to 32 feet, $65 to $70 ; 14 x 14, $68 to $73 ; 
16 x 16, $72 to $75 ; 18 x 18, $75 to $80. 

Hard Maple: Four, y 4 No. 1 and 2, $135; select, 
$120; No. 1 common, $100; No. 2 common, $65; 
No. 3 common, $32. 

Birch: Four % No. 1 and 2, $160; select, $133 to 
$138; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2, common, 
$6 Oto $65 ; No. 3 common, $40. 

Red Gum : Four % No. 1 and 2, $150 ; No. 1 com- 
mon, $90 to $92 ; No. 2 common, $47. 
Face brick 

Standard, vitrified red $32.00@34.00 

Smooth, Indiana red 38.00@40.00 

Smooth, Ohio red 38.00@40.00 

Smooth, Pennsylvania red 46.00@48.00 

Smooth, buff 45.00@47.00 

Smooth, grey 47.00@49.00 

Rough, buff 44.00@46.00 

Rough, grey 47.00@49.00 

Variegated, rough texture 34.00@49.00 


Common brick $16.00 


Portland cement $3.00 

Per Yard 

Torpedo Lake and bank sand $3.50 

Crushed stone, gravel screeings 3.50 

Per Ton 

Hydrated lime, Ohio, paper $22.00 

Hydrated lime, Ohio, cloth 29.00 

Includes sacks at 30c each. 

Hydrated lime, Wis., paper 20.00 

Bulk lime. . 1.75 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON, January 10. The files of the Boston 
Real Estate Exchange shows that, during the week 
ending December 19, 1920, there were 391 transfers 
210 mortgages aggreating $1,712,045, as compared 
to 372 transfers, 199 mortgages aggregating $1,698,- 
161 for the same week, 1919, and 276 transfers, 149 
mortgages ($838,666) for the like week, 1918. 

As more manufacturers have announced wage re- 
ductions commencing January 1, far-sighted business 
leaders see in the rapidity of labor liquidation the 
promise of productions which will enable manufac- 
turers to turn out goods at prices which will again 
appeal to the public. Taken from this angle, this past 
week may be said to have seen a quickening toward 
the day of better business, but as to actual signs 
of immediate improvement, they are few. 

In some of the primary markets there has been 
evidence that prices were down to such levels as 
to attract buyers. In leather, for instance, one of 
the first commodities to collapse in the period of 
deflation, some very substantial transactions have re- 
cently been reported. In wool it is the same story. 

The greatest customers of the nation's industries, 
the farmers, are at present rather stunned by the 
rapidity of the decline in their products. They are 
unwilling to exchange their products, selling on a 
pre-war basis, for the products of industry which are 
still far above that basis. With industrial costs 
down and prices down so that the products of the 
city may be exchanged for those of the farm on a 
just basis, one may expect to see greater activity in 

Next to the fanners the largest industry in coun- 
try, the transportation business, is still out of the 
market for goods. It has always happened that, 
whenever the railroads started to buy on a large scale, 
all other lines of business began immediately to 
quicken and general prosperity followed. 

The future of the business situation seems to be 
closely bound up with getting the farmers, transpor- 
tation and the export trade back into the commodity 



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NUMBER 2352 

Program of Competition for a New Group 

of Buildings for the New Britain, 

Connecticut, State Normal School 

of Education of Connecticut proposes to erect 
a new group of buildings for the New Brit- 
ain, Connecticut, State Normal School on property 
facing upon Stanley and Wells streets at New 

AS TO FEES : The Board, having in hand a sum suffi- 
cient for the purpose, desires to secure through this 
competition preliminary sketches by means of which 
it may ascertain the probable cost of the accommoda- 
tions desired, preparatory to the introduction of a 
bill in the State Legislature to carry on appropria- 
tion for the erection of the necessary structure or 
structures. It therefore proposes to hold a Limited 
Competition for the selection of an architect to pre- 
pare the preliminary sketches and estimate of cost 
referred to. The competition drawings will be few 
in number and small in scale with the least possible 
degree of elaboration in presentation. The winner 
must be prepared to begin to develop the preliminary 
sketches in consultation with the Board immediately 
upon the close of the competition and to complete 
them as soon after the first of January, 1921, as 
practicable and not later than February 1, 1921. 
These preliminary sketches must be of the character 
usually prepared by architects of those invited in this 
competition for the purpose of determining the ap- 
proximate cost of important buildings and grounds ; 
and the successful competitor must be prepared to 
provide also a water color perspective drawing of 
the exterior. For the professional services rendered 
in connection with these preliminary sketches, the 
scale and number of which are to be determined upon 
between the successful competitor and the Board, the 
Board agrees to pay the successful competitor the 
sum of $12,000, which shall be inclusive of his fee as 
competitor and of which sum he shall be paid $3,000 
on account within ten days of the date of the award. 
The Board fully expects and intends to employ the 

architect successful in this competition to render full 
architectural service as defined by the American In- 
stitute of Architects, but should the Legislature of 
the State of Connecticut fail to make an appropria- 
tion for the purpose of building the structure or 
structures within three years from January 1, 1921, 
this agreement to employ the successful competitor 
becomes null and void. In the event that the State 
Legislature should subsequently make an appropria- 
tion, a new agreement shall be entered into between 
the State Board and the successful competitor. In 
either case the $12,000 already paid him shall be paid 
and received as a payment on account of the total 
architect's fee. The unsuccessful competitors shall 
be paid the sum of $750, each within ten days of the 
date of award. 

Education has appointed as its professional adviser 
H. Van Buren Magonigle, architect, 101 Park ave- 
nue, New York City, to assist in the preparation of 
this program and to act as its adviser in the conduct 
of this competition, including the making of the 

Professional Adviser will examine the designs to as- 
certain whether they comply with the mandatory re- 
quirements of the program and will report to the 
Board any instance of failure to comply with them. 
The Board agrees that it will satisfy itself of the ac- 
curacy of the report of the Professional Adviser and 
will place out of competition and make no award to 
any design which does not comply with the manda- 
tory requirements. 

The Board and the Professional Adviser will then 
proceed to the examination of the remaining draw- 
ings and will make the award by secret ballot and by 
majority vote before opening the envelopes which 
contain the names of the competitors. In making the 
award the Board and the Professional Adviser will 
thereby affirm that they have made no effort to learn 

Copyright, 19X1, The Architectural & Building Press (Inc.) 


the identity of the various competitors, and that they 
have remained in ignorance of such identity until 
after the award was made. 

The opening of the envelope containing the name 
of the author of the selected design will automatically 
close the contract between him and the Board, as set 
forth in Paragraph 2 hereof. 

EXHIBITION OF DRAWINGS: It is agreed that no 
drawings shall be exhibited or made public until 
after the award and that no design shall be made 
public without the consent of the author. 

Nothing original in the unsuccessful designs shall be 
used without consent of, or compensation to, the au- 
thor of the design in which it appears. 

In case the Board desires to make use of any indi- 
vidual feature of an unsuccessful design, the same 
may be obtained by adequate compensation to the de- 
signer, the amount of such compensation to be deter- 
mined in consultation with the author and the Pro- 
fessional Adviser. 

COMMUNICATIONS: (Mandatory} If any competi- 
tor desires information of any kind whatever in re- 
gard to the competition or the program he shall ask 
for this information by an unsigned letter on plain 
paper addressed to the Professional Adviser, and in 
no other way, and a copy of this letter and the an- 
swer thereto will be sent simultaneously to each com- 
petitor, but no request received after October 2, 
1920, will be answered. 

drawings to be submitted shall bear no name or mark 
which could serve as a means of identification, nor 
shall any such name or mark appear upon the wrap- 
per of the drawings, nor shall any competitor direct- 
ly or indirectly reveal the identity of his design or 
hold communication regarding the competition with 
any member of the Board or with the Professional 
Adviser or with any other person connected with the 
State Normal School, except as provided for under 

This program contains all the data necessary to the 
competing architects as a basis of their sketches and 
inquiry from miscellaneous sources is futile; the 
communications of the Professional Adviser with 
the competitors will therefore be limited to matters 
of interpretation. The award will be made upon 
the evidences of general grasp of a problem of this 
nature exhibited by the sketches. It is understood 
that in submitting a design each competitor thereby 
affirms that he has complied with the foregoing pro- 
visions in regard to anonymity and agrees that any 
violation of them renders null and void this agree- 
ment and any agreement arising from it. With each 
set of drawings must be enclosed a plain opaque, 
sealed envelope without any superscription or mark 
of any kind and which shall contain the name and 

address of the competitor. These envelopes shall be 
opened by the Professional Adviser in the presence 
of the Board after the award has been made. 

DELIVERY OF DRAWINGS : (Mandatory ) The draw- 
ings submitted in this competition shall be securely 
wrapped and addressed to H. Van Buren Magonigle, 
Professional Adviser, care of Marcus White, Presi- 
dent of the State Normal School, New Britain, 
Conn., in plain lettering and with no other lettering 
thereon, and be delivered at this address not later 
than midnight of Monday, November 8, 1920. 


SITE: The site of the building is shown upon the 
accompanying survey and the competitors must visit 
the site before beginning their sketches. All the ap- 
proaches to the future school will be of practically 
equal importance. The street car line which now 
terminates a very short distance south of the south- 
erly line of the property will probably be extended 
and pass the whole frontage; and the districts east 
and west of the site will become important in time. 

COST: Recognizing that it is impossible in the 
present condition of the building industry to esti- 
mate the cost of a building by any cubic foot rate 
formerly in use, the Board advises the competitors of 
its hope that the desired accommodation called for 
with the exception of the future dormitory may be 
secured by an expenditure of about nine hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars and that wasteful planning, 
excessive heights and an undue degree of elabora- 
tion in workmanship or materials will militate 
against the success of the competitor. 

DRAWINGS: (Mandatory) The drawings submit- 
ted shall be as follows, at scale given and rendered 
as noted, and no other drawings than these shall be 

a. A general plan showing the entire property, 
with present contour lines, with roads, paths, play- 
grounds and existing or proposed plantations and the 
new buildings in outline to be at a scale of sixty-four 
feet to the inch rendered in monotone wash. 

b. The several floor plans of the main building, 
such plans of the dormitory building as required to 
show dining room arrangements, a front and a side 
elevation and a section taken at will as best explana- 
tory of the design, at a scale of 32 feet to the inch. 

These drawings shall be in pencil, on white paper 
or tracing paper without shadows, and without any 
accessories. The plans and sections may have a gray 
wash on all wall and floor sections. All of these 
drawings shall be mounted on cardboard (it is rec- 
ommended that owing to the wear and tear of 
handling the drawings shall be mounted solid). 

DESCRIPTION : A brief description of the design, 
covering those points not made manifest by the 



drawings and particularly stating the materials pro- 
posed, etc. 

ARBITRATION : Any difference in opinion between 
the Board and any competitor arising under this pro- 
gram shall be referred to arbitration, the Board and 
competitor each selecting one person and these two 
selecting a third. The decision of two of these per- 
sons shall be final and binding upon all parties. The 
Professional Adviser will not be eligible for selection 
as one of the arbitrators. 


Item 1 : A main building for administration and 

Item 2 : A dormitory to accommodate 100 stu- 
dents, with a few rooms suitable for teachers. Kitch- 
en and dining room facilities. 

Item 3 : Provision either in main building or in 
dormitory for a lunch room (for lunches only) to ac- 
commodate 200 non-residents in the dormitory. At 
competitor's option kitchen facilities, but not dining 
room, may be combined for Items 2 and 3. 

Item 4: The design should permit the erection of 
a second future dormitory in proper relation to the 
other buildings. 

Item 5 : An adequate heating plant of flexible 
character, sufficient for present needs and adapted to 
expansion, both as to structure and equipment. 

Item 6: Living quarters for superintendent of 
building and grounds, which should include a small 
garage and a small stable for a horse for use in the 
grounds, sheds for the storage of tools, etc. At the 
option of the competitor the heating plant and super- 
intendent's quarters may be either (a) combined in 
one general structure, (b) or in a small separate 
group, (c) the heating plant and the living quarters 
may be in the main building. 

Item 7 : Four tennis courts and a level grassy area 
for playground purposes for such sports as basket- 
ball, base ball, etc. 


The figures given are approximate only. 

BUSINESS OFFICE: About 400 sq. ft., with office 
supply closet and sink. 

PRINCIPAL'S OFFICE : About 180 sq. ft. 

OFFICE OF DEAN : 80 to 100 sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

100 sq. ft. 

RECEPTION ROOM : 80 to 100 sq. ft. 

(These require no separate toilet facilities. The 
two teachers' dressing rooms will suffice.) 

A demonstration room on the first floor, with 150 
seats arranged in a rising semi-circle, with level space 
in front for a class of children. 

Biology room, about 24x30 ft., sunny exposure. 

A library about 50x75 ft., with book shelves in al- 
coves around same. 

A supply room opening out of the library, or adja- 
cent thereto, about 400 sq. ft. 

An art room with space for 40 small working 
tables. Space for supply closets and shelves. This 
room must have north light, which may be overhead. 

An art room annex about half the size of the art 
room for industrial work, modeling, etc. 

A music room for 100 students, so placed as to dis- 
turb as little as possible the rest of the school. 

About ten recitation rooms, approximating 24x30 
ft., and of which two or three should be half this size. 

An assembly hall to seat 450, with an inclined 
floor ; a stage about 25 ft. deep, with adequate wings 
and fair gridiron space above. 

A gymnasium, 50 to 60 by 75 to 80 ft., without a 
running track ; spectators' gallery if possible, and out- 
side light. 

An office for the physical director. 

A room for gymnasium supplies, physical exami- 
nations, etc. 

A students' sick room, with toilet. This is to be 
arranged adjacent to the gymnasium, the physical di- 
rector being in charge of the general health of the 

A locker room, in connection with the gymnasium, 
for 250. At least 12 shower baths, 2 W. C.'s, 2 wash 

A teachers' cloak room for 12 women, with wash 
room and toilets adjacent. 

A teachers' rest room. 

A dressing room for 6 or 8 male teachers, with 
wash room and toilet facilities. 

Students' (girls) cloak room or rooms, a total of 
350 lockers, with proper wash room and toilet fa- 
cilities. There may be two or more locker rooms at 
competitors' option with a total capacity of 350. 

Janitor's supply rooms, closets, sinks, etc. 

Drinking fountains at proper points in the plan. 

The following four rooms should be grouped to- 
gether : 

The science lecture room : 100 seats arranged in a 
rising semi-circle, with demonstration table, suitably 

Laboratory for physics and chemistry to accommo- 
date 40 students. 

A work room about 24x30 ft. 

A science supply room, about 400 sq. ft. 


Factory Production Applied to Housing 

Robert Tappan, New York Architect, Addresses National Housing 


IT has been said that it requires the services of one 
hundred thousand different workers to satisfy 
the normal needs of any one individual. I feel 
that this is an understatement. In our complex civil- 
ization the productive forces of the wide world are 
drawn upon to supply us with what we usually con- 
sider the ordinary necessities of life. Food, clothing 
and shelter naturally form the basic production prob- 
lems of the entire earth. The National Housing As- 
sociation is concerned with the last of these. 

Nature has been kind enough to furnish to us 
gratis many elemental food products, ready for con- 
sumption. She also provides the material for our 
clothing; ranging up through several degrees of raw 
material to partial manufacture. In one climate 
clothes are obtained from her practically ready- 
made ; in another, clothes do not figure as a prime 
necessity. But for housing there we are left to shift 
for ourselves and what a mess generally we make 
of it ! Not that there are no good and sufficient rea- 
sons for our shortcomings and mistakes. 

House building is the oldest craft. We soon out- 
grew cave dwelling. Perhaps some prehistoric 
board of health condemned caves as dark, damp, dis- 
mal and generally deficient in serving the best inter- 
est of the community; or better still, let's imagine 
that some rapacious landlord jumped the rent or cut 
down on the heat. At any rate; some one among our 
early ancestors built himself the first house. It 
couldn't have been much to look at, but it had the 
merit of novelty and did not resemble anything else 
on the street. Immediately, artificial hand-made 
houses became the vogue. Cave dwelling simply 
wasn't being done and so, perhaps, the ancient and 
still honorable profession of the house builder was 

Houses are still largely hand-made. It requires 
the labor of twenty different trades to build a quite 
ordinary and unpretentious modern cottage. Behind 
these trades or crafts are lined up literally thousands 
of skilled experts, each performing some highly de- 
veloped specialty and each a necessary factor in the 
successful and economical making of the house. As 
an architect, nothing has caught and held my imag- 
ination more than the realization that every line I 
draw will tend to set in motion, or keep in motion, 
some wheel, somewhere, in this gigantic, world-wide 

No other necessity in life remotely approaching the 
dwelling house in importance, is produced today by 

so many different skilled hand workers, laboring in 
the open, at tasks that shift and vary from minute 
to minute and job to job. Behind these expert field 
craftsmen are thousands of others who also shift 
and vary their work to meet the demands of the 
home builder. My object in this address is to try to 
tell you how some of this vast machinery can be 

Wood is a basic building material. In one form 
or another it enters every home. It is living, a grow- 
ing raw product, that requires only intelligent cultiv- 
ation to constantly replenish the earth's timber re- 
serves. Lumber production is notoriously wasteful, 
and its use after production is even more so. 

It had been my plan to interest some big lumber 
producer in manufacturing wooden houses for me 
right where the trees grew. I believed that many 
economies could be made in the production of lum- 
ber, scientifically standardized to fulfill certain clearly 
defined purposes. 

Lumber, such as is used in ordinary house build- 
ing, is standardized by trade custom into certain def- 
inite sizes, shapes, lengths and grades. The logs 
are carefully sorted and cut to meet current demands. 
An average day's run produces 10 per cent, of waste 
and 15 to 20 per cent, of low grade stock too short 
to fit the regular standards. Lumbermen conserva- 
tively estimate that 10 per cent, of the log, in the 
form of slabs and trimmings, goes to the burner, be- 
cause of the lack of demand for short-length ma- 

Now one-third of the ordinary framing lumber 
usually used in building a six-room workingman's 
house can be obtained from material running under 
eight feet in length. One-half of the expensive 
finishing lumber used for flooring and dressing up 
the interior and exterior of the house also can be 
made from short-length stock. Does it not seem 
wise to get together with the lumberman with a view 
to utilizing this discarded, so called, low grade ma- 
terial? I thought so and attempted to do so, but 
there were a few obstacles in my path. 

In the first place, a lumberman is a manufacturer. 
Now a manufacturer thinks in different terms from 
an architect, a carpenter, or other professional crafts- 
men. He speaks a totally different language ; using 
such words as cost, equipment, production, merchan- 
dising, credits, transportation, storage, financing, 
publicity, stock holders, directors, profits and a host 
of other terms that were quite new to me. So I found 



it hard to interest him in my very simple idea. Fin- 
ally, by studying up on some of these unknown 
words, I was able to get together and sit in with some 
who listened long enough and patiently enough to 
get the drift of my thoughts. I found that we had very 
much in common and that we were not so very dif- 
ferent after all. They looked upon themselves as 
quite as useful and necessary members of society 
as were professional men. They dared to dream 
dreams with me and to make plans for the ultimate 
good of humanity. Only it had to be done in a way 
they understood a way that was practical and busi- 

In theory it had seemed that the producer ought 
to be able to make up complete consignments of care- 
fully standardized lumber sufficient to construct one 
house, and he should be able to ship this lumber, 
packed in a box car, directly to the individual home 
builder, at a saving to him of at least 25 per cent. 
The lumber required to construct an ordinary six- 
room house represents about 35 per cent, of its total 
cost and the carpenter bill amounts to 15 per cent, 
more ; so in dealing with this subject we are working 
upon a very important factor in the high cost of 
home building. It certainly looks as though the pro- 
ducer and the consumer ought to be brought in close 
contact for their mutual benefit, but unfortunately, it 
is impossible for the lumber manufacturer to produce 
economically for direct retail distribution. He must 
manufacture in large quantities or his whole system 
of lumber production will be slowed down to an un- 
profitable pace. This fact, together with orders 
equally significant in allied industries connected with 
house building, forced the conclusion that the only 
way to secure manufacturing economies was to stan- 
dardize the product, manufacture it in quantities and 
seek wholesale markets. 

Efficient factory production is inconceivable with- 
out standardization. Can American dwellings be 
standardized without sacrificing reasonable individu- 
ality ? That is debatable. However, we are dealing 
with a vital necessity of life, that has grown con- 
stantly more expensive to supply. Personally, I feel 
that I could stand any quantity of standardized 
houses so long as each individual home was attrac- 
tive in appearance and I knew that its inhabitants 
were not starving or freezing themselves to death to 
meet the, monthly payments. It has never occurred 
to me to criticise nature for standardizing her prod- 
ucts, or to rail at a field of daisies because they were 
all white. Why modern men and women, who go 
out of their way to dress, eat and think alike, persist 
in housing themselves in structures that represent 
the styles, modes and whims of every age and clime, 
is too much for my comprehension. It was not al- 
ways thus. Can it be that we architects are to 
blame ? 

After many months spent in study and experiment, 
I devised a series of house organisms that combined 
a reasonable amount of convenience and attractive- 
ness with a fairly economical use of lumber and lum- 
ber labor. The floor plans were designed in units, a 
method that has been in vogue in Japan for centuries. 
While the Japanese are a nation of individual home 
dwellers, and famous for the artistry that pervades 
so many of their products, it is curious to observe 
that their homes are decidedly lacking in architectural 
pretension. If there is no attempt at architectural dis- 
play in the dwellings of Japan the traveller is at least 
spared those miserable experiences he so often en- 
counters in his own country, where, to a few houses 
of good taste, he is sure to pass hundreds of per- 
forated boxes embellished with grotesque and offend- 
ing abominations. From one end of Japan to the 
other, house plans are designed in terms of a standard 
unit of measurement, the floor mat. The dimensions 
of the mat are three feet wide by six feet long. The 
architect marks on his plan the number of mats 
each room is to contain this number defining the 
size of the room ; hence the lumber used must be of 
definite lengths and the carpenter is sure to find those 
lengths in the lumber yard. It follows that but 
little waste of lumber occurs in the construction of 
a Japanese house. It had occurred to me that an 
adaptation of this system of unit planning might re- 
sult in a similar saving in lumber here in America 
if I could get the lumber producer interested in co- 
operating. I employed a unit or module of sixteen 
inches, as that spacing is in common enough use 
among our carpenters, though generally ignored by 
architectural designers. This unit, when faithfully 
followed throughout an entire house organism, per- 
mits the use of a few simple standard lengths of 
lumber that can be used in many places in scores of 
differently designed houses. The floor, wall and roof 
boards, for example, may be cut in multiples of four 
feet, and be nailed in place without waste. There 
is a technique of unit planning just as there is in 
playing the piano (its keyboard is only so many 
units), and the longer I practice at unit design the 
more valuable the idea proves to be. Next, I care- 
fully scheduled all of the lumber and submitted my 
complete details to several manufacturers for their 
estimates. The result was gratifying. Instead of 
saving 25 per cent., I found that we could lower the 
cost 50 per cent. 

This was interesting, but it is not the whole story. 
There are other significant savings that can be made. 
We have found that unit design and standardized 
wooden construction speeds up the work all along 
the line. The psychological laws underlying the 
wonderful manufacturing efficiency of our great 
modern industrial establishments work out just as 
truly when they are applied to standardized house 



construction. If this paper were not confined to one 
topic I could tell you of a quantity of experiences 
that I have had in proving out Ford car production 
methods on carpenters, painters, plumbers and other 
house-building craftsmen. There is absolutely no 
doubt in my mind but that the housing problem, from 
the point of view of economical production, will solve 
itself eventually. 

Today we are passing through the throes of a 
great change. A new world is being born. Old, out- 
worn methods are being discarded and new ones are 
taking their places. There are many who deplore 
and even resist the onward march of industrial pro- 
gress. They prophecy the death of all craftsmanship 
and art. I do not. No one has more respect for the 
time-honored building crafts than have I. It has 
been my privilege to be intimately associated with ex- 
pert craftsmen in many lines on a number of impor- 
tant gothic churches and cathedrals. I have worked 

with artists and appreciate the thrills of inspiration 
and the joy that every true craftsman feels in crea- 
tive accomplishment, but I firmly believe that the 
time-honored methods of the house-building crafts, 
easy-going and haphazard as they certainly are, rep- 
resent a distinct menace when applied to the construc- 
tion of this great necessity of life. Food and clothing 
are no longer produced by mediaeval processes; 
houses still are, with an added complication, that the 
modern house is by no means so simple as was its 
early ancestor. In the old days materials were ob- 
tained locally, skilled labor cost next to nothing and 
mechanical installations were unknown. Today the 
meanest residence that an enlightened craftsman will 
inhabit requires the services of thousands of experts 
to construct. Any new factory production methods 
that will tend to simplify and lower the costs of 
modern workingmen's homes ought to be welcomed, 
not resisted. 

The Extension of Paris 

A SPECIAL meeting of the London Society 
was held in the hall of the Royal Society of 
Arts some time ago to hear a paper on 
"L'Extension de Paris," by Monsieur Louis Bonnier, 
Inspector-General des Services Techniques d'Archi- 
tecture et d'Esthetique (representing the Prefet of 
the Seine). 

After referring to the way in which the great 
cities had gradually drained the population away 
from the country, he is reported in the Architects' 
Journal of London, as saying that the advent in our 
history of these formidable masses of population 
demanded a new school of therapeutics and surgery. 
The machinery of the town being much more com- 
plex becomes more fragile and at the mercy of the 
slightest mishap, such as an abnormal flood or an 
unexpected strike. What would be the position to- 
morrow if we had masses of population amounting 
to ten millions of people ? He then touched on the 
history of Paris and the efforts that were made in 
the time of Phillippe Auguste, Charles V. and 
Louis XIV, to arrest the growth of Paris by stat- 
ute. It was only at the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury that public opinion began to take an interest 
m the beautification of the city, the first actual plan 
being prepared by Verniquet in 1790. He then re- 
ferred to the efforts of the various periods up to the 
time of Napoleon III., who, with his Prefet Hauss- 
mann, dreamed of the complete transformation of 
Paris. Though these works are still the wonder of 
the world, yet they have become quite insufficient 
for Pans of the present day. The advent of the 

motor vehicle created requirements which could not 
be compared with those of pre-war days. At a point 
where four years ago one horse fiacre passed, now 
there were perhaps four or five taxicabs. What 
would be the state of affairs, he asked, when nor- 
mal conditions were re-established, seeing that 
France possessed only one motor for every 400 in- 
habitants, while the United States had one for 
every 14 inhabitants. Evidently we must be pre- 
pared for an enormous increase of motors on the 
streets of Paris. He suggested that a strict regula- 
tion of vehicles would be necessary in the future, 
and that it would be necessary to consider the sup- 
pression of heavy vehicular traffic in the center of 
the city, the reduction of footpaths for the benefit 
of the roadway, and even the removal of the stalling 
of the terraces before the shops and cafes, which 
give Paris so much character. 

A law was passed just before the war that made 
it obligatory on every town of 10,000 inhabitants 
and over to prepare a scheme of improvements. 

Monsieur Bonnier then described the various 
studies they had made of the movements of popula- 
tion, etc., in Paris, in order that they might be able 
to properly consider the probable needs of the fu- 
ture. He mentioned that they had come to the con- 
clusion that it was necessary to include in the City 
of Paris any neighboring communes with more 
than 100 inhabitants to the hectare ; while of the re- 
maining districts, which they considered as Greater 
Paris, those where the inhabitants numbered be- 
tween 10 and 100 to the hectare. He mentioned that 
though this lowest figure of 10 to the hectare was 



arbitrarily selected by them, they found it was justi- 
fied by later experiments, and it was an undoubted 
fact as soon as the figure of 10 per hectare was ex- 
ceeded then for the first time the influence of Paris 
began to make itself felt. 

The lecturer proceeded to show cinematograph 
films that he had had made : one showing the suc- 
cessive development of Paris, the other of its su- 
burbs during the course of the nineteenth century. 
These films have been prepared from plans all 
drawn to one scale, which show the growth of the 
city at various stages, then being all run through 
the cinema quickly they give a graphic idea of the 
population's increase. The "agglomeration" of 
Paris covers a total area of 49,483 hectares, border- 
ing on the Department of Oise and Seine-et-Marne. 
In 110 years the area has increased in the propor- 
tion of 1 to 14.4; the population 1 to 7.9. They had 
tried to find out from their investigations what 
would be the population of Paris 50 years hence, 
and came to the conclusion that it would be 14,- 
300,000 in habitants, a figure not more startling to 
us to-day than would have been the actual popula- 
tion of 1911 to the inhabitants of Paris 50 years 

After referring to the well-known axiom of 
town-planning, which laid down that it is the pub- 
lic transport services which are the key to the ex- 
tension of the town and the distribution of its in- 
habitants, he proceeded to mention the efforts they 
were making for safeguarding the most precious 
monuments of the past in the city of Paris. He said 
that both the French and ourselves belonged to 
countries the soil of which, in addition to the natural 
riches, had clothed itself with an incomparable robe 
of buildings of many descriptions, which consti- 
tuted a national treasure that it behooved us to safe- 
guard and keep at all costs. 

He said that these monuments of the past marked 
the character of the town and determined the pivot 
of its embellishment. Though sometimes they were 
a cause of difficulty to the town planner, yet, like 
difficulties in other matters, they could be made a 
pretext and a reason for ingenious and picturesque 
arrangements. Nothing was so commonplace as the 
things that arranged themselves too easily. In Paris 
they were preparing an inventory of all their ancient 
monuments. After showing various slides illus- 
trating this portion of the work, he went on to 
speak of the recent Congress and Competition for 
a Plan of the Future, pointing out that it was im- 

possible to undertake the improvement of a city 
without first having exhausted all sources capable of 
furnishing suggestions. From the most grandiose 
schemes or the most fantastic, one could always gain 
some inspiration. The City of Paris organized an 
inter-allied Conference to discuss its extension. He 
referred particularly to the points on which the 
competitors were unanimous, such as the necessity 
for reducing immediately the density of the popula- 
tion and bursting through the narrow boundaries 
which made Paris the most overcrowded of the great 
capitals. They all agreed, also, that the industrial 
population should be gradually brought back again 
to the North of the City, leaving the intellectual 
quarter to the South ; that more radial and circular 
lines of railways were needed, and they agreed as 
to the necessity for the electrification of the rail- 
ways ; the removal to a distance of workshops, car- 
riage depots, and to the reconstruction of roads. 

Some competitors suggested that the improve- 
ments should be secured by driving large and costly 
avenues from north to south and from" east to west: 
others that similar benefits could be obtained by bet- 
ter organization and stricter regulations, which 
might be progressively coercive. Monsieur Bonnier 
intimated that probably a combination of the two 
would be found to be the best solution. He re- 
ferred to the immense importance of beautifying 
the approaches to the city and to the fact that rail- 
way stations had now taken the place of the City 
Gates. Yet was it not a fact that our railway sta- 
tions were so designed that their most pleasing fea- 
tures were seen not by the coming but by the depart- 
ing traveller. 

Finally he remarked that though many happy 
ideas were evolved from the competition, yet even in 
the best schemes there were some deplorable ones. 
He spoke most strongly against the theory of the 
isolation of ancient monuments, pointing out that 
people were apt to forget that they had been de- 
signed for the particular position that they occu- 
pied. He objected, also, strongly to the idea that it 
was necessary to surround ancient monuments with 
buildings that were supposed to be in harmony with 
them ; nor did he consider it possible to rely on the 
judgment of administrative commissions in these 
matters. He said that our great architects of the 
past could never have executed their "chefs 
d'ceuvres" if a dozen serious gentlemen had been 
charged to lop off the faults with which they were 
happily endowed. 


The Housing Problem Met and Overcome 

in Prague 

(From our Special English Correspondent) 

WITH us in England the housing problem 
seems to firmly decline to be conjured by 
any motions of the official wand. After in- 
numerable speeches, and complicated and dubious ex- 
pedients, Dr. Addison, who is officially in charge 
of this question, has produced a bill which has just 
been thrown out by the House of Lords, with the 
general approval of the country, but with the result 
that it leaves this pressing question in an even worse 
muddle than it was before. After these years of 
governmental mismanagement one's heart goes out 
in sympathy to those who in the little Sussex vil- 
lage where I write these lines on the sound old 
principle that the gods help those who help them- 
selves, set to work a few months ago to build their 


own houses, and by this year's ending will have 
roofed in three or four very cosy looking dwellings 
on the bungalow type. 

But we are by no means the only ones to suffer 
from housing difficulties. I believe that the problem 
has crossed the Atlantic; and in Europe Prague, 
the ancient capital of the new state of Czechoslovakia! 
has had a very acute housing problem. This was 
particularly felt by the many thousands of students 
of the University, who could hardly find suitable 
lodgings. Here too the idea of self help came for- 
ward, and found a ready and efficient acceptance. 
Professor Zahorsky, of the Technical High School, 
placed at the disposal of the organizations of the 
students his own patented system of "rapid build- 

ing." The Municipality of Prague "lent" to them 
for twenty years the ground required ; and soon 
some two thousand volunteers, all of them students, 
had started to build a complex of eleven large 
pavilions, which will provide accommodation and 


comfortable conditions for 700 students. These will 
include a central kitchen, dining-hall ; laundry, read- 
ing-room, etc. The students, as will be seen in one 
of my illustrations, have themselves dug the founda- 
tions for these pavilions, they had even dynamited 



stone in the quarries, and in fact have, I understand, 
done the whole work with the exception of the 
brick-laying, which was done by professionals. 



I am told by my friends in Prague that it is very 
interesting to visit this busy active colony, and see 
them at work especially on Saturdays and Sun- 
days, when some 400-500 are to be found working. 



By an excellent regulation the right to get a room in 
this colony is only acquired by those who have 
worked at least 70 hours on the construction. The 
colony is situated in the modern part of the city, near 

the Stadium, where last summer the great display of 
the Sokol gymnastic societies took place; and the 
girl students do the cooking for their working com- 
rades, that is, for those who are actually working on 
the construction. The whole movement only com- 
menced some 5-6 weeks ago, and by this time all 
the eleven pavilions are about completed and occu- 
pied by the students. 

The system of "rapid building" which Professor 
Zahorsky has so generously placed at the disposal of 
the students has the advantage that very solid build- 
ings, with quite a good appearance, can be built of 
wood, with stone foundations and brick underset- 
tings, without any specialized knowledge of carpen- 
try, for the planks are only nailed together. Our il- 
lustrations, which show the students at work, will 
help in forming some idea of the methods of con- 
struction used. The buildings have double walls, 
with a sort of small ladders between, and the walls 
are filled with ashes so that the pavilions will keep 
warm. The result should go far to test, and very 
possibly establish, the advantages of the method here 
put in use. In any case, after such interminable dis- 
cussion, it is a pleasant change to find some peo- 
ple who can take off their coats, and put the work 
clean through in six weeks. 

The American Specification Institute 

FROM an examination of your editorial of No- 
vember 17 it appears to us that your plan for 
the American Specification Institute is a good 
one. We do not know that specifications as now 
produced are the least creditable portion of the out- 
put of an architect's office. While we see other archi- 
tects' work as published in the magazines we never 
see another architect's specifications and seldom see 
any of his detail drawings. We sometimes hear 
criticisms of other architects' specifications from 
contractors who use them and have even heard 
favorable comments on our own. 

It would seem to us that if some arrangement 
could be found by which our specifications could be 
criticised by some impartial, disinterested architect, 
or, even better, by such a contractor, it would be of 
very great benefit. 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

in your editorial November 12. If, as you say, it is 
wisely formed and managed, it should greatly assist 
in improving this branch of architectural and engi- 
neering work, which, we must agree, is generally 
not given the attention it deserves. 

We await with much interest further information 
regarding progress of this movement. 


Detroit, Mich. 

I am very much impressed with your suggestions 
and wish you every success, and would be glad to 
help. MYRON HUNT, Architect. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

We heartily endorse the formation of the Ameri- 
can Specification Institute, about which you write 

I quite agree with your view that as a rule the 
specifications now produced are the least creditable 
portion of the output of architects' offices, and, 
holding this opinion, I therefore feel that anything 
that is likely to improve the character of specifica- 
tion writing and any institution that will turn out 
men competent to write good specifications should 
be welcomed by the architectural profession as a 
whole and certainly would have my hearty approval. 

The proposed Specification Institute may be the 
very organization to handle this work. I am not 
sure that I understood its purposes and equipment 
sufficiently to give it unlimited commendation, but, 
if I understand it correctly, I shall certainly wish 
for its abundant success. 


Columbus, O. 



Trinity Church, Newport, R. I. 

(See reproduction of original drawing by O. R. Eggers on opposite page) 

Newport, Rhode Island, sometimes called the social 
capital of the United States, was even before the outbreak 
of the Revolution socially and industrially important. 
During the occupation of Newport by the British, a fire 
destroyed a large part of the town. Among the few 
structures to escape the flames was Trinity Church, the 
subject of this sketch. As a result of military operations 
Newport became almost depopulated, but through all the 
vicissitudes of the Revolutionary struggle, "old Trinity" 
passed safely. 

In its architecture Trinity resembles many other churches 
built in New England during the early history of the 
Colonies, and while preserving the dignity and quiet refine- 
ment that characterized the early meeting houses, its chief 
claim is its association with stirring scenes of early wars and 
the reverential aspect of the people who stoutly guarded 
this sacred building from every threatened danger. 

Old Newport presents a picturesque contrast to the newer 
section, where now the mansions of the newly rich flaunt 
their pride of wealth before the observer. In the old town 
the houses are small, wooden structures, the streets are 
quaint and narrow and there is a restful feeling about the 
entire section. 

In earlier days the waterfront was the scene of bustling 
activity. Newport is an ideal harbor for ships of even 
the largest draft. From this port there cleared to sail 
the waters of the seven seas tall sparred ships whose cargoes 
formed a considerable part of our American commerce. At 
that time the spire of Trinity dominated the town and it 
served as a landmark for incoming ships and a beacon of 
hope to the home-coming sailor. 



THE AMERICAN ARCB1TECT Series of Earl, Amtrican Ar,hile,lure 

Europe Turns to American Architects 

AX increasing respect for American architects is 
being manifested by the attitude of Europe. 
Visitors to these shores from abroad reverse the 
opinion expressed by foreign guests some thirty 
years ago. At that time it was generally recognized 
that American architecture in the finer and accepted 
sense, did not exist in our promiscuously grouped 
skyscrapers, which in themselves were ugly. 

But today it is different. Arthur Balfour, during 
his recent trip to this country, referred with unre- 
strained admiration to "these great cathedrals which 
you call business buildings." Blasco Ibanez when he 
was here, declared that in the presence of New 
York's skyline and the magnificence of its great 
structures, he felt "a new pride in the achievements 
of man." 

Today America leads in architectural development. 
The Philadelphia Ledger summarizes certain in- 
stances of dependence upon us for the restoration of 
Europe's war-marred places. An American has been 
asked to plan the restoration of Rheims. An Ameri- 
can architect has been invited to rebuild the Uni- 
versity of Louvain. And greater yet, one of the 
largest problems confronting European specialists, 
the planning of a new Constantinople, has also just 
been referred to American architects. 

These few examples indicate a tendency, but it is 
logical to assume that only competence has been the 
basis. If American architects had not made good, 
not only in America where our own prejudice might 
discolor merit, but in the opinion of unbiased na- 
tions across the seas, the situation would be quite 
different. It is the practical grasp of the business 
of architecture, combined with a close knowledge of 
architecture as an art, that is more and more bring- 
ing recognition to the profession, and by a harmoni- 
ous union of these two attitudes will the profession 
move onward to an ever better standard. 

What Is a "Public"? 

"T)EOPLE are naturally egotistical. No better 
1 proof of this can be found than our attitude to- 
ward strikes and the "public" which those strikes 

effect. Forget entirely about the right or wrong of 
a strike. Take it for granted that a strike exists in 
a municipal street railway system. That is a so-called 
public utility. As a matter of fact, it is no more 
a public utility than the hotel one stops in, the res- 
taurant one eats in, or the house one lives in. We 
have become accustomed to speaking of it as a public 
utility in a loose sense, and we probably shall con- 
tinue to do so for a long while. 

Precisely as we speak of "the public" in a loose 
sense in the event of a strike on a traction system. 
Also, in a selfish and egotistical sense. We find that 
we cannot get down to work. We are inconvenienced. 
We have to resort to various makeshifts to reach our 
place of business. We immediately speak of "the 
public," which means simply that we are speaking of 
ourselves and others who want to get down to work 
on that particular traction system. That is "the pub- 
lic" for the time being. 

If cooks go on strike, the owners of restaurants 
set up a wail about the "public" being hard hit. They 
are thinking and speaking only of restaurant owners. 
It matters little to them if steel erectors are also on 
strike, so long as such a strike does not immediately 
and directly affect restaurant owners as a whole. 

So it goes. The "public" is always nothing more 
than ourselves. 

One of the best things ever said about the too- 
often quoted "public" is this by Albert Strauss, 
formerly Yice-Governor of the Federal Reserve 

"The workmen of each manufacturer and pro- 
ducer are the customers of all manufacturers and 
producers. The great bulk of the working popula- 
tion constitutes the great bulk of the customers of 
the producers and manufacturers. Unemployment, 
therefore, tends to perpetuate itself by cutting off 
the purchasing power of the population; the more 
that purchasing power is curtailed the more does 
business fall off, and the more business falls off the 
more, through unemployment, is the purchasing 
power of the community impaired." 

Careful consideration and study of that paragraph 
would eliminate a great deal of useless and inane talk 
about "the public." It would not excuse unjustifiable 



strikes. It would not mean that strikes are right or 
wrong. It would simply tend to do away with some 
of the natural egotism which is unfortunately too 
great a part of every member of the real public. 

Excessive Bidding 

CONTRACTORS do not make bids in any way 
comparable with those made after the work is 
ready to start and the owner ready to buy. This 
gives the impression that buildings will cost more 
than they actually do cost. Hence the owner decides 
not to go ahead . . . Stabilization of prices and 
the revival of building will be here when the con- 
tractors are ready to quote their real prices, so that 
investors can see their way clear to go ahead and not 
feel that they are paying a premium to the juggling 
of prices by contractors." 

This paragraph occurs in a letter from one of our 
correspondents, and is a quotation from a recent in- 
terview with one of the country's most prominent 
architects, a man directly in touch with the adminis- 
trative affairs of several architectural societies and 
constantly on the alert to the various factors which 
operate to the good or evil of the building industry. 

Two examples will suffice to show just what this 
practice means to the building industry. A 20-story 
building, on which figures were taken recently, was 
to have seven passenger elevators. They were bid 
at about $225,000. In another job (a bank build- 
ing) 14 stories high, and with steel to carry 20 
stories, was let at "$1 per cubic foot," according to 
information given out to the public. 

Now as to the first instance. The bid for these 
elevators was outrageous; almost 100 per cent, too 
high. Proof of that fact was shown in the action 
of the elevator company which made the bid. A week 
after the original bid was submitted a representative 
of the elevator company which made it called, and 
said just about this : 

"If this building operation goes ahead, we can ma- 
terially cut the price and close the contract." 

Moreover, the steel was bid at $110 per ton, which 
is in excess of the cost now being used in a building 
now being constructed in the particular city where 
all this occurred. 

"Contractors," says this same architect, "seem to 
be afraid to make bona-fide bids. Afraid they might 
bid too much lower than their competitors. I know 
how that is from my own experience. Everyone 
sparring for wind and playing for position." 

So much for the first example of this practice. 

The second concerning the cubic foot cost of the 
bank building referred to has to do more properly 
with misinformation rather than with excessive bid- 
ding, but it creates an impression of excessive bid- 
ding, and is therefore to be spoken of at one and the 
same breath. 

What that $1 per cubic foot actually represented 
in that bank building was practically a total cost, 
since it included all of the marble and bronze bank 
fixtures, vaults and other expensive items of a bank, 
but not, by any means, part of an ordinary office 

Yet the public, or even architects, who may not 
have known the real facts of the case, were given the 
impression that the building itself cost $1 per cubic 

What^ is the value of getting at facts like these? 

Simply this : To recognize a condition, produce 
examples of it based on facts, and then seek a rem- 
edy. There can be no doubt that excessive bidding 
exists. The facts given here are typical instances, 
not detached incidents. They point the necessity 
for a remedy. 

What shall that remedy be? It has been pointed 
out time and again at conventions of architects, of 
engineers, of builders, and of every group which has 
to do with the building industry. It has been repeat- 
ed so much, and so vociferously, that it has become 
tiresome to a great many architects. Yet it is the 
one remedy for the thing, and it is summed up in one 
short word. 

It is needless to print that word. 


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VOL. CXIX, No. 2352 


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VOL. CXIX, No. 2352 


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1111 N I W II K . i \ : -. r N'M t r T 'l i: ! 5 T A r I N O R. M A I 5 C II o o 1 



Heating and Ventilating Industrial Buildings 

Part III 

Hot-Blast Systems 

By CHARLES L. HUBBARD, Heating Engineer. 

THE most satisfactory system of heating for 
the modern industrial building, especially 
where the number of occupants is large in 
proportion to the cubic space, is that employing a 
fan and heater with a system of ducts for distributing 
the warm fresh air to all parts of the building. 

Various modifications of this arrangement are em- 
ployed for different conditions, including the re- 
cirulation of air ; the unit system, without the use of 
distributing ducts ; a combination of supply and ex - 




Vento heaters are located inside the galvanized housing, warming 
air forced through by electrically driven fan. 

haust fans, etc., etc., which will be mentioned in some 
detail later on. 

While a certain amount of simple data relating to 
the design of systems of this kind will be given, the 
plan proposed is to make this rather brief and devote 
the greater part of the article to the general arrange- 
ments which have been found most satisfactory for 
different classes of buildings, thus assisting the ar- 
chitect in making a selection of a system for any 
given set of conditions. 


The fans used for hot-blast heating are almost 
entirely of the centrifugal type, enclosed in steel 
plate casings. They are of two general forms known 
as the "paddle wheel" and "multi-vane." 

The first of these is the older, and is probably 
more widely used than any other, although it is be- 
ing rapidly superseded in new work by the multi- 
vane fan, owing to the smaller size of the latter for 
a given capacity and its higher efficiency. 

The paddle wheel fan has been more or less stan- 
dardized in design by different makers so that general 
data is of some value for approximating the size, 
speed and horse power, under given working condi- 

The multi-vane fan, on the other hand, varies con- 
siderably in design and operation, hence it is best to 
obtain all data as regards its action from the makers 
for any particular case under consideration, furnish- 
ing them with the volume of air to move, and a 
rough sketch of the size and arrangement of the dis- 
tributing ducts. 

In a general way, the cubic space required by a 




Vote metbod of running air supply ducts. 

multi- vane fan will be approximately one-half to two- 
thirds that required by a paddle wheel fan of the 
same capacity, and for the same size outlet will de- 
liver the same volume of air at about 65 per cent. 
of the tip speed-, and will require approximately 80 
per cent, of the power. 


For fans of average proportions, the volume of 
air moved may be computed by the following 

V = 2 x D x X x A x B; in which 

V = cubic feet of air discharged per minute. 

D diameter of fan wheel, in feet. 

N = revolutions per minute. 

A = a factor depending upon the diameter of fan. 
(See Table /.) 

B = a factor depending upon the resistance pro- 
duced by the air ducts. This may be taken as 
0.6 for the conditions found in shops and 
factories when the duct ' arrangement is as 
shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and 07 for systems 
like Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6. (See Editor's Note.) 
If the size and volume of air are given, the 

speed may be obtained by the following, in which 
the svmbols are the same as before : 

2 x D x A x B 


Diameter of 
fan, in feet 


Value of "A" 
in formula 













. . 18.6 


What volume of air will be delivered per minute 
by a 6-foot fan running at 300 r.p.m. in connection 
with a shop system of the general type illustrated 
in Fig. 1? 
V = 2 x 6 x 300 x 0.6 x 107 = 23,112 or 23,000 

cubic feet, in round numbers. 
The horse power for driving a fan depends upon 




In this case the columns have been utilized as ventilating ducts. 

the diameter, speed and the resistance operated 
against. Table II gives data from which the horse 
power may be approximated. The figures in the 
table are for fans discharging directly into the at- 
mosphere without the use of ducts. 

For the conditions of factory work, multiply these 
figures by 0.7 when "B" in the formula = 0.6; and 
by 0.8 when "B" = 0.7. 


Dia. of 
an, in 

Revolutions per minute 

160] 200| 240| 2801 3201 3GO| 400| 440| 4801 520] 560| 600 

Horse power for driving fan 









































What horse power will be required to drive the 
fan considered in the previous example? 

Here we have a 6-foot fan running at 300 r.p.m., 
with a value of "B" = 0.6. From Table II we 
find that a fan of this size running at 280 r.p.m. 
requires 20 H. P. and at 320 it requires 27 H. P. 
Interpolating, we find that for 300 r.p.m., the horse 
power will be 
20 + 27 

x 300 = 24 horse power. 


Ventilating fans may be driven either by steam 
engines, turbines, or electric motors, according to 
circumstances. \Yhen the exhaust can be utilized 

in the heater, an engine or turbine is usually more 
economical to operate where it is necessary to vary 
the fan speed to any great extent during different 
parts of the day. Where electricity is generated on 
the premises, motors are usually employed for all 
fan work, especially where ventilation is provided 
throughout the year, regardless of heating, and 
where the exhaust from the engine would be wasted 
during the summer. 

Again, the convenience of a motor often leads to 
its use, even at an increased cost of operation. 

A simple, quiet-running engine is desirable for fan 
work, and may be either horizontal or vertical, as 
found most suitable. The matter of a belted or di- 
rect drive is also one of available space in industrial 
buildings, and either may be employed satisfactorily. 
Engines having the crank and connecting rod en- 
cased are especially adapted to this class of work, as 
it protects the bearings from dust and grit which are 
liable to be present to some extent when the engine 
is placed in the fan room. 

Since it is frequently desirable to connect the 
motor directly with the fan shaft, direct current is 
preferable in ventilation work. When this is not 
available, and alternating current must be employed, 
it becomes necessary to use a belted or geared motor 
in order to secure the required speed reduction. 


The radiating surface used in connection with 
blo"\ver work may be either in the form of wrought 
iron pipe or cast iron sections designed especially 
for this purpose. In either case, standard forms are 
generally employed so that the work of the architect 


In heating buildings in which food products are prepared, not 
only fresh air, but that free from dust, and of proper humidity 
is essential. In the plant shown above the air is both washed 
and heated before delivery. In addition the humidity is under 
careful control. 




: rise in temperature of air, in degrees. 


This press room is both heated and ventilated by fresli warm air 
supplied through the register openings. 

or engineer relates rather to their arrangement than 
to details of design. 

The quantity of heat given off varies with the 
depth, the amount of surface, the velocity of air 
flow over it and the difference in temperature be- 
tween the air and the steam filling the neater. The 
final temperature of the air depends upon the depth 
of the heater rather than the amount of surface. 

For average conditions, say, with steam at 2 
pounds gauge pressure, air entering the heater at 
zero, and passing through it at a velocity of 1,000 
feet per minute, the final temperature will be ap- 
proximately as follows for heaters of the depths 


Depth of heater, 
in rows of 
1-inch pipe 


Final temperatun 
of air passing 
through heater 










24 . 


The efficiency of the heater, or heat units given 
off per square foot of surface per hour, for dif- 
ferent depths is given in Table IV, which is based 
on the same conditions as before; that is, air en- 
tering at zero, velocity of air 1,000 feet per minute, 
steam pressure 2 pounds gauge. 

The working formulae for the design of main 
heaters are very simple, and are as follows : 

VxT 55 xH 55 xH 

H= ; V= ; and T= , in which 

55 T V 

H = total heat to be supplied, in thermal units. 
V = cubic feet of air to be heated. 

Depth of heater, 
in rows of 
1-inch pipe 


Efficiency of heaters, 
in thermal units per 
sq. ft. of surface per hour 










24 , 


The use of these formulae and Tables III and IV 
are best illustrated by working a practical example. 


A factory building contains 240,000 cubic feet of 
space, and it is desired to change the air three times 
per hour when it is zero outside, and maintain an 
inside temperature of 70 degrees at the same time. 
The maximum heat loss through transmission and 
leakage is computed as 600.000 thermal units per 
hour by methods previously given. How many square 
feet of surface must the main heater at the fan con- 
tain, and how many rows of pipe deep must it be? 

The total heat to be supplied per hour is that re- 
quired to warm the incoming air from zero to 70 
degrees, plus that lost by transmission and leak- 
age. The total air quantity is 240,000 x 3 = 720,000 
cubic feet per hour. To raise the temperature of 
this through 70 degrees requires 

720,000 x 70 

H = - = 916,400 thermal units. 


Adding to this the loss by transmission and leak- 
age gives a total of 1,516,400 thermal units per 


The design of heating and ventilating systems for buildings 
devoted to this industry requires careful study. The large 
quantity of steam constantly present tends to produce excessive 
condensation on all cool surfaces. This being especially detri- 
mental to wood and iron must be to a large measure counteracted 
by the system installed. 



hour. As this must be brought in by 720,000 cubic 
feet of air, the problem now becomes to what temper- 
ature must the air be raised to absorb this amount 
of heat? This is given by 


T = =116 degrees 


which added to the initial temperature of zero gives 
a final temperature of -|- 116 = 116 degrees. 
Looking in Table III we find that a heater 20 pipes 
deep is required to give a final temperature equal to 
this. Also from Table IV it will be seen that a 
heater of this depth will have an efficiency of 1,500. 
The total heat to be supplied is 1,516,400 thermal 
units. Hence 1,516,400 -4- 1500 = 1011 square feet 
of surface will be required. 

The method of distributing the warm air under 
different conditions is best described by illustrating a 
number of typical buildings. 

In certain plants where the rooms are well filled 
with operatives, or where the processes carried on 
are such that maximum ventilation is required at all 
times, the heater should be designed for giving the 
full air supply in zero weather. In other plants, 
where the requirements are not so exacting, satisfac- 
tory results may be obtained by re-circulating the 
full volume of air within the building in zero 
weather and gradually increasing the outside supply 
as the temperature rises, until the full quantity is 
taken from outside when the temperature reaches 25 
or 30 degrees. In other cases, where the cubic space 
is large per occupant, it may be entirely satisfactory 
to recirculate the entire air volume for all outside 
temperatures below 40 or 50 degrees and depend on 
natural leakage for the fresh supply. The latest 
theories of ventilation lay special stress upon air 
movement and temperature regulation, and these are 
easily brought about when a fan system is employed. 
The main heater may be supplied with any steam 
pressure desired, but is usually made to utilize the 
exhaust the same as in direct heating. Temperature 
regulation may be secured in different ways, the most 
common being to shut off a part of the sections or 
by-pass a portion of the air around the heater by 
means of a special damper provided for this purpose. 


A good arrangement is a combination of these 
methods, using the steam valves for rough regula- 
tion and the by-pass for the finer changes which 
need to be made from hour to hour or at shorter 
periods during the day. In many cases the by-pass 
damper is operated automatically by a thermostat 
placed in the main room of the factory. 

In buildings of several stories, or consisting of a 

number of rooms or departments requiring different 
temperatures, or having different exposures, each 
room must be regulated independently. This is or- 
dinarily done, within certain limits, by varying the 
quantity of warm air admitted to the room, rough 
regulation for the entire plant being brought about 
by changing the air temperature leaving the main 
heater, this being under the control of the engineer. 

When conditions are such that the air supply must 
not be cut down below a certain minimum, then the 
temperature of the room must be regulated inde- 
pendently of the air supply. When the system is 
arranged for the re-circulation of air, return ducts 
should be provided with inlets from different parts 
of the room. Otherwise the rotation of air will be 
localized in the vicinity of the fan and the circula- 
tion in other parts will be weakened. However, 
in buildings of medium size, with the warm air well 
distributed, return air for re-heating may be drawn 
directly into the heater casing, or at least through a 
comparatively short duct without interfering seri- 
ously with the distribution. 

It has been necessary to print Part III of Mr. 
Hubbard's article in two sections. Some of the 
figures referred to in this section will appear with 
the second section in the January 26 issue. 

We, therefore, suggest to our readers that, after 
reading this first part of the discussion, they save 
these pages, and read the ivhole article again when 
the next issue appears on January 26. Editor. 

American Industrial Art 

THE Fifth Exhibition of American Industrial 
Art will continue until January 30 at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is intended to be 
a demonstration of the practical or trade value of 
an art museum, a proof of the educational use made 
of museum objects for the advantage and improve- 
ment of current design in many industrial art 
branches. Objects and designs have been brought 
together which were made for the commercial 
market, but which, in a greater or less degree, owe 
their conception or method of execution to the study 
of museum originals or other resources in allied 
departments. An effort has been made to select 
examples in varied types of material, form, color, 
texture, and technique generally, in widely separated 
lines of production, yet all destined for the open 
market and all showing that museum study has been 
found worth while in terms of the selling product 
which results. 

Manufacturers are urged to acquaint themselves 
with museum resources. Richard F. Bach, Asso- 
ciate in Industrial Arts, is ready at all times to assist 
manufacturers, designers, artisans, and craftsmen 
in objects of industrial art. 


The Garage Fire Record* 

Sprinklers Prove Ability to Extinguish Garage Fires 

Tl I K registration of motor vehicles in the 
I'nited States has increased from about 48,- 
000 in 1906 to 7,565,446 in 1919. The in- 
crease from 1915 to 1919 has been 5,200,000. The 
number of automobiles manufactured and placed in 
service is still increasing in geometrical ratio. In 
1919 there was a total increase in registration of 23 
per cent., and despite transportation difficulties the 
manufacturers' estimates for 1920 indicate the largest 
automobile production in the country's history. 


It is a self-evident fact that these automobiles are 
accommodated in garages ; that garage construction 
has kept pace with the multiplication of the automo- 
bile. There are no satisfactory national statistics on 
garage construction, but automobiles are too valu- 
able to leave in the open exposed to the weather, and 
it is reasonable to assume that garage facilities have 
increased in proportion to the automobiles. This 
mushroom growth of garages continues, unadvertised 
and unnoticed by the majority. Unlike housing 
construction, it has not been halted by increased 
prices or other difficulties. In fact, it is the largely- 
held opinion that the automobile and its attendant 
extravagances are responsible at least in part for 
the present housing shortage. Such statistics as 
are available are not inconsistent with this conten- 
tion. For example, in one American city for the 
first six months of 1920 building permits were issued 
as follows : Single houses, 1 ; apartment hou=es 2 
garages, 114. 



Fire experience and municipal legislation have 
been responsible for great improvements in the mod- 
ern garage over the converted livery stable and car- 
riage repair shops of ten and fifteen years ago, but 
there remain many features requiring further better- 
ment. And, with the continuing era of garage con- 
struction, there will still be opportunity to incor- 
porate the best features in new garages. . . 

Gasoline is the inherent, fundamental hazard of 
the automobile and its storage and repair. Gasoline 
itself is not, properly speaking, a 
cause of fire, although it is fre- 
quently reported as such. How- 
ever, it may be regarded as a 
contributory cause in the great 
majority of garage fires. For 
whatever the primary cause of 
fire, gasoline usually is responsible 
for its rapid spreading. The 
mitigating circumstance is the fact 
that the hazard of gasoline is now 
fairly well recognized, even if not 
fully realized. Large quantities 
are not ordinarily present inside 
the garage buildings except in 
proper containers (if automobile 
tanks are considered proper con- 
tainers). The quantities present, 
although comparatively small, are, 
with the inadequate ventilation 
usually obtained, amply sufficient to occasion serious 
fires. And when a fire is one well under way, 
the gasoline tanks are destroyed, contributing their 
fuel. * * * 


Ventilation is perhaps the most important of all 
construction features. With adequate ventilation 
explosive gasoline vapors would not collect, and a 
large part of the fire hazard would be eliminated. 
For a discussion of garage ventilation see Charles 
E. Worthington's article, "The Common Sense of 
Garages," which appeared in the N. F. P. A. 
Quarterly last January. 

Modern garage buildings are usually of concrete, 
and therefore fire-resistive. But there is a tendency 
toward very large areas. Horizontal areas are 
usually as large as possible and are in no way 
obstructed by partitions, while in the city garage 
occupying several floors there is seldom any attempt 
made to protect vertical openings. Although seldom 
used in garages, fire doors can give, and have given, 



excellent accounts of themselves in the journal of 
fire experience. 


Claims have sometimes been made that the garage 
hazard is too severe for ordinary automatic sprinkler 
protection, and that application of water is likely to 
spread the fire by floating burning gasoline. Records 
show no basis for such opinion. In the files of the 
National Fire Protection Association there are re- 
ports of 134 fires occurring in sprinklered garages. 
The accompanying table shows that of the 134 there 
were only four failures, making a total of 130 fires, 
or 97.1 per cent., where the operation of the 
sprinklers were satisfactory. This compares favor- 
ably with a general average of 95.7 per cent, for all 
class of occupancy. Of the four failures, two were 
due to water shut off sprinklers and two due to 
obstructions to distribution. A review of all the 
garage fire reports in the files of the National 
Fire Protection Association has failed to disclose 
any instance in which burning gasoline was spread 
by water from sprinklers. 

The accompanying photographs (Figs. 1 and 2) 
contrast the results of fire in sprinklered and un- 
sprinklered garages. In the first case (Fig. 1), one 
sprinkler operated and extinguished and confined the 
fire to the car in which it started. Mr. H. L. Miner 
reports : 

Fire occurred in a one-story frame garage SO by 100 
feet in area, which contained twelve automobiles. 
Garage was locked up Saturday afternoon. Monday 
morning, when next visited, it was found that fire had 
occurred in one of the automobiles, cause unknown, 
possibly due to defective electrical 
system, or possibly from a smoulder- 
ing fire due to smoking in the 
upholstery of the car. One auto- 
matic sprinkler to all appearances 
opened promptly and, although top 
of car was raised, thereby intro- 
ducing considerable obstruction to 
distribution, the automatic sprinkler 
entirely extinguished the fire. Five 
feet from the automobile was a tank 
of compressed acetylene gas, also 
an oxygen tank. Photographs shows 
position of car in garage and oxygen 
and acetylene tanks referred to 
above. The automatic sprinkler was 
still operating when this photograph 
was taken^ This is really a remark- 
able demonstration showing the 
effectiveness of automatic sprinkler 
protection, even though the sprink- 
lers are working under a serious 

Figure 2 shows what recently 
happened in an unsprinkled garage 
in Yakima, Washington. Note that 
the building had brick walls 

incombustible outside walls, to the ignorant, give the 
all too frequent impression that a building is "fire- 
proof." Mr. John Perry reports that thirty machines 
were destroyed, with an estimated loss on building 
and contents of $88,000, and considerable damage 
to adjoining buildings not included in this figure. 




Sprinklered : No. of Fires. 

*Small 134 



Unsprinklered : 

Small 250 

Large 129 




*Small loss is under $5,000. 

The Table of Losses, showing a fairly large pro- 
portion of large losses in unsprinklered garage fires, 
while in sprinklered buildings, of the 134 fires on re- 
cord there are no losses over $5,000, is another rather 
convincing argument for the sprinkler. 


Contrast this fire, w 
one spr 

here thirty machines were destroyed, with that shown in Fig. 1, where 
inkier head confined the fire to the car where it originated. 


Relative Heat Conductivities of Some 
Building Materials 

Results That Represent What May Be Expected Under Actual 

Service Conditions 

THE Verona Chemical Company of North 
Newark, N. J., has been conducting an inves- 
tigation to determine by the air box method 
the relative heat conductivities of building materials. 
The tests of the different materials were conducted 
under identical conditions as nearly as was possible. 
A number of cube-shaped boxes were constructed 
of the different materials of practically the same 
dimensions which were approximately 8" x 8" x 8" 
inside. The thickness of the walls was about one 
inch. An electric lamp was used as a heating 
element inside these boxes. The electric current was 
regulated by a rheostat and measured by accurate 
voltmeter and ammeter. 

The temperature inside was measured by two 
thermometers and outside by three thermometers 
and these thermometers were placed in the same rel- 
ative position on each testing box. 

The testing apparatus was set up in the basement 
of the laboratory, where the room temperature was 
fairly constant. No readings were taken during the 
first twenty-four hours in order to allow time for all 
conditions to reach an equilibrium. After this, 
readings were taken about every two hours. 

The conductivities "K" as shown in the accom- 
panying table in B. T. U. were calculated from the 
formula : 

3.415 X B X W 

K = - 

12 X A X (T-t) 
where "B" is the thickness of the walls in inches; 

"A" is area in sq. ft., "W" is the watts from the 
voltmeter and ammeter readings; and "T-t" is the 
difference between the inside and outside tempera- 
tures as indicated by the thermometers. Area "A" 
was considered to be the mean between the inside 
area and the outside area of the box. The thermal 
conductivity so measured represents the quantity of 
heat expressed in B. T. U., that flows through one 
square foot unit area of plates, through a unit thick- 
ness of one foot having a unit difference of 1 deg. 
Fahrenheit between its faces. 


The results thus obtained cannot be accurately 
compared with results of similar tests made under 
different conditions, because the conductivity "K" 
found in this way is not the heat transmitted only 
through the tested material of the thickness "B." It 
is the heat which passes also through the layer of air 
from the inside thermometer bulb to the wall, hence 
through the wall, and thence from the outside of the 
wall to the outside thermometer bulb. 

The results will be different from results of tests 
where air contact has been excluded. They will also 
be different from tests, where fans or other devices 
have been used to keep the air in motion, thereby 
diminishing the resistance to the heat entering into 
the wall of the material to be tested. Inasmuch as 
the figures are arrived at under the conditions under 
which the materials are used ordinarily in building 
construction, they will give a good idea of the rela- 
tive values of heat conductivity of the different ma- 
terials tested. 


Concrete, 1 cement: 2 sand. 


Box Walls, Electric 

inside mean 

dimen- thick- Mean Volume Weight Spec, 
sions, ness. area, box, box, grav- 
ins. ins. sq. ft. cu. ins. Ibs. 

Gypsum board ......................... R&8K VA 

Porete reinforced with exp. metal ..... S'Ax&% I 1 /,, 

Yellow pine, North Carolina ............ 8Vwx8V M 1 / 

Air cell, asbestos board ................ 8x8x8J4 Itf 

Cork-board ............................... 8x8x8 ^ 










cu. ft., 



outside Temper 
temper, diff.. 

. Heat 












































Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

Better Distribution of Aliens 
Aim of New Bureau 

Through the establishment of a new bureau at 
Ellis Island, New York, in charge of economic and 
linguistic experts, better distribution of aliens, par- 
ticularly with a view to avoidance of their congestion 
in large centers of population, is to be sought. The 
census this year reveals a tendency of the general 
population to flock to cities, and the new bureau, 
through its co-operation with state authorities, hopes 
to gain a much better distribution of aliens through 
rural communities. 

The new bureau is to be known as the Division of 
Immigration Distribution and its chief, according 
to Immigration Commissioner F. A. Wallis, will 
probably be P. A. Donohue, an economic expert from 
the U. S. Department of Labor. Mr. Donohue has 
been a member of several boards of inquiry at Ellis 
Island, and it is believed he will be well fitted for his 
new position through his war work for the Federal 
Employment Bureau. 

Prehistoric Village Found 

Discovery of the ruins of a prehistoric village and 
cemetery, in which were many relics of great value, 
in the Navajo country in New Mexico, has been 
announced by the American Museum of Natural 
History. The discovery was made by an exploration 
party headed by Earl H. Morris. 

Fragments of polished pottery, glistening in the 
sun, led the party "by mere chance" to the new dis- 
covery. Mr. Morris wrote to headquarters here. 
Hundreds of pottery vessels of artistic design and 
scores of ancient tombs, which revealed many inter- 
esting habits of living, were unearthed, he said. 

"There had been more than twenty dwellings in 
the village," he said, "varying in size from four to 
as many as fifty rooms." 

In Prague 

In Czechoslovakia, the system of locking up a 
house is very peculiar. There are usually two very 
inferior locks on an outside door, which is further 
fastened on the inside with a small chain. The chain 
is considered necessary, because anyone who has a 
dozen or so keys could go about and unlock most 
of the doors in the street. The keys are always large 

and unwieldly things, frequently 5 or 6 inches long. 

There would be some local conservatism to combat 
in attempting to introduce a really good spring lock, 
but there is no doubt that they are much needed. 
Furthermore, there will soon be a great deal of build- 
ing in Czechoslovakia, especially in and about Prague. 
The needs of the rapidly growing city have not been 
satisfied by the existing office and- dwelling accom- 
modations, and building has been at a standstill for 
several years. It is now beginning to revive. 

Pennsylvania Academy Annual Exhi- 
bition Announced 

The 116th annual exhibition of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts will open to the public on 
Sunday, Feb. 6, 1921. It will close on March 27. 
Press view and varnishing day will be Saturday, 
Feb. 5. The reception and private view will be 
given in the evening of the same date. The Artists' 
Evening will be held on Feb. 12. 

The usual long list of prizes, medals, etc., is an- 
nounced. The honors include the Academy gold 
medal of honor, the Temple fund and gold metal, 
the Edward T. Stotesbury prize of $1,000, the 
Walter Lippincott prize of $300, the Philadelphia 
prize of $250, the Mary Smith prize of $100, the 
Jennie Sesnan gold medal endowed by Elizabeth 
W. Roberts, the Carol H. Beck gold medal, the Lam- 
bert fund and the George D. Widener memorial 

The members of the jujry are: Robert Vonnoh, 
chairman ; Cecilia Beaux, Frank W. Benson, Hugh 
H. Breckenriclge, Adelaide Cole Chase, William J. 
Glackens, William M. Paxton, William Ritschel, 
Robert Spencer, Helen M. Turner, Carroll S. Tyson, 
Jr., A. Stirling Calder, Charles Grafly and Albert 

Famous Workhouse Closes 

St. George's workhouse, just south of London 
bridge, where Oliver Twist had the audacity to ask 
for a second helping of thin gruel, has been closed 
by the poor law authorities and the inmates have 
been transferred elsewhere. The gruel, of which 
Dickens' child hero and his fellow sufferers partook, 
was made in a copper cauldron, which is to be pre- 
sented to the Southmark Borough Council's museum. 



Gobelin Works Admit Women 

For the first time since the famous Gobelin tapes- 
try works were established in France, back in 1664, 
women are now being taught to make tapestries. 

Danes Erect Obelisk 

An obelisk of granite 70 feet high is to be erected 
in Denmark as a memorial to the many thousands of 
American and Allied soldiers of Danish descent who 
died in the World War. It has been estimated that 
about 30,000 men of Danish blood fought in the 
American armies in France and that about 20,000 
Danes fought in the Canadian, Australian British 
and French armies. 

The proposed obelisk will rest on a base twelve 
feet high, on one side of which will be two women's 
figures, one elderly, the other young, both with 
slightly bowed heads, expressing the sorrow of the 
motherland and her emigrant daughter for those 
who died in war. On another side will be an Amer- 
ican eagle with the Star Spangled Banner, and in 
addition there will be bas-reliefs of typical war 
scenes from the American and Allied fronts. 

Bridge Resists Floods for Ages 

In Foochow, China, the city of the white pagoda, 
is the "Bridge of Ten Thousand Ages." Endless 
time and labor must have been expended on the 
bridge, which is one thousand years old, states a 
report in the Chicago News. It is all of granite, each 
stone roughly carved to fit its neighbor without a bit 
of mortar and to resist the river in flood and ebb. 
The massive piers, ten feet thick, piles of rough 
hewed stone, are like inverted pyramids, buttressed 
on the river sides and on the inner sides, each layer 
pf rock extending a foot beyond the layer below. 
Twenty feet is the widest span between any pair of 
the seventy-five piers and nothing wider than a sam- 
pan or raft passes on the turgid Min river. 

Immense slabs of .granite are the spans between 
the piers. Countless silken slippers, bare feet of 
chair bearers and straw sandals of sweating coolies 
have worn the surface smooth, while grass and wild 
shrubbery grow in the crevices of the piers and 
around the carved lions and dragons on the posts of 
the ponderous stone handrail. The roadway is no 
wider than an automobile. 

But this picturesque bridge is to be replaced by 
a grim structure of steel for automobiles, carriages 
and trucks and broad roads from the country have 
jome to Foochow. The shifting bed of the muddy 
Km IS to be dredged and ocean steamers will come 
to the city, instead of anchoring fourteen miles 


Reconstruction in Belgium 

Of all the warring countries in Europe none have 
returned to their pre-war activities in a measure com- 
parable to Belgium, according to recent Commerce 
Reports. When the armistice was signed the country 
found itself with a third of its factories ruined. In 
transportation essentials, 2,000 kilometers ( 1 ,250 
miles) of railroads, 1,800 bridges, and 600 kilo- 
meters of canals had been destroyed, 60,000 rail- 
road cars and 2,500 locomotives taken by the ( ler- 
mans, and the telegraph and telephone systems 

Progress made in the past 18 months toward re- 
construction is so phenomenal that within the next 
six months all pre-war industries excepting steel 
plants will have attained, where they do not already 
exceed, the production of pre-war years. 

Practically all railway trains in the country are 
running on pre-war schedules, the roadbeds and 
bridges having been for the most part repaired or 

Agricultural activity commenced immediately after 
armistice was signed, with the result that crops pro- 
duced in 1919 fully equalled those of 1913. As an 
evidence of the intensity with which Belgians applied 
themselves to work, it is interesting to note that, on 
the termination of war, there were upward of 800,- 
000 persons receiving chomage (unemployment 
wage), while at present the number has been re- 
duced to less than 200,000. 

Much of this remarkable progress is due to the 
activity of the Recuperation Committee which has 
succeeded in recovering most of the machinery taken 
away by the Germans. 

Reconstruction has been but little handicapped by 
the few strikes occurring, and there is little or no 
spirit of Bolshevism among the inhabitants. 


McCluer & Griffith, architects, formerly Dexter 
& McCluer, are now operating at 401 Canby Build- 
ing, Dayton, O. Mr. Dexter has retired from the 

A. H. Ebeling, architect, has moved his office from 
1106 West Fifteenth street, Davenport, la., to 818-9 
Kahl Building, that city. 

The K. L. Hullsick Company, architecture and 
engineering, has opened an office at 400 Flatiron 
Building, Norfolk, Va. 

A. E. Norman, architect, formerly located at 1526 
Devon avenue, Chicago, 111., is now practicing 
1531 Devon avenue, that city. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 

NOTHING is worse than the hypocritical 

The fellow who shouts optimism from the house- 
tops and tells the truth in the secret places is the 
most dangerous factor in any industrial community. 
If a market for a given commodity is weak, and con- 
tinues to be weak, it does no good, and much harm, 
to insist that "conditions are improving" and "are 
better." No harm comes from telling an industrial 
truth. The leaders in industry and finance are lead- 
ers because of their foresight. That is their stock in 
trade. Upon that their present and future business 
reputations rest and always will rest. They can no 
more risk injury to it than an architect can risk in- 
jury to his reputation by insisting that an unsafe 
building is safe. 

It was for precisely that reason that this journal 
published the opinions of prominent industrial and 
financial leaders regarding the future of both indus- 
try and finance. When men such as Judge Gary, 
Daniel Guggenheim, and Francis H. Sisson speak of 
the near future with confidence, one may rest assured 
that there is little to worry about the fundamental 

soundness of that future. It is petty and of no use 
to point to existing conditions as arguments again.,t 
the optimistic opinions of these men. Their present 
importance and value in the, industrial scheme was 
achieved by the keenest sort of foresight. It is as 
keen today as it ever was. Perhaps even keener. 

Upon what do these men base their optimism ? 

Such a question may seem a bit incongruous after 
granting them a sort of foresight not possessed by 
the average man. There is no way of knowing upon 
what they have based their opinions. But there are 
salient facts in the industrial situation the price 
problem, for example which could be taken as a 
basis for industrial optimism by any man possessed 
of common sense and that sort of reasoning power 
which sees more than the printed word or price. 

The table shown below represents wholesale com- 
modity prices for 17 commodities which have been 
chosen for their representative character and their 
relation to fundamental business conditions. The 
figures were compiled by the National Bank of Com- 
merce in New York, and are but a small part of a 
chart presented by that bank in its January house 


Commodity. Jan. 


Fair to choice native steers, Chi- 
cago 1 14.05 

Anthracite, No. 1 buckwheat, f. 

o. b. lower ports, N. Y 2 

Anthracite, stove, f. o. b. mine 2 
Bituminous, run of mine, t. o. b. 

mine Fairmont, W. Va 2 2.80 

Pittsburgh District 2 2.35 

COPPEK Electrolytic, early de- 
livery, New York' 19.25 

CORN No. 2 mixed, Chicago* 1.49 

Middling, spot, New Orleans 3 . ..40.25 

Green salted packers, No. 1 heavy 

native steers, Chicago 3 40 

Calfskins, No. 1, Chicago city 3 .. 80 

HOGS Good merchantablepigs & 
rough stock excluded, Chicago 1 .. 14.70 


Pig iron, basic, Valley furnace 2 . 37 .00 
Steel billets, open hearth, Pitts- 
burgh 2 45.00 

LEAD Pig, early delivery, N. Y. 3 8.75 

PETROLEUM Crude, at well 

Pennsylvania" 5.00 

Kansas-Oklahoma 5 3.00 

lit msKK 

Plantation, first latex crepe, N.Y/ 1 .53% 
Para, upriver line, New York 8 ... .49 

SILK Shinshiu No. 1, New York . 16.25 

SPELTER Prime western, early 
delivery, St. Louis 3 9.10 

SUGAR 96 centrifugal, N. Y 3 13.04 

SULPHURIC ACID 66 Be., bulk, 
sellers' tank cars, East'n points 7 . 20.00 


No. 1 northern spring, Chicago*. 3.10 
No. 2 red winter. Chicago 4 2,65 

WOOL Clean basis, Boston 

Ohio fine delaine" 2.30 

Ohio Vi blood 9 1.07 

Feb. Mar. Apr. 
13.35 13.30 13.90 

iaao > 1914 

May. June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. 
' 12.30 15.90 15.50 14.85 15.50 14.70 11.25 9.50 8.6U 


























18.37% 17.87 18.75 18.62% 18.12% 16.25 14.50 13.75 
2.15 1.82 1.52% 1.60 1.37% .95 .83% .72 




39.25 41.00 41.50 40.25 40.75 39.00 34.50 28.50 20.25 18.25 14.75 12.88 




























































































20.00 20.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 22.00 22.00 22.00 22.00 21.00 20.00 

2.22% 1.88% 1.61% 
2.39 2.11% 2.00 






















dollars per 100 Ibs. 2 Dollars per gross ton. "Cents per 
per net ton. 

Ib. 'Dollars per bu. "Dollars per bbl. 'Dollars per Ib. 'Dollars 



organ. Any architect would profit considerably in 
a careful study of that chart. There is a great busi- 
ness sermon in it. 

The writer would respectfully direct attention to a 
careful comparison of the prices for the commodities 
indicated in January, 1914, and December, 1920. 

Also to a careful comparison of the prices from 
January, 1920, to the end of the year. 

And next week there will be considerably more to 
say about them. It would be a good idea to keep 
this issue at hand or to clip this chart. You will 
have occasion to refer to it frequently. It will be 
taken as a basis for a series of price discussions, the 
first of which, "The Architect's Relation to Price De- 
clines," will appear in this department in the issue of 
January 26. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. Optimism, effervescent or otherwise, 
is not responsible for the brighter feeling in Pacific 
Coast business circles regarding the sudden change 
in mental posture toward reconstruction of buying 
for new commitments early in 1921. Lumber is be- 
lieved to be at bottom from the fact that wholesalers 
have begun to buy. jobbers of building hardware are 
preparing to buy on the new price list reached when 
the independents shrunk away the premiums of war- 
time and touched the Steel Corporation levels, there 
is accumulating evidence of the return of confidence 
of buyers to building materials, and the farthest pos- 
sible date at which resumption is now placed by many 
of the keenest minds in this territory is March 1, with 
proportionate symptoms of recovery during January. 

There is no doubt whatever that during early De- 
cember not a jobber in a hundred would have claimed, 
excepting for public consumption, that the coast con- 
ditions could change before midsummer. Revision of 
figures with the conclusion of stock-taking, increased 
inquiries with architects, larger activity of public 
building construction and homes, conviction that steel 
products cun go no lower until after the 1921 place- 
ments have been cleared are factors that have built 
up the new atmosphere overnight. This feeling is 
increasing hourly. 

Concededly among jobbers, with the facts at hand 
rather than sentiment or personal opinion, the New 
Year will be a buyers' and not an order-book year, 
and the educational trend and activity of selling or- 
ganizations in building lines is being shaped to that 
end. Men in the field are being warned that now, 
as at no time since 1914, they will be expected to 
move rapidly and to meet keen competition for busi- 
ness, even to searching out the long-neglected and 
insular buyers. The old-time zest of getting orders 
has started. 

Jobbers of building hardware, nails, sheets and 

pipe are today buying only light in order to ride out 
the earlier pauses during January, but as for accept- 
ing the Steel Corporation basis as fundamental and 
not subject to further change during this year, the 
thing is as good as done, and the jobbing trade feels 
its position secure when treating problems of the 
new building season. 

The factor that has held off buying during the 
past 30 days, when delivery from the mills has come 
nearly to normal, is the dumping on the market by 
shipyards of pipe, bar, cleats, rivets, bolts and pipe, 
larger sizes predominating. These huge stocks, ac- 
cumulated during the speed-up war period, are being 
offered under the market as the shipyards that bought 
them are being dismantled. The jobbing trade doe; 
not feel justified in buying even on the sound steel 
market when all these stocks are lying round loo.-e 
at the mercy of any chance speculator. 

There is on the coast today no shortage of build- 
ing essentials. Cement, probably the last to show 
normal conditions, is being supplied in sufficient 
quantities to meet the needs of the hour. None care 
to accumulate stocks for the next 30 days. 

Fully 50 per cent, of the fir lumber mills that 
closed for the holidays, supposedly for an indefinite 
time, will be in operation by January 15. Many re- 
opened before New Year's day. A decline of a dol- 
lar in common dimension, or to $13.50 to the trade 
this week had been discounted in advance, and this, 
it is now felt certain, will be the last fall in prices for 
some time. 

Wholesalers believe the time is ripe for buying, 
and will start doing so during January. Should a 
drop of another dollar occur, as a minority now pre- 
dicts, wholesale buyers say it will only be necessary 
to hold their purchases past the next soft spot in 
order to realize a profit. Their conviction that re- 
covery in the lumber market is now due is their foun- 
dation for proposed buying activity. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO, Jan. 17. It is becoming increasingly ap- 
parent that the only obstacle in the path of a great 
building revival in the Chicago district is the matter 
of price on lumber, labor and materials. And it is 
not so much a question of the actual cost as of the 
uncertainty now attending the whole price situation. 
Those who contemplate building, whether they be in- 
dividuals or corporations, are apparently hesitating 
because they have no way of judging the stability of 
prices at this time and do not desire to make a build- 
ing investment that will be periled by early and more 
substantial declines in the cost of everything that 
goes into the finished building. 

If this fog of uncertainty and distrust can be lifted, 
there is no reason in the view of the best posted 
men in the building industry in Chicago why the 



building- pi ogram, so long talked of, cannot be suc- 
cessfully instituted at once. 

Cost alone is holding back the bandwagon. Plans 
have been made ; the need is very great, the money is 
available only the indecision of the market in con- 
struction materials remains the unknown factor in the 
building equation. 

Frankly, there is a feeling on the part of those who 
are about to invest in new construction work that 
prices have not yet dropped sufficiently and that a 
little waiting will bring the market to much lower 

Lumber, labor and the minor materials have been 
accused of attempting to take a small loss with such 
loud acclaim and such a blare of trumpets that the 
public will immediately assume that the rock bottom 
has been reached and that there is nothing more to 
expect in the way of price reduction. 

The public, however, declines to take this point of 
view, and the psychological effect is to produce a buy- 
er's strike which is just as keenly felt in the building 
trades as in shoes or ships or sealing wax, or any 
other of the lines that have suddenly slowed up as 
far as consumer demand is concerned. 

The foregoing represents the darker side of the 
situation, but let a brighter point of view be unfolded. 

The interests whose prosperity is gauged by the 
amount of building have seen the light and are now 
bringing themselves together with a view to settling 
the market and of laying the ghost of price uncer- 
tainty, once and for all. 

The first step in this direction was taken in the 
Chicago territory by Edward Hines, a prominent 
lumber manufacturer, whose business sagacity and 
foresight have made him a leading figure in the lum- 
ber industry. Sensing this watchful waiting attitude 
on the part of the building public, he called a confer- 
ence of lumber manufacturers from all parts of the 
country. They met in Chicago, January 5-6, and 
made a hasty summary of the situation, deciding in 
very short order that the lumber industry alone can- 
not swing the pendulum of price back to a normal 
stability. To the end that the mists of indecision may 
be cleared away, however, the lumber interests have 
called another conference this to be held in Chi- 
cago January 21-22, at which all factors in the build- 
ing materials field will be represented. Here all the 
manufacturers whose products go into the building 
industry will sit down in a heart-to-heart fashion in 
order to bring about as complete a clarification of 
price as is now possible. 

At this conference lumber manufacturers, retail 
and wholesale lumbermen, manufacturers of paint, 
cement, stone, granite, building metals, shingles, 
laths, lime, gypsum, glass, brick, sand and gravel 
every line in the building list will be present and the 
whole building impasse will be thoroughly considered, 

with price of materials as the crux of the whole con- 

That the meeting is going to be an Armageddon 
of disputatious views is thoroughly expected. Each 
trade is going to point out the utter impossibility of a 
further decline in its product, but out of the whole 
mass of conflicting opinion seems sure to come a 
concord of action that may give the desired result 
of stability of prices. 

Labor is not going to share very prominently in 
the conference, but the element of labor is bound to 
come in for a great deal of discussion, and the gen- 
eral feeling is that the industry is going to be much 
nearer a normal basis of opinion after the meeting 
than is now the case. 

Not content with engineering a general conference 
on the building situation, the lumber manufacturers, 
acting in concert with the National Lumber Manu- 
facturers' Association, have recently sent a delegation 
of their leaders to Marion, where a conference was 
granted by President-elect Harding. The committee 
was given a two hours' audience, during which the 
side of the lumber industry in the housing shortage 
and the willingness of that industry to co-operate in 
a return to normalcy were presented to Senator 

No program of tangible facts was presented at the 
Marion conference, and President-elect Harding did 
not express his views upon the pros and cons of the 
building situation, but he asked a great many ques- 
tions indicating his very great interest and his anxi- 
ety to be thoroughly posted on the technical points 
of the discussion. 

Another tangible result of the conference of the 
lumber interests recently held in Chicago is the an- 
nouncement that a fund is to be raised within the in- 
dustry to advertise lumber and its uses and to build 
up in the public mind the feeling of confidence that 
the industry is not attempting to impose unreason- 
able prices on lumber. 

Another meeting of unusual interest is that of the 
Associated Building Contractors of Illinois, held in 
Chicago during the second week in January. 

Although the week has been marked by meetings, 
conferences and discussions of lower prices for lum- 
ber and materials, the prices remain virtually un- 

Materials linger at old figures, with business very 
quiet, but with the factors in the trade quite hope- 
ful as to the outcome. 

Some reductions are in contemplation, it is said. 
Mixed paints are expected to show an early decline, 
following a cent a pound reduction in all leads, an- 
nounced this week by leading manufacturers. Cur- 
rent lumber and materials quotations in the Chicago 
market are: 

Yellow Pine: B. & B. 1 in., $95 to $130; 13-16, 



3'4 flat flooring, $85 to $90; 2 by 4, 10 to 16 feet, 
No. 1 long leaf, $51 ; 2 x 6, $48 to $49; 2 x 8, $49 

1, i S50 ; 2 by 10, $52 to $54 ; 2 by 12, $54 and $56. 

Northern Hardwoods, carload lots, Chicago: 

liirdi, four '4 No. 1 and 2, $155; select, $130 to 
$138 ; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

1 lard .Maple, four */ 4 No. 1-2, $135 to $140; select, 
$115 to $120; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $32 to $50. 

Red gum four % No. 1 and 2, $148 to $152; 
No. 1 common, $88 to $92 ; No. 2, $43 to $47. . 

Birch, four y 4 No. 1 and 2, $155 to $160; select, 
$130 to $139; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 

2, $60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

Douglas fir, 12 by 12, No. 1 up to 32 feet, $65 to 
$75 ; 14 by 14, $68 to $75 ; 16 by 16, $70 to $75 ; 
18 by 18, $75 to $80. 

Cement : Universal, $3; Lehigh, $3.00; Portland, 

Bulk lime, $1.70 to $1.90; face brick, octagons, 
$68 to $75; fire brick, $32 to $40; 12 in. .24 to .27, 
18 in. .46 to .54. 

Crushed stone gravel $3.40 to $4; lake and bank 
sand-torpedo, $3.40 to $4. 

Present important building operations in Chicago : 

Federal Reserve Bank Building; excavation and 
preliminary foundation work well along; Royal In- 
surance Building; three theatre buildings in the 
Loop; Chicago Board of Education Building; Gov- 
ernment Parcel Post Station ; and the Fair's nineteen 
story building on Monroe Street. 

The last three represent an outlay of nearly $5,- 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON, Jan. 17.- If one were asked to name the 
outstanding features of the business situation in 
New England today he would be obliged to mention 
all those facts in our industrial life which come under 
the head of business readjustment. There is the 
slowing up in industrial and commercial activity as 
reflected in reduced railroad earnings, steadily de- 
creasing bank clearings and increasing unemploy- 
ment. Many plants in such centers as Bridgeport, 
Waterbury, Providence, Fall River and Holyoke are 

carrying a pay roll of one-third to one-half the 
amounts of four months ago. In the early months 
of 1920 clearings were running 25 to 30 per cent, 
ahead of the same months of last year. Recently 
they have in turn revealed a falling off of 10 to 14 
per cent, compared with a year ago. 

A 22 l / 2 per cent, cut in textile wages in New Eng- 
land was announced this week. In the steel trade, 
which so far has not cut wages, reduction is in the 

The so-called consumer's strike will undoubtedly 
be called off as soon as there is any evidence that 
commodity prices have again reached a more stable 
basis. There does not seem to be as much quarrel 
today with the level of prices as there is in regard 
to the uncertainty as to whether the decline in com- 
modity prices is over. For instance,' no one will say 
that the fall in copper prices from 36 cents in the 
war period to 13% cents has not been sufficiently 
drastic. But no one wishes to do much buying a: 
long as the trend of prices is downward and not up- 

The Harvard University committee on economic 
research says : "Evidence of approaching business re- 
vival are not yet apparent in the news of the day, 
nor do we expect to see any very soon. There are 
considerations, however, which support the forecast 
drawn from our index chart that a revival of busi- 
ness will begin next spring, one being the fact that 
a number of raw materials, such as cotton, wool and 
leather, are selling much below recent costs of pro- 
duction and probably below costs that will rule next 
year, even with considerably reduced wages ; another 
being the fact that the physical production, both 
mining and manufacturing, was less in 1919 and 
1920 than in 1916, 1917 or 1918. 

"Both of these considerations support the forecast 
that there will be a recovery in some prices at no di s- 
tant date." 

Statistics of building and engineering operations 
show that contracts awarded in New England from 
Jan. 1 to Dec. 15, 1920, amounted to $297,733,962, 
as compared with $235,356,000 in 1919; $146,703,- 
000 in 1918; $195,443,000 in 1917; $201,259,000 in 
1916; $171,820,000 in 1915, and $159,280,000 in 
1914 for a corresponding period. 


<^i ?0.>: 






NUMBER 2353 

A Side Trip in Building 


IN view of the fact that economic conditions have 
for the present combined to block all manner 
of construction, any proposed addition to the list 
of building material which may become generally 
available should receive thoughtful consideration. 
No known material is more equably distributed by 
nature over the surface of the globe than common 
earth, but few people now believe that in its crude 
state it can be made of practicable use for building 
purposes. Modern science has ignored the subject 
and the modern house builder has made no use of it 

First Course Shows form in place and filled with tamped earth 



whatever, perhaps because manufactured products 
have been easy to get and cheap. Earth building is 
a forgotten art, yet history tells of its use, extending 
far back into the early centuries of civilization. In 
our day, war has forced back again into modern life 
many of the conditions and cruder customs usual 
only in a more primitive social state, and so perhaps 
a revival of this ancient practice may prove of use in 
solving some of our new and pressing housing prob- 

Our country contains (mostly in the western 
states) many picturesque examples of earth build- 
ing, or "adobe," made from puddled clay and straw, 
moulded into blocks and dried in the sun; these 
blocks are then laid in the wall like ordinary mason- 

ry. Usually "adobe" walls are covered by a protec- 
tive coat of plaster, although frequently they may be 
seen standing and useful without covering of any 

About one year ago an article appeared in an Eng- 
lish illustrated journal called "The Sphere," which 
contained a description of "Pise' de Terre" masonry 
and claimed that substantial walls could be built by 
simply ramming nearly dry earth between two forms 
made of boards. These forms were described as of 
standard size, about ten feet long and three feet wide, 
and when tamped full, the forms could then be 
moved along horizontally and another section of wall 
laid in the same manner. Other courses could be 
laid by placing the same form on top of that part of 
the wall already built, and the process continued. 

Since the publication of an article on earth walls 

Shows completed walls ready for roof and finishing coat of plaster 



in the Literary Digest some months ago, very many 
letters have been received expressing interest in the 
subject and for the most part earnestly requesting 
further information. One writer from Foochow, 
China, is, however, entirely skeptical as to the value 
of earth for building. He states that "mud" hovels 
are common in many parts of China, but they are 
uniformly insanitary and insecure when subject to 
heavy rains or floods. In this he is no doubt quite 

Copyright, 1921, The Architectural A Building Press (Inc.) 


correct, but our material is not "mud, and it must 
be remembered that similar conditions exist frequent- 
ly when more expensive materials are used. Another, 
calling himself an "agricultural missionary," writing 
from Portuguese South Africa, says that if a practi- 
cable way of building with earth could be found, it 
would solve one of their most serious problems 
Similar letters have come from Canada, Mexico and 

used in testing cement. These specimens developed 
a tensile strength of from 80 Ibs. to 125 Ibs. per sq. 
inch after six days' seasoning in the form. A test 
for compression developed a strength of 125 Ibs. per 
square inch. Later on, a small "cube" of earth used 
in the little building illustrated, failed under com- 
pression at 473 Ibs. per square inch after forty-two 
hours' seasoning. 

!50.", /IEW 


many parts of the United States, all tending to show 
a very general desire for simpler and less costly 
methods of building than those commonly in use. 

However, it seemed highly improbable that earth 
could be compacted by hand sufficiently to stand in a 
wall until the result of a few experiments had been 
obtained, made with dry earth tamped into "bri- 
quette" form, and tested in the manner customarily 

Of course, these few tests are of no scientific 
value, but may serve, perhaps, to indicate the desira- 
bility of a more thorough investigation of the physi- 
cal properties of compressed earth by qualified ex- 

But if such walls as these had been successfully 
used at one time they could be in another, and the 
evidence seemed to justify the making of an experi- 



ment in actual construction at the first opportunity. 
Fortunately, there was little difficulty in persuading 
the superintendent of the David Rankin, Jr., School 
of Mechanical Trades to permit the attempt to erect 
with earth masonry a small building for the storage 
of oil and gasoline on the school premises. While 
this building was to be only ten feet by thirteen feet 
in plan, it must be roofed and provided with a door 
and wjndow and so would possess most of the ele- 
ments of a larger house. 

This experiment has convinced the author that 
earth may be used successfully for the walls of small 
dwellings, for farm buildings, for fences and garden 
walls or similar purposes possibly for army canton- 
ments. But the application of this or any new sys- 
tem of construction to actual use will no doubt entail 
considerable preliminary study of building processes 
and may require some slight modification of the usual 
forms of architectural details. 

There are many advantages that would follow a 
more general use of earth construction, not the least 
of which would be a diminution in our enormous an- 
nual waste by fire and a supplementary saving in the 
consumption of new lumber the country's supply 
of which, we are told, is becoming rapidly depleted. 
Besides, there would be no waste like that in con- 
crete construction, for the same wooden forms or 
boxing can be used for an indefinite time on any 

Earth walls, besides being fireproof, afford a very 
efficient protection against extremes of temperature 
and there may be opportunity for the inventor in de- 
vising an equally cheap and effective construction foe 
floors and roof. 

One of our most serious problems is that of trans- 
portation, which constitutes a large factor in the cost 
of building. Some of this expense is, of course, un- 
avoidable, because certain manufactured products, 
such as iron pipe, plumbing fixtures, glass etc., must 
be used in any case. But with earth already on the 
premises substituted for other manufactured mate- 
rials used in walls, a large part of the transportation 
charges would be eliminated. 

The possibility of improved artistry in earth build- 
ing seems unlimited. The thicker walls permit an ef- 
fect of stability now absent in most of our house de- 
signs, particularly of the cheaper sort, and a know- 
ing use of, color on the plaster covering might give 
distinction to a simple building at little cost. The use 
of plastic decoration with color added suggests the 
possibility of an architectural development which 
might become distinctively American. 

While there may exist at present prejudice against 
the use of earth as a material fit only for the dwell- 
ings of the very poor, it seems possible that further 
study by architects and engineers might develop a 
system of building altogether satisfactory from the 

standpoint of cost, construction, sanitation and 

The writer feels that a single attempt at earth 
buildirfg has not furnished sufficient data for the 
preparation of a real specification, but perhaps a few 
hints derived also from such literature as was avail- 
able may be useful to any one wishing to undertake 
a similar experiment. 

While in this case a foundation of concrete extend- 
ing about 8 inches above the surface of the ground 
was used, it is probable that an earth foundation 
would answer as well if thoroughly protected by a 
waterproof coating. 

Front view showing finished building 


The earth used in building the walls was obtained 
by grading the site and from the foundation trenches. 
The best results were obtained with a mixture of 
stiff yellow clay and. top soil in the proportion ap- 
proximately of one part clay to two parts loam. 

The earth should be free from roots, twigs or 
vegetable substances and should contain no lumps of 
clay or gravel larger than will pass through a 1J4 
inch mesh screen. In tamping the gables, we used 
earth sifted through a J4 mcri mesh screen, and ob- 
tained a smoother wall. When placed in the form 
the earth should be only slightly damp, and until used 
it should be protected from rain by a shed, tarpaulin 
or other means ; it should be placed in the forms in 
thin layers not more than 4 inches thick, pressed 
down with the feet and rammed until solid with a 
wooden rammer, and so on until the boxing is filled. 
The end of each section of wall should be tamped to 
a slope which will form the joint with the next one 
added horizontally; joints in successive courses 
should not fall over those in the lower course. Great 
force is not needed in tamping ; a quick, sharp stroke 



is the more effective. Strokes should not be in uni- 
son Wood blocks may be placed in the boxing and 
tamped into the earth to serve as grounds for attach- 
ment of frames, wainscoting, etc. If the top of one 
course is dry when a second course is laid it should 
be slightly sprinkled with water to insure adhesion. 

Fig. I shows the form or boxing used, placed on 
the wall, ready for filling. The lower ties are first 
placed at the proper distances on the wall, then the 
side pieces are lifted on and the top yoke quickly 
pressed into place. The steel plates on the yoke are 
slotted and "halved" with the iron lugs screwed to 
side pieces and hold the top of the form rigidly in 
place. A block screwed to the top of the tie holds 
the lower part of the boxing on one side, and a simi- 
lar block on the other end of the tie is hinged in order 
to prevent obstruction on extracting the tie from the 
wall. For the same purpose the tie is tapered and 
made in two parts, wedged apart at one end. On re- 
moving the wedge the parts come together sufficient- 
ly to permit easier passage of the tie through the 
hole. No doubt this device may be improved. Tak- 
ing out the ties is the only difficult part of the whole 
process. When the wall is completed the holes may 
easily be filled with dry earth tamped in with a ham- 
mer or mallet, a little water being first sprinkled 

around the edges of the hole. Small defects arising 
from accident may be repaired in the same way. 

No doubt with a suitable apparatus and more ex- 
perienced labor much greater speed in building may 
be accomplished than in this case. It took two labor- 
ers eleven working days to lay 460 cubic feet of 
earth, or the equivalent of 10,000 brick, and by ap- 
plying the local price of each type of labor, one may 
form his own conclusions as to the comparative cost. 

It is almost useless at this time to attempt to make 
accurate estimates, but it seems probable that earth 
walls, plastered, can be built at from 50 per cent, to 
65 per cent, less than common brick walls without 

In this little building the author has experimented 
with various forms of waterproofing; with coal tar 
products applied directly to the exterior surface of 
the earth; with paint and with waterproofing mate- 
rial in the finishing coat of plaster ; but time will be 
required to determine the necessity of using any of 
these substances, or of their relative usefulness. The 
author believes that with improved apparatus and 
more experienced labor a very smooth surface for 
earth walls may be obtained and that scientific study 
may develop some means of hardening the earth so 
that a plaster coat would be superfluous even for 
decorative purposes. 

Minneapolis Architects Have a "Colony" 

MINNEAPOLIS architects now boast of a 
"colony" of their own. A spacious build- 
ing of Florentine design, located at 
Second avenue S. and Twefth street, was recently 
thrown open to the public. 

"The exterior follows the Florentine style because 
it lends itself peculiarly well to varied window ar- 
rangements," Edwin H. Hewitt, architect stated. "It 
is built of Indiana Bedford stone, has a frontage of 
65 feet on Twelfth street and 110 feet on Second 
avenue, and is four stories high. The elevator well 
terminates in a tower in the upper story, and above 
the machinery is an artist's studio. Even the chim- 
ney carries out the design." 

One of the unusual phases, according to Mr. 
Hewitt's plan, is that while each firm will maintain 
its individual practice, many things will be used in 
common, such as the library, sample rooms, stenog- 
raphers' room, blueprinting and specification print- 

The third and fourth stories are especially designed 
for offices, library, sample room, clients' room, con- 
sultation rooms, blueprinting room, contractors' con- 

sultation and reference room, stenographers' room, 
a fireproof vault for permanent records and valuable 
plans, and large drafting rooms that are subdivided 
by glass partitions, making them private for each 
firm, yet easily accessible to others, when consulta- 
tion or suggestions are desired. 

These two floors will house a group of professional 
men. A special addition on the first floor, and a large 
part of the basement, will be occupied by profes- 
sional clubs, such as the Attic club, the Minnesota 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, the 
Post and Lintel club and the Skylight club. The 
basement also will contain a model kitchen and tea 
room, where meals will be served at noon to occu- 
pants of the building and their friends. 

One of the rooms in the basement will be for the 
exclusive use of draftsmen who desire to study at 
night. A professor from the University of Minne- 
sota will be available as instructor in design and the 
studies will be in the nature of university extension 

At one side of the building, away from Twelfth 
street, is a large lot that is to be terraced and devel- 
oped into gardens in the spring. A colonnaded veran- 
da opens on this space from the first floor. 


Two School Buildings in Syracuse N. Y, 

JAMES A. RANDALL, Architect 

(See plate form for illustrations) 

Delaware School 

A TWO-STORY and basement fireproof, brick 
school, having an anaemic department on the 
roof containing an assembly-hall, gymna- 
sium, public library and stack-room, bank, 17 class 
rooms, 2 industrial class rooms. Industrial manual 
training, school manual training, draughting and 
blue printing rooms, lumber storage and finishing 
rooms, school cooking, domestic science, dining 
room, millinery and sewing room, model flat of four 
rooms, swimming pool, shower rooms, boys' and 
girls' locker rooms, boys' and girls' toilet rooms, 
kindergarten, principal's office, reception room, medi- 
cal and dental clinics, teachers' rest room, reference 
library, anaemic department containing two class 
rooms, clinic dining room, serving pantry, store 
room and covered porch ; store rooms, electrical 
room, boiler room, fan room, coal bunkers. 

The school will accommodate 1,000 pupils. 

It was built during 1915-16-17-18 and opened in 
September, 1918. 

It cost completely furnished $343,270. 

Mr. James A. Randall was the architect for this 
structure as well as for the Blodgett Vocational 
School here described. Illustrations of these build- 
ings will be found in the plate form of this issue. 

Blodgett Vocational High School 

A THREE-STORY and basement, brick fire- 
* * proof building containing an auditorium, li- 
brary, mail office and two private offices, teachers' 
rest room, two ante-rooms, two dressing rooms, 
superintendent's office, 8 class rooms, 4 drawing 
rooms; 14 store, stack and locker rooms; 3 tool 
rooms, 6 janitor's closets, kitchen, lunch room, fac- 
ulty lunch room, two physics, chemistry and biology 
.laboratories, physics^and chemistry lecture rooms, 
boiler demonstration, forge foundry, steam fitting 
and metal working, demonstration, printing, emer- 
gency, elementary and advanced machine shops, pat- 
tern making, wood turning, elementary and advanced 
cabinet making, wood working machinery, finishing, 
dry kiln, lumber storage, lecture, blue printing and 
dark rooms, two apparatus rooms, dressmaking, 
millinery, commercial bookkeeping, typewriting, 
stenography, applied design, laundry, domestic 
science kitchen, model flat of 5 rooms, motion picture 
booth, fan rooms, transformers, electrical, electrical 
generator, boiler room and coal pockets. 

Built during 1916-17-18, this structure cost, com- 
pletely furnished, $545,000. There are 1,300 pupils 
accommodated, and thirteen toilets for faculty and 

Experiments in Art-Teaching in the Schools 

THE extremely practical side of the arts was 
ably emphasized by School Superintendent 
Corson, of Newark, N. J., in speaking of the 
approval recently given by the Board of Education 
to his plan for the extension of the system of inten- 
sive teaching of the manual arts throughout the 
entire school system. 

"Art," said Dr. Corson, "is of value to all manu- 
facturing interests. France owes her preeminence 
as an industrial nation to the fact that she combines 
beauty and utility in all her products. The high 
prices these products command in the markets of the 
world are due primarily to the element of beauty. It 
would be a mere venture to say how much is paid 
for beauty and how much for utility, but the ratio is 
certainly more than half and may be as much as five 
to three. 

"The American schools cannot afford to ignore a 
principle so clearly seen," Dr. Corson stated. "The 

schools must educate all to an appreciation of beauty 
as an element in manufactured goods of all kinds, 
and must not only develop a body of consumers, but 
must lay the foundations for training a body of 
workers for the factories of the country." 

Teaching with such a purpose was scarcely possible 
under the old system. The action taken by the com- 
mittee in approving his recommendation is of very 
great importance. It establishes a new epoch for the 
teaching of art, of domestic science, of domestic art 
and of manual training in the schools. 

"It has been customary to teach these subjects 
without much relation to each other," he continued. 
"Each had its own field, and each was given approxi- 
mately one hour of time a week. It is not difficult 
for any one to understand that this was merely play- 
ing with these important subjects, or, to put it dif- 
ferently, it was teaching subjects with very substan- 
tial educational value in a dilettante manner." 


While Dr. Corson felt that considerable gain was 
made in the manual arts when they were more closely 
related he felt that the problem of getting the whole 
value of these subjects had not yet been solved. As 
he put it, "there was still difficulty in the way of 
realizing to the full the possibilities in these several 
subjects. A reasonable time was not available to 
teach them, for the program of studies was full to 
overflowing and the demand for time could not be 
met without a radical adjustment of the schedule." 

Having arrived at this viewpoint, Dr. Corson de- 
cided to make another move and requested four 
schools to try out a new schedule devoting a period a 
day for five weeks, alternating them with other sub- 
jects in five-week cycles. The theory was the pupils 
would make such great gain that the loss in interven- 
ing cycles would be comparatively small. In one 
school it was worked out so successfully that educa- 
tors from other cities have come to see the plan in 
operation and the results to be shown. 

Another reason for satisfaction in the new move 
expressed by Dr. Corson was the direct reaction on 
the pupils. He said : 

"In all these subjects there is the element of do- 
ing. To make something that is at once useful and 
beautiful appeals strongly to every one. It calls 
into activity the ability of the pupil. The purpose of 
an academic education is largely to train and to pre- 
pare for the future, but these motor subjects have 
an immediate purpose to accomplish. There is im- 
mediate use for the principles learned and the mak- 
ing of things gives the pupils a sense of accomplish- 
ment and of joy that adults have in doing things that 
are worth while. 

"The time is long past when these subjects can 
be called fads. It is remarkable that in a great work- 
ing nation like the United States such rich subjects 
are decried. That such has been done is due to the 
strength of tradition and to the aristocratic notion 
that education was a process of class selection and it 
was best accomplished by studying the useless or the 
ornamental merely. 

"Chinese education until recently was an extreme 
example of this kind of an education. It is my be- 
lief that the schools of today should train for liv- 
ing in a modern world." 

Unwise Building Laws Written and Unwritten" 


THE housing problem is above all the construc- 
tion problem and the construction problem is 
the elimination of waste. And one of the causes 
of building waste is arbitrary and unintelligent 
regulation- which is what I am asked to discuss. 

Now unwise laws are taxes, and fall like rain on 
the just as well as on the unjust. And the unjust 
fellow is the one who usually gets the umbrella ! The 
incidence of building codes like the incidence of taxes 
is apt to Work injustice. It is the honest builder and 
the innocent public who pay the Jerry Builders 

So one is tempted to say that all building laws are 
unwise. But of course that is not quite true. In so 
far as they are teaching codes and not taxing codes 
they are beneficial. And if we could be sure of hon- 
est and skilled administration our building codes 
could consist of just two words "anything safe." 

But since unfortunately we cannot yet write our 
building laws on this basis, we must content ourselves 
with certain obvious improvements in the existing 
system. As far as possible our codes should be 
standardized throughout the country. "Factors of 
safety" should be reduced to the basis of honest con- 
struction. And in the last analysis, to lower our 

"*" Nati ' Ml Housin !> Association', Conference, 

"Factors of Safety" we must raise our standard of 

"One-two-four concrete" should not have to com- 
pete against "One-five-ten-twenty Concrete." The 
$20 ingredient should be eliminated. This means 
honest, well-paid inspectors. 

Superintendents of construction should be licensed 
like drug clerks and held responsible. The bur- 
den of protecting against fraudulent construction 
should be transferred from the Building Departments 
maintained at the cost of the taxpayer, to the build- 
ing at the cost of the dishonest constructor. 

We should have special sections in our codes gov- 
erning the little house the 'laboring man's house. 
Generic laws are sure to pinch some there and the 
smallest house deserves the greatest consideration. 
In the aggregate it represents the greatest invest- 
ment, quite aside from its paramount importance in 
welfare of the community. 

But besides the written building law, there are cer- 
tain unwritten laws that actually control building 
operations today, and I am going to take the privilege 
of extending the content of my subject so as to in- 
clude these invisible codes; for the simple reason, 
that in my judgment they much more vitally affect 
the cost of the working man's home than the written 



The written laws consist of the building and hous- 
ing codes and the insurance regulations, while the 
unwritten law is based on the rules of the labor 
union, the trade agreements of the materials pro- 
ducers, distributors and contractors and certain "Un- 
holy Alliances" between them all. 

In the last analysis our troubles are not so much in 
our building code as in our code of morals. Too 
many of our buildings are laid up in graft instead 
of honest old fashioned mortar ! 

It is the same kind of malady that has caused a 
good deal of our present business depression. I was 
talking with a banker the other day and he said the 
same thing apropos of America's foreign trade : That 
South American merchants would buy goods from 
American agents on sample and then get goods that 
were nothing like what they bought. He said the 
only trade mark in the world that was 100 per cent, 
good was the English trade mark. We are losing 
our foreign trade, and we will never recapture it un- 
til we are honest in our trademarks and deliveries. 

That is a very unfortunate thing to have to say of 
your own country, but I am afraid it is true. And it 
runs through many of our industries, and much of 
our construction work, and the point of incidence 
where it hurts and pinches as much as anywhere else 
is in the workman's own housing ! 

The unwritten laws in my judgment are the most 
sinister and the greatest surtax on the small house. 
The big fellow can afford to pay those taxes perhaps, 
but the little man cannot. 

Let us make a guess, for example, at the price 
which the little fellow, usually the working man him- 
self, is liable to pay for all those factors of dishon- 
esty and waste we might call them "Surtaxes." 
They might be roughly but conservatively appor- 
tioned as follows : 

To unwise Building Codes probably not more 
than 10 per cent. 

To labor stifled production 6 hours real work 
for 8 hours pay, and arbitrary rules against eco- 
nomic use of labor and materials (the workingman's 
own contribution) let us charitably say 25 per cent. 

To material, through "Unholy Alliance" between 
producer, distributor, builders and certain "mislead- 
ers" of labor to put it modestly 25 per cent. 

In short, for every $100 worth of home he pays 
$160 ; in many instances, of course, a great deal more, 
but my figures are simply to visualize the situation. 
And of this surtax of $60 the greater part, let me re- 
peat, is not paid under the written, but the unwritten 
law. The great bulk of it must be charged to our 
code of morals. 

Yet there are certain sections in many of our 
building laws that are disgraceful to our intelligence 
as these dishonest practices are to our morals. 

I read recently the intere'ting statement that the 

foundations normally placed under a small house 
would, if properly designed, support 23 houses of 
the same size. That is a little misleading, because, 
of course, the writer meant that if you could arrange 
the 23 houses so as to bring the load down to a point 
of concentration and meet it with a concrete pillar, 
you could put 23 houses on a pillar containing no 
more concrete than that put in the cellar of one of 
the houses ; but it is an illustration of the situation. 

I read also a discussion as to whether 6-inch cinder 
concrete walls cannot be substituted for the 8-inch 
wall of brick or gravel concrete; also as to whether 
certain co-efficients and factors of safety could not 
properly be reduced for special cases. 

I might add that, as an illustration of what can be 
done in economy of material, some years ago I put 
up 15 or 16 houses with a concrete wall section in 
which there was 60 per cent, of voids, the inner and 
outer shells of the sections being but an inch and a 
half thick. 

As to the "Unwritten Laws" we should have a 
trade union reformation. We should have member- 
ship on the basis of efficiency like the old Guilds. We 
should substitute leveling up for leveling down, and 
in place of the slogan "An injury to one is the con- 
cern of all," we should put "the benefit of all is the 
concern of each one." Obviously we should eliminate 
all rules restricting output in construction. 

To sum up. there are a half dozen very obvious 
things for us to do : 

1. Standardize Building Codes throughout the 

2. Base co-efficients on honest construction and 
engineering practice. 

3. Put the burden of "protecting the public" on 
the builder license the building constructor and 

4. Eliminate the "Unwritten Laws" of waste, lim- 
ited production and graft. 

5. Provide a special section in the building code 
covering the little house the laboring man's home. 

6. Secure the aid of the Government in scientific 
research and study for the housing industry. 

And in explanation of this last item on the pro- 
gram, let me add that we do not want subsidies 
from the government to build houses. But on the 
other hand, we are entitled to the same kind of aid 
in the housing problem that the Department of Agri- 
culture gives to the farmer. Let us hope that when 
they organize a Department of Social Welfare or 
whatever they choose to call it, they will co-ordinate 
the various useful agencies now functioning in dif- 
ferent government bureaus, in such a way that they 
can all be brought to bear on the problem of home 
construction. The efforts of this association might 
well be exerted toward influencing the Government 
to take that action. 



Doorway, Trinity Church, 

Newport, Rhode Island 

(See reproduction of original drawing by O. K. Eggers on opposite page) 

In a preceding issue a general view of Trinity Church 
was presented. Mr. Eggers' admirably executed sketch of 
the doorway shown herewith offers excellent suggestions. 
The quiet dignity of this old church, as it stands surrounded 
by its graveyard, will impress the visitor. 

Trinity was built in IJ26, but by whom designed no one 
has yet been able to discover. In 1^62 the church was 
sawed in two and lengthened so as to about double its 
original capacity. But so reverently was this church 
regarded that nothing was done then, or since, to impair 
the original effect and character of the interior. 

This doorway indicates the conscientious attention with 
which the Colonial builder-architect worked. Its moldings 
and fluted pilasters show the handmade work that makes 
a Colonial detail a thing of art and beauty as opposed to 
the machine cut moldings of the present. 

"In their narrow beds, forever laid, the rude forefathers 
of the hamlet sleep." Their resting place is in the shadow 
of the church, and the whole locality is one to make for 
quietness and thoughtfulness. 

The two story meeting houses in New England are of 
unusual interest, and while many of them architecturally 
present a better result, we doubt if any of our early churches 
have received more solicitous care or have been more 
reverently regarded than Trinity at Newport. 


4 *~-' ' 

TEE AMERICAN ARCHITECT Serin at Early Ameritar, AriHtectur, 


More Skilled Workmen for the 
Building Trades 

man of the Senate Special Committee on Re- 
construction and Production, has recently completed 
a nation-wide survey of the housing situation of the 
country. As a result of his investigations he believes 
that one of the most important problems confronting 
the construction field today is the matter of securing 
skilled workmen in the building trades. It is almost 
commonplace to refer to the demand for building 
now impending. It would be most unfortunate if 
that demand were augmented by a lack of skilled 
workmen after other deterrent factors had been ad- 

With this in mind, Senator Calder has addressed a 
letter to the Governor of every State in the Union, 
urging that steps be taken to establish trade schools 
in the several states for the purpose of encouraging 
young men to learn the building trades. 

The young American has shown a tendency to ally 
himself with trades which require a certain amount 
of skill. Hence we find among the electricians, the 
plumbers and the masons numerous young men of 
American birth. This, however, is not the case in the 
other building trades. These have been left more 
largely for men from foreign lands, who, dissatisfied 
with the conditions in their fatherland, have come 
to this country, and, without training or technical ap- 
prenticeship, have started at the foot of the ladder 
to try for success. The war has cut off this source 
of supply. Without trained workmen, and in suffi- 
cient numbers, the building program will be unneces- 
sarily delayed. 

It is therefore reasonable to consider Senator 
Calder's suggestion to foster building trades schools. 
Technical training is always useful, and to get it in- 
tensively and systematically in a recognized school 
is equivalent to a large amount of experience. 

A NOTHER fact which Senator Calder's com- 
mittee has revealed is that the supply of labor 
depleted through over-specialization. Certain 


trades, such as paper hanging, have a busy season 
and a dull, with the result that these trades must be 

highly paid, or else the men engaged therein must be 
competent to function in other trades in the off sea- 
sons. If apprentices might be trained in trade schools 
in a sufficiently wide range of related activities to 
enable them to adjust themselves to changes in in- 
dustrial conditions and seasonable demands of the 
construction industry, it would be a direct benefit not 
only to the tradesmen themselves but to the general 
public. The constant leaving of affairs to chance is 
one of the deplorable tendencies of American life. 
The way in which we chose our professions, or the 
way in which the humbler trades are entered arbi- 
trarily and with no thought of the larger needs or 
the larger results, is shiftless and un-American. 
When the cry is for skilled workmen for the building 
trades, the answer must be to train the workmen, and 
not leave the fulfilment of our enormous building 
program to accident and the whims of workers. 

The American Specification Institute 

THAT the subject of specifications is one that 
receives the serious consideration of architects 
is evidenced by the many communications received in 
response to the editorial printed in THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT of November 17, 1920. Excerpts from 
a few of these have been printed in the issues of 
December 15-22. Unexpectedly, but not without 
reason, communications have been received from 
manufacturers of building materials. These inter- 
ests are concerned with proper specifications, as they 
often suffer damage through those improperly writ- 
ten. The owner can also suffer a loss from the same 
cause. When the specification is capable of human 
interpretation and execution, the contractor becomes 
an implement of construction and in a measure an 
impersonal element. Responsibility is the attribute 
of the architect alone, as he produces the specifica- 
tion and supervises its fulfillment. 

The importance of the person who writes the speci- 
fication is becoming better appreciated. Anything 
which will aid him in improving his product should 
receive the hearty support of all parties to the con- 
struction of buildings and other structures. 

THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT would presume to 
suggest to those having in hand the formation of The 
American Specification Institute a consideration of 



those organizations that are engaged now in work 
that is an element of specifications. The very im- 
portant work of the American Society for Testing 
Materials very wisely can be left in charge of that 
organization. In like manner the same applies to 
the specifications of the American Societies of Il- 
luminating Engineers, Heating and Ventilating Engi- 
neers, Mechanical Engineers, Civil Engineers; the 
American Institutes of Electrical Engineers, Mining 
and Metallurgical Engineers, The American Con- 
crete Institute, The National Fire Protection Associ- 
ation, The American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion and others produce very excellent and valuable 
specifications for construction and the assemblage of 

The American Institute of Architects and the in- 
dependent state and local architectural organizations 
also have rendered valuable service in adding to speci- 
fication knowledge and standards. 

In fact, a close and intimate relationship between 
The American Specification Institute and all these 
organizations is essential that it may become the 
clearing house of their efforts in so far as the writing 
of specifications is concerned. Having in hand only 
one thing, it can take the findings of these organiza- 
tions and reduce them to exact and specific data for 
actual use. There is no reason why a hearty co-op- 
eration should not obtain between them. 

The plan and scope of The American Specification 
Institute, which it is understood will soon be ready 
for general publication, will be studied with interest. 


TODAY'S problem is the price problem. 
On page 107 of this issue there appears Part 1 
of an important article by Edmund D. Fisher, vice- 
president of Bank of Detroit. It is "A Study of 

Mr. Fisher shows just what prices are and what 
affects them. It may seem a trifle curious to a 
reader of this journal to intimate that it is neces- 
sary to have explained to him such a subject, but 
if is only too true that architects, as well as other 
business men, are sometimes apt to explain a great 
many things by that old and time-honored "supply 
and demand" catchword. 

Supply and demand is a real factor, no doubt, 
but is it thoroughly understood? 

What Mr. Fisher has to say is fact, based upon 

fundamental economic principles. To read his ar- 
ticle is to understand better the so-called price 
trend. And what is of more interest and real "dol- 
lars and cents" value to the architect at the present 
moment than that thing which will further help 
him to gain a better perspective of prices and which 
will increase his knowledge of the factors neces- 
sary to bring about an orderly decline? 

Fine Arts in the Government 

A SECRETARY of the fine arts has been ru- 
mored as a possibility for the Harding Cabinet. 
The Arts Club of Washington has started a move- 
ment to induce Congress to create a Department of 
the Fine Arts. 

Precedent for such an office is furnished by the 
French cabinet, where the minister of education is 
also minister of fine arts. 

This would involve the establishment by the gov- 
ernment of a great national school of music, drama, 
painting, sculpture, architecture and their allied 

That such a school under the protection of the 
national government would improve art education 1 all 
over the country is without doubt. Every art school 
would have to raise its standard of instruction in or- 
der to be eligible to become an authorized branch of 
this great national school. 

It would be able to develop an appreciative atti- 
tude toward art among those vast groups of the 
general public where now such an appreciation is al- 
most negligible. By proper educational publicity 
methods, much good might be accomplished. The 
numerous organizations now independently further- 
ing the progress of the fine arts could unite their 
forces and exchange experiences in a manner that 
would enble each to reach a far larger audience than 
individual efforts now make possible. 

Politicians will undoubtedly raise the objection 
that this should not come to pass at a time when 
retrenchment of governmental expense is in progress, 
especially in view of the fact that we do not even 
maintain a Secretary of Education. But if it were 
possible to take that important step it would be 
fitting, and an augury of hope, if extended official 
attention were given specifically to the fine arts. 
The amount of constructive, valuable work that 
could be accomplished by a competent executive 
mind would far overbalance the financial outlay. 


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VOL. CXIX, No. 2353 


JANUARY 26, 1921 




JANUARY 26, 1921 





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Heating and Ventilating Industrial Buildings 

Part III. (Continued] 

Hot-Blast Systems 

By CHARLES L. HUBBARD, Heating Engineer. 

A TYPE of building frequently used for machine 
work and similar manufacturing processes is 
shown in Fig. 1, and is well adapted to hot- 
blast heating. In small and medium size buildings 
a single fan and heater unit is placed near the 
center, and main distributing ducts run in both 
directions toward the ends. In the case shown, 
two heating units would be used, one on either side 
of the central bay, near the center, in order not to 
interfere with the traveling crane beneath the mon- 
itor. The main distributing ducts are run through 
the roof trusses and branches are brought down on 
posts to within 5 or 6 feet of the floor and turned 
so as to discharge at a slight angle toward the outer 
walls. The galleries are supplied through shorter 
branches as indicated. The arrangement for a one 
story building, without galleries, would be the same 
as shown in Fig. 1, by omitting the upper inlets. 


Arrangements of this kind work well when the 
horizontal distance from the air inlet to the outer 
wall is not greater than 20 feet. When the distance 
exceeds this the air may be blown straight downward 
from the inlets instead of at an angle and another 
row of inlets should be ranged along each outer wall 
or near it. Another way, for a wide building, is to 
place the warm air inlets as shown in Fig. 1, and 
carry return ducts along the outer walls with open- 
ings near or in the floor. In this way the warm air 
is drawn over toward the outer walls where it is 
most needed. 

In machine shops, where most of the occupants are 

actively engaged, a normal temperature of 60 to 65 
degrees is considered ample, while the offices and 
drafting room should be maintained at 68 to 70 
degrees in the coldest weather. It often happens 
that while the lowest continued temperature does not 
fall below -(- 10 degrees, or possibly zero, there may 
be infrequent periods when it falls to 10 or 20 


degrees. It is usually sufficient in cases of this kind 
to proportion the heating equipment for zero and 
take chances on the short duration of colder weather 
in plants where the men are more or less actively 
engaged, as in machine shops, foundries, forge shops, 
etc. For example, a shop designed for a tempera- 
ture of 60 degrees in zero weather will only fall 






to 52 degrees when it is 10 degrees below zero, which 
will not prove especially uncomfortable in any cases. 
The air volume to be supplied in a building of this 
general type is more commonly based on heating with 
re-circulated air in zero weather. In cases of this 
kind the total heat loss by transmission and leak- 
age is first computed for zero outside, and sufficient 
air circulated to offset this with a temperature range 
of 80 or 90 degrees. 


The total heat loss from a shop is 1,000,000 
thermal units per hour in zero Weather. The build- 
ing is to be warmed by recirculating the air, return- 
ing it to the heater at 60 degrees and delivering it 
through the warm air inlets at 60 -)- 80 = 140 
degrees. What volume of air must be moved 
by the fan per minute to supply the required amount 
of heat? Here we have 

H = 1,000,000; T = 80; to find V. 

Substituting these in the formula previously given 
we have 

STOR mm nmr 


55 x 1,000,000 
V = = 687,500 cubic feet per hour or 

687,500 -f- 60 = = 11,460 cu. ft. per minute. 

When there is an abundance of exhaust steam, 
or the number of workmen is large compared with 
the cubic contents of the building, a volume of out- 
side air equal to one to three complete changes per 
hour should be supplied in the coldest weather, in- 
creasing this to 30 or 40 cubic feet per occupant per 
minute as the outside temperature rises. 


Foundries contain more or less steam and 
irritating gases, and are best ventilated by a pair 
of fans, one for the supply of air and one for its 
removal. Ventilation by means of skylights or mon- 


Both supply and exhaust ducts are carried on ceilings 

itor windows, except in warm weather, causes the 
steam to condense in the presence of the cooler air 
entering through the windows, thus making condi- 
tions worse rather than better. For the best results 
the air should be admitted and discharged near the 
floor, as shown in Fig. 2, as this maintains a zone 
or layer of fresh air in the space occupied by the 
workmen. Furthermore, the gases which are present 
are heavier than air and must be drawn off from the 
lower part of the room. When the work is such that 
steam and gas are present only in small amounts, 
the exhaust fan may be shut down; also in warm 
weather exhaust ventilation may be through the mon- 
itor, with a portion, at least, of the fresh air ad- 
mitted by way of the lower windows. The same gen- 



eral method of ventilation may be 
employed for a forge shop. 

The equipment for buildings of 
this kind is usually designed for 
maintaining a temperature of 50 to 
55 degrees in zero weather. Suffi- 
cient fresh air should be supplied at 
all times to keep the building clear 
of smoke, and may be based on 
four or five changes per hour for a 
stratum 10 or 12 feet high, over the 
entire floor, for iron foundries and 
forge shops, and twice that amount 
for brass foundries. 

Shoe shops, jewelry factories and 
buildings of this general type carry- 
ing light machinery, are usually 
several stories in 
height and re- 
quire a some- 
w h a t different 
treatment. Two 
general plans are 

e m p 1 o y e d, as FIG s AN ARRANGEMENT OF 

shown in Figs. 

3 and 4. The 

first of these is 

known as the "stand pipe" method, and is adapted 

to buildings not over 60 feet in width, unless a 

double row of supply pipes is provided. The ver- 




tical flues, or stand pipes, are carried up every 80 
to 100 feet and discharge warm air in four direc- 
tions on each floor. In Fig. 4 fresh air and vent 
ducts are carried on the ceilings, as shown in the 
cut, and the warm air discharged downward at an 
angle of 30 to 40 degrees from the horizontal toward 
the outer walls. With smooth ceilings and ordinary 
working velocities, the heat will be evenly distributed 
by this arrangement for a considerable distance, even 
up to 100 feet or more, if a return duct is provided 
at the center for removing the cooler air from the 
lower part of the room. 


There are two or three standard methods of in- 
stalling heating and ventilating apparatus in build- 
ings of this general character which may be modi- 
fied to meet quite a variety of conditions. 

One of these is illustrated in Fig. 5, in which case 
the apparatus is located in the basement and a main 
supply duct is carried along the outer wall as shown 
in section in the cut. The uptake flues are of mason- 
ry and project from the outside of the wall in order 
not to encroach upon the space within. The warm air 
is all delivered at one side of the room and usually 
toward the colder or more exposed wall. The up- 
takes are spaced from 40 to 70 feet apart and deliver 
the air to each story through inlets about 8 feet from 
the floor. The smooth ceilings commonly found in 
buildings of this kind offer but little obstruction to 
air flow, and the moving belts and pulleys tend to 
break up the currents and assist in the distribution. 
The flue area, as will be noted in the cut, is reduced 
at each story and the air quantity for each floor is 
proportioned by an adjustable deflecting damper. 
Another flue arrangement adapted to standard mill 
construction is shown in Fig. 6, in which case a sep- 




arate flue is carried from the main air duct through 
piers between the windows. This has the advantage 
of avoiding outside pilasters, but increases the num- 
ber of flues somewhat. 

With the piers 12 feet apart, it will be 36 feet be- 
tween inlets in three-story buildings and 48 feet in 
those four stories in height. 

Textile mills illustrate a class of buildings in which 

the humidity of the air must be considered as well 
as its temperature and volume. In this particular 
case, if the air becomes dry, frictional electricity is 
generated by the movement of belts and machinery, 
and this in turn has a decided effect upon the quality 
and evenness of the finished goods. This condition 
may be practically overcome by maintaining a rela- 
tive humidity of 60 to 70 per cent, at the normal 
temperatures carried in buildings of this kind. The 
air may be moistened by means of steam jets or a fine 
spray of water blown directly into the room when 
direct heating is employed, or by evaporating pans 
or air washers in the case of hot-blast heating. 

"Air conditioning," which includes the control of 
humidity is an important branch of engineering, and 
equipment of this kind should be installed under the 

~ Air disc/large ' _ 

Air intake 

r. H 







direction of a specialist. In connection with the con- 
trol of humidity, the matter of dust removal must be 
taken care of not only in certain departments of tex- 
tile mills, but also in other industries, such as those 
requiring polishing, grinding, etc. This is best 
handled by means of a hot-blast heating system, 
either taking the full air supply from outside or re- 
circulating it through an air washer or wet filter. 


In buildings of this kind the special problem is 
the removal of large quantities of vapor before it 
has a chance to condense on ceiling and walls. As 
is well known to those familiar with dye house venti- 
lation, the greatest trouble comes from the conden- 
sation of the vapor which is continually rising in 
clouds from the dye kettles and tubs. When the 
steam comes in contact with the cool air which is 
flowing in from doors, windows or roof ventilators 
it condenses rapidly, sinking "toward the floor, and 
thus obscuring the view. The method of ventila- 
tion employed in cases of this kind is to provide a 



sufficient volume of warm air to absorb the moisture 
by evaporation and then exhaust it before it becomes 
saturated. The volume of air required for this pur- 
pose will depend upon the amount of vapor given 
off, which is at a maximum when the dye is kept at 
the boiling point and the cloth passed through 
it from reels located above the vats. It is common 
practice to provide for a complete change of air 
every 2 to 10 minutes, according to the processes 
carried on in the room, once in four minutes being 
about the average. The best method of admitting 
and removing the air in cases of this kind will depend 
somewhat upon circumstances, but in general the 
greater part should be admitted near the floor at as 
high a temperature as is possible without over- 
heating the room, and should be removed through 
openings in the ceiling. When supplied in suffi- 
ciently large quantities this air carries the steam 
with it in a rising current and absorbs a greater part 
of it at an elevation above the heads of the workmen, 
thus maintaining a zone of fairly dry and comfort- 
able air in the lower part of the room. In addition 
to the general supply mentioned above, it is well to 


admit a small amount in thin sheets at a compara- 
tively high velocity along the ceiling for driving the 
steam toward the outlets. A false (hung) ceiling, 
with air space between it and the roof, is advisable 
in case of one-story buildings. A typical duct ar- 
rangement for a dye house is shown in Fig. 7. While 
the air should always be supplied by a fan. the dis- 
charge may be by gravity when the vent shafts can 
be carried to a sufficient height to produce the neces- 
sary draft. Otherwise an exhaust fan should be 

employed. The vents should not be more than 20 
feet apart, and should be properly insulated and 
drained to prevent any dripping upon the fabrics in 
process of manufacture, or upon the workmen. 

Laundries, in contrast with dye houses, are apt to 
become overheated, and as the air contains a high 
percentage of moisture, the conditions are very 
enervating to those employed there. While open 
windows and roof ventilators may answer all pur- 
poses in warm weather, the free admission of cold 




air in winter causes dangerous drafts and excessive 
condensation. A typical layout for a laundry is 
shown in Fig. 8, in which the warm air and steam 
are removed through hoods placed directly over the 
machines where they are generated. In addition to 
these are a number of vents near the ceiling for gen- 
ral room ventilation, all of which, including the 



hoods, connect with ducts leading to an exhaust fan. 
Fresh air, for replacing that discharged by the fan 
is admitted through "induction" heaters, which may 
be either steam coils or sectional cast iron radiators 
enclosed in galvanized iron casings so arranged that 
the air will come thoroughly in contact with the heat- 
ing surface in passing through them. 

The rooms are kept warm enough during the 
night to prevent freezing, either by special direct 
radiators or by providing dampers of such design 
that inside air may be re-circulated through the in- 
duction heaters when ventilation is not required. In 
the arrangement shown in Fig. 8 the induction heat- 
ers are designed simply for ventilating purposes and 
all heating is done by direct radiation. 


Loft buildings are included in a class used 
principally for mercantile and light manufacturing 
purposes. The varied character of the work- and 
more or less frequent changing of tenants makes it 
necessary to install a ventilating system of a semi- 
portable character rather than a permanent one as in 
case of a shop or factory. The heating is done by 
direct radiation, it being customary to place a radia- 
tor under each window so that partitions may be 
shifted at any time to suit tenants without interfer- 
ing with the heating system. The ventilating scheme 
generally used is shown in Fig. 9 and consists of fan 
and heater, made up as a single unit and enclosed 
in a steel plate casing. This is usually hung from 
the ceiling so as not to infringe on the floor space. 
The fresh air is taken from the top of a window and 
warmed to 70 degrees, then distributed through a 
ceiling duct, as indicated in the cut. If the space is 
divided by partitions, then the branches from the 
main duct should be extended so as to reach each 
room requiring ventilation. Discharge ventilation is 
generally accomplished by leakage through windows, 
stairways, elevator wells, etc. 


Unit heaters are one of the latest devices 
to be developed for the heating of industrial build- 
ings and should receive brief mention in closing the 
present series of articles. A unit heater of this kind 
consists of motor, fan and heater mounted together 
as a single self-contained unit. Air is drawn in from 
the room, passed through the heater, and discharged 
at a fairly high velocity through specially formed 
outlets which diffuse it through a considerable space. 
This air movement produces a more comfortable con- 
dition for the workmen than when direct radiation is 
employed. When used in new buildings a sufficient 
number of these are installed to produce the required 
amount of heat, spacing them according to size and 
heating power. They are especially convenient for 

additions where it is not practicable to extend the 
present heating system. 

A typical heater for placing on the floor is shown 
in Fig. 10, and one for suspending from the ceiling 
in Fig. 1 1 . An outfit of this type adapted to the heat- 
ing and ventilation of offices and drafting rooms is 
illustrated in Fig. 12. 

(The End.) 

Flat Slab Floors 

FLAT slab floor construction is fast replacing 
the beam and girder type of floor, and, gen- 
erally speaking, has advantages in appearance and 
economy. However, there will be places where the 
beam and girder system will show a lower cost- 
Where panels between columns are square or nearly 
so, the flat slab usually works to advantage. When 
columns are spaced unequally or irregularly, it is 
often more economical to resort to the beam and 
girder type of floor. If the column spacings may 
be laid out with economy in view, the square bay 
and the flat slab will generally be selected. How- 
ever, this selection should not always be made with- 
out a proper check by comparative cost estimates. 
Assume, for instance, that a concrete storage 
building is required, the width of which may be 
anywhere from 55 to 65 feet and sufficient in length 
to give a certain specified area of floor space. The 
design is to be a flat slab system and the build- 
ing is to be built as economically as possible. The 
engineer will usually make a design for a flat slab 
system with the columns spaced at distances he be- 
lieves will show economical results. Two more 
flat slab designs should now be made with the 
column spacings one foot more and one foot less 
respectively. Comparative costs made on these 
three designs will show the economical standing of 
the various spacings for the specified live load. 

It will be necessary to make typical cross-section 
designs showing the column spacings considered 
and then calculate the comparative costs of each de- 
sign for a length of building equal to one bay. It 
is a simple matter to calculate the required length 
of the building for each type of cross section con- 
sidered in order that the proper amount of floor 
space be obtained. The total length of the various 
buildings should be calculated to the nearest multiple 
of the length of their respective bays. This being 
done and the cost of one bay of each type of build- 
ing being already calculated, the total approximate 
cost of each type of building is easily found. Add- 
ing to these respective estimates the cost of clos- 
ing in the two extreme ends of the building, the 
engineer has a very good idea of the comparative 
costs of the designs he has made. Economy in the 
Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings. 


How Wrought Iron Is Made 

A Novel Campaign for the Education of Laymen. Moving Pictures of the 

Iron Industry 


N the past it has been customary to regard all 
galvanized sheet metal as galvanized iron be- 
cause the old fashioned hand made sheet iron 
was formerly in great demand for 
these purposes. 

Architects and builders now find 
it necessary to give special attention 
to the rust resisting qualities of the 
sheet metal which they specify for 
use in ventilating shafts, cornices, 
leaders and down spouts, tanks and 
other articles of a similar nature. 

If the galvanized sheet metal used 
is galvanized steel and not gal- 
vanized iron, there will be great 
difference in the service of the 
product- When modern steel was 
made to replace the old-fashioned 
hand made iron it was found that 
the material did not give the service 
under certain conditions and its use 
became a real problem in modern 
building construction. 

For many years metallurgists 
sought to find why steel would not 
stand up as well as did the old iron, 
in meeting the weather and climatic 
conditions. It was finally proved 
by these government scientists that 
the impurities which creep into the 
steel as made today set up an 
electrolytic action which cause the 
metal to pit, flake, and disintegrate 

in the presence of moisture. The problem then was 
for a pure iron that would resist rust. How to make 
this iron pure and at the same time make it in 
commercial quantities that would 
keep its price within reason was the 
big task taken over by the experts 
of the large steel companies. 

Eventually a way was found for 
making pure ingot iron on a com- 
mercial scale that in every respect 
resembled the old-fashioned iron. 
In the years that have passed it has 
measured up to the claims for it in 
a manner to insure its use when 
greater permanency in sheet metal 
construction is desired. 

Several views of various stages 
of the process are shown with this 
article. These pictures were taken 
in the plant of the American Roll- 
ing Mill Company, Middletown, 
Ohio. Recently this company has 
undertaken an educational campaign 
for the purpose of acquainting 
manufacturers, engineers and archi- 
tects with the' problems and 
processes in the manufacture of 
Armco ingot iron. The making of 
this iron is interestingly shown in 
moving pictures which have been 
made. The "movie" is soon to start 
on a tour of architectural and engi- 
neering societies, technical schools, 






and sales conventions where the study of results 
in modern metallurgy is of paramount interest. 

Comparatively few laymen have ever seen the 
sight of metal heated to 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. 
This temperature is necessary in the making of a 
pure iron. It is too hot in the vicinity of the boil- 
ing metal in the interior of the open hearth furnaces 
for the comfort of most visitors and the intense light 
from the mass is too blinding for the naked eye. 
Heretofore it was necessary to look through specially 
colored glasses at the iron when it was hot enough 
to flow like water. 

When the "Armco" picture was proposed the 
movie concern was told it had an opportunity to make 
a record. They said that a close-up scene of boiling 

iron had never been made. And steel men said it 
could not be done. 

Veteran steel workmen watched intently when the 
camera man set up his camera, wondering if he would 
stick it out or if the heat would crack the camera 
lens or set fire to the explosive film inside. The 
camera man himself was not sure, but there were 
two husky men back of him ready to jerk him out 
of the way in case anything happened. 

The result was an entire success. This scene, 
together with the rest of the 3,000 feet of film is 
equivalent to a trip through a great steel and iron 
plant. The film will be shown in all parts of the 
world and the entire process, from the arrival of the 
iron ore at the blast furnaces to the final inspection 
of the finished products, is visualized. 

The great value of wrought iron lies in its ability 



to resist corrosion. While steel gives entire satis- 
faction for structural shapes, such as I-beams, 
angles, etc., wrought iron has been found more prac- 
tical for plain or corrugated sheets and metal lath. 
The use of wrought iron is almost universal in pipe 
where its non-corrosive qualities give long life and 

In the puddling process of manufacture the molten 
iron is stirred continually until the carbon and othei 
impurities are burned out, leaving the iron in a 
plastic condition and saturated with slag. The slag 
is squeezed out before the material is rolled into 
billets. The slag is present in alternate layers with 
iron and gives a fibrous structure. These layers of 
slag form a protective coating against corrosion and 
serve as a means of easy identification of wrought 
iron from steel. 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

Industrial Art at the Museum 

The fifth exhibition of industrial art is now in 
progress at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It 
will continue until Jan. 30. The object as heretofore 
is to show a selected group of objects of current 
manufacture, the designs of which are based upon 
sources in the museum. These pieces, brought to- 
gether from factories and shops, cover a wide range 
of arts and craft goods, rugs, furniture, textiles, and 
many others. They serve both to reflect and to stimu- 
late better standards among the layman, and are a 
further indication of the ever expanding influence of 
the museum on public taste. 

Construction Division of U. S. A. to 
Hold Reunion 

The annual reunion of those who were identified 
with the Construction Division of the army during 
the war will be held at the Morrison Hotel, Chicago, 
on February 25 and 26. The afternoon of the first 
day will be devoted to business sessions and the 
annual banquet will be held on the evening of 
February 26. 

The membership of the Construction Division As- 
sociation consists of those who served in the Con- 
struction Division of the army during the war, either 
in uniform or as civilians. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, Col. Clark C. Wright, of George C. Nimmons 
& Co., 122 South Michigan avenue, Chicago; Vice- 
President, Col. J. N. Willcutt, of R. D. Willcut & 
Sons Company, Boston, Mass.; Secretary George 
Gibbs, Jr., Washington, D. C. ; Assistant Secretary, 
William Kennedy, office of Colonel Evan Shelby, 63 
Wall street, New York City, and Treasurer, Major 
A C. King, 8 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 
Colonel E. C. Stockdale, of Page & Hill, 19 South 
La Salle street, Chicago, is chairman of the Enter- 
tainment Committee. 

Institute of Architects will hold an architectural ex- 
hibition, according to an announcement made by Mr. 
Philip N. Arnold, chairman of the Real Estate 
Board's Real Estate and Building Exposition com- 

Arrangements for an architectural exhibition are 
being made by the joint exhibition board of the T- 
Square Club and the Philadelphia Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, of which George 
Howe is chairman. This board, in addition to Mr. 
Howe, consists of R. J. Wadsworth, William C. Sten- 
ton, H. Bartol Register, Donald M. Kirkpatrick, Jo- 
seph P. Sims and Clarence C. Zantzinger. It is as- 
sisted by a special advisory committee consisting of 
Edward A. Crane, president of the Philadelphia 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects; 
John P. B. Sinkler, city architect Nicola D'Ascenzo, 
Grant M. Simon, D. Knickerbacker Boyd and Emile 
G. Perrot. 

In addition to the architects there will also be ex- 
hibits by the Atlantic City real estate board, the 
Camden real estate board, the North Philadelphia 
realty board, the Master Builders' Association and 
other similar organizations. 

The co-operation of the architects, the trades and 
business organizations and a large list of manufac- 
turers, merchants, material men and others, will make 
the exposition. 

The architectural exhibition, which will be in com- 
plete charge of the joint exhibition board of the T- 
Square Club and the Philadelphia Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, promises to be the 
largest, most varied and most artistic ever seen in 
Philadelphia. In addition to holding their own ex- 
hibition, the joint exhibition board of the architects 
also will supervise the artistic features of the main 

Philadelphia Architects to Join in 
Building Exposition 

In conjunction with the Philadelphia Real Estate 
Board's Real Estate and Building Exposition, which 
will be held at the First Regiment Armory during 
the week of March 28 to April 2, the T-Square 
Club and the Philadelphia Chapter of the American 

Henry Reinhardt, Art Dealer, Dead 

Henry Reinhardt, art dealer, head of Henry Rein- 
hardt & Son, Fifth avenue, New York, died Jan. 
13 after a short illness. He was 62 years old and 
began his art career in Milwaukee when still a youth. 
In the course of forty-five years he established gal- 
leries in New York, Chicago and Paris as well as 
in his native city. 

Among his chief interests was the development 
of art appreciation in the West, and to this end he 



helped organize several museums; notably the one 
at Toledo, for which he bought at auction for $20,- 
000 the now famous landscape "Moonlight," by the 
tragically fated Blakelock. It was Mr. Reinhardt, 
too, who arranged the loan exhibition of Blakelock's 
works to raise part of the fund for the painter's 

Mr. Reinhardt gathered what is said to be the fin- 
est collection of the works of George Inness, that 
which is now in the Art Institute of Chicago. Dur- 
ing the war his Paris gallery was given over to the 
Red Cross for a medical library. 

Civic Federation Will Discuss Labor 

Outstanding industrial problems, with which the 
American people are confronted today, from both the 
national and the international viewpoints, will be dis- 
cussed at the twenty-first annual meeting of the Na- 
tional Civic Federation to be held at Hotel Astor, 
New York City, February 14, 15 and 16, 1921. 

Kitchen Marathon Two Miles 

Preparation of meals for an average family means 
a two-mile daily kitchen marathon for the housewife, 
statistics compiled for the conference of vocational 
workers of the South, in session at Montgomery, 
Ala., disclosed. 

A pedometer attached to students in the kitchen 
of the model home in Livingstone School showed that 
, measurement for stove-sink-and-pantry route cov- 
ered during the preparation of the three daily meals. 

Vast Forests in Northwest 

More than 30,000,000 acres of commercial timber 
now stands in the private and national forests of 
Washington and Oregon, according to compilations 
of Thornton T. Munger, of the district forest service, 
Portland, recently received by Supervisor William 
G. Weigle, of the Snoqualmie national forest in 

What this vast stand of timber means to the North- 
west as an economic asset was pointed out by Su- 
pervisor Weigle, who estimates that Washington 
alone cuts between 5,000,000,000 and 6,000,000,000, 
feet of timber annually. For every thousand feet of 
timber sawed and finished labor is paid $16, or $16,- 
000,000 in wages for every billion feet. 

Of the total area of standing commercial timber 
in both states, 15,047,000 acres is under private own- 
ership and the remaining 15,428,000 acres under Fed- 
eral control. This stand of merchanable timber rep- 
resents 745,000,000,000 feet. The original forest 
area in both states was 48,000,000 acres, with 4,330,- 

000 acres having been logged off and 7,500,000 acres 
destroyed by fire. The annual area being cut over 
at present is estimated at 260,000 acres. 

Lumbermen Launch Campaign to 
Reduce Building Costs 

A national campaign to reduce building costs was 
launched by lumber manufacturers from all sections 
of the country at a recent meeting in Chicago. 

"Lumber has come down in price an average of 
30 per cent.," said R. B. Goodman, of Marinette, 
Wis., chairman of the session. "The lumber indus- 
try has absorbed its wartime inflation and we feel 
that it is up to other building commodities to follow 
suit. Lumber represents only about 30 per cent, of 
the cost of the average building and not more than 
35 per cent, of the cost of a wooden building." 

France Plans Home for Married 
Women Only 

A mothers' home, where women may have the nec- 
essary care that they themselves could not afford, is 
to be established in Bordeaux, France, with funds 
given by Madame Dutsch de la Muertha. It will be 
opened only to married women. Buildings, a park 
of 82 acres and $200,000 were given for the work. 

Brooklyn's Plymouth Church 

The famous Plymouth Church of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
which suffered considerable damage from a fire last 
November, is now being repaired and restored by 
William Gompert, architect. The work will prob- 
ably be completed in time for Easter services. 

It was to this church that Henry Ward Beecher 
came as pastor in 1847. In the pulpit of Plymouth 
Church he acted as auctioneer one Sunday morning 
in Feb., 1860, and sold a slave girl into freedom. In 
this building, twenty-eight windows set forth the in- 
fluence of Puritanism upon the liberties of the Re- 
public. Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, of international 
fame, is the present pastor. This is one of the struc- 
tures that has helped to give Brooklyn a reputation 
as a city of churches. 

Mr. Gompert stated that when the construction is 
completed the building will be modern in every re- 
spect, although it is the aim to retain the original 
lines and structures as far as possible in order not 
to interfere with old associations or to mar the senti- 
ment of the old members. 

Housing in Germany 

In Cassell, a city of 170,000 population, 5,400 per- 
sons are without homes, according to the report of 



the city housing commission, which is "rationing" 
rooming houses and hotels in an effort to shelter 
everybody during the winter months. 

Because of the great shortage of houses, due to 
suspension of building operations during the war, 
it has been necessary to house large numbers some- 
times in a single room. Regardless of ability to pay, 
the citizens now are compelled to occupy only such 
room as is absolutely essential and the extra space is 
apportioned among the homeless. 

The "housing problem," while under the jurisdic- 
tion of a special commission, really is controlled by 
the police who keep a record of dwellings and the 
number of occupants and report their findings to the 

Owing to the high price of building material and 
the labor shortage, unrelieved in spite of the an- 
nouncement that there is a large, undiminishing 
number of unemployed, building operations virtually 
are at a standstill. 

Trying to Save Gobelins 

Representatives of all the Austrian associations 
devoted to science and art have protested to Chan- 
cellor Mayr against the contemplated pledging of the 
priceless Gobelin tapestries owned by the Govern- 
ment as security for food supplies. It has been pro- 
posed that the tapestries be pledged for $1,000,000 
to secure two months' flour rations from the United 

Steamboat service on the lakes of Upper Austria 
and in the Salzkammergut region of Upper Austria, 
Styria and Salzburg were recently suspended because 
of the excessive overhead expenses. 

Rare Rembrandt Stolen 

Rembrandt's landscape, "After the Thunder- 
storm," is stolen from a private owner in Hamburg, 
Germany. It supposedly was shipped to the United 
States on board the steamer Mongolia, which sailed 
the day after the theft. 

The painting is on wood. It is sixty-five centi- 
metres in length and forty-nine centimetres high. It 
is said- to be valued at $2,000,000. 

For a Bureau of Housing 

A bill proposing the creation of a Bureau of Build- 
ing Construction and Housing in the Department of 
Commerce has been introduced by Senator Calder of 
New York on recommendation of the special com- 
mittee which has been considering reconstruction 
problems, especially the nation-wide housing situa- 

"The bill,' said Senator Calder, "provides for a 
bureau in the Department of Commerce, which will 
be a clearing house for all information concerning 

building construction matters and particularly hous- 
ing. It is recommended by the leading architects 
and builders of the country, and it is believed that 
its operation will bring about a standardization of 
structural units and material and conservation in 
general building matters that will be most helpful in 
cheapening construction." 

City Bureau to Plan Homes 

In anticipation of a great home-building boom in 
the spring, the appointment of an architectural bu- 
reau is being urged in one of the larger cities accord- 
ing to the Concord (N. H.) Monitor. 

It would be the duty of this bureau to consult with 
prospective builders in any locality and to give what- 
ever aid and advice it could to insure a fine general 
appearance of the entire neighborhood ; to see that 
building restrictions were complied with, and where 
former restrictions are not sufficient for present 
needs, to urge adaptations of plans so that adjacent 
property need not be harmed by cheapening struc- 

Persons interested in establishing the bureau hold 
that five groups of people are to be considered when 
a new structure is contemplated. They are : 

Those who live in the building. 

Those who will live in the neighborhood of the 

Those who invest their money in the building. 

Those who have invested their money in the neigh- 
boring buildings or land. 

All who see the building or are affected by it day 
by day. 

A committee which co-operated to harmonize all 
these interests, even though its action be purely ad- 
visory, could, with the aid of public opinion, become 
a valuable adjunct to any community. Its counsel 
would help to make a city beautiful. Beauty is al- 
ways a boost to real estate values as. well as a source ~ 
of civic pride, and many of the architectural blunders 
which result from innumerable individual operations 
might be avoided in making a harmonious whole. 

Important Housing Conference 

A housing conference will be held by the National 
Council of the Chmber of Commerce of the United 
States at the New Willard Hotel, Washington, Janu- 
ary 27 and 28. 

The Origin of "Checks" 

A few centuries ago, when the ability to read and 
write was the exclusive property of a very few, the 
business men of Europe, many of whom could not 
even write the figures in which they dealt, employed 
a system of computation something on the principle 



of the Chinese Abacus or counting frame. A check- 
erboard, it is learned, was placed between the two 
parties to the transaction and payment was made by 
matching one row of coins against another. In this 
way, even if the merchants were unable to count to 
a sum larger than ten, large transactions could be 
accurately negotiated by checking the coins, row 
after row, upon the checkerbord. From this prac- 
tice accounts between business men came to be known 
as checks. 

This was the origin of the name of the little pieces 
of paper which today are used, according to the esti- 
mate of bankers, in fully 90 per cent, of all business 

News Notes in the Chicago Field 

The Chicago city council rent committee is con- 
sidering a plan for state legislation making resi- 
dences and apartments public utilities and subject, 
therefore, to rate rulings of the public utilities com- 
mission. The plant was originally suggested by Dean 
John H. Wigmore of the Northwestern University. 

The Bestwall Manufacturing Company, manufac- 
turers of wall-board, is moving its Chicago offices 
to the main office at Buffalo, New York. The Chi- 
cago location was at 332 South Michigan avenue. 

The so-called "building trust" inquiry is now go- 
ing before a federal grand jury in Chicago. The 
probe relates to the alleged illegal arrangement be- 
tween manufacturers, contractors and unions to for- 
bid the use of non-union sash and door materials 
from other cities in Chicago construction. 

B. J. Rosenthal, president of the Chicago Housing 
Association, estimates that 500,000 Chicagoans are 
poorly, some of them miserably housed. 

Efforts to save the Fine Arts Building of the old 
World Fair group, because of its architectural beau- 
ty are not proving very successful. The Illinois 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects is 
preparing an estimate as to the cost of putting the 
building into condition necessary to its preservation. 
In the meantime, the use of the building has been 
given to an American Legion post which proposes 
to use it as an inside rifle range. 

The Woodworkers' Employers' Association has 
proposed to union carpenters that they accept a wage 
reduction of 85 cents an hour on the premise that 
it is better to work all week for 85 cents an hour 
than two days a week at $1.10 an hour. The unions 
rejected the suggestion. 


Arthur S. Millinowski and John F. Druar have 
become associated under the firm name of Druar & 
Milinowski, consulting engineers, St. Pual, Minn. 

Guy A. Carpenter has opened an office for the 
practice of architecture in the Leggett Building, 
Fairfield, la. 

P. J. Rocker, architect, formerly at 15 East 40th 
street, New York City, has moved his office to 6 
East 46th street, that city. 

Roger H. Bullard, architect, formerly connected 
with the firm, Goodwin, Bullard & Woosley, is now 
practicing on his own account at 15 West 33d street, 
New York City. 

James V. Tjhetford, architect, formerly of 71 
Bremona street, Belleville, N. J., is now practicing 
at 86 Malone avenue, that city. 

Walter Williams, architect, is now located at 301 
Fifth avenue, New York City. He was formerly at 
420 Madison avenue. 

Gregory B. Webb, architect, who was at 104 West 
42d street, New York City, is now found at 1358 
Broadway, that city. 

A. J. Fisher, architect, has moved his office from 
4011 North Robey street, Chicago, 111., to 2001 
Greenleaf avenue. 

Tilden & Register, architects, have moved from 
the Franklin Bank Building, Philadelphia, Pa., to 
1525 Locust street, that city. 

Marchetti & D'Avino, architects, who were for- 
merly located at 756 Main street, Hartford, Conn., 
are now practicing at Room 58, 721 Main street, 

Herman D. Roller, architect, has opened an office 
at 64 East Van Buren street, Chicago, 111. 

Reilly & Hall have moved from 749 Fifth avenue, 
New York, to 405 Lexington avenue, New York. 

Morrell & Nichols, landscape architects and engi- 
neers, are now located at 1200 Second avenue, South, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

George M. Landsman, architect, has moved his 
moved his office from the Bowery Bank Building, 
New York City, to 105 West 40th street, that city. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 

Average Prices, 1914-1920 
(Note the Swift Decline) 

A Study of Prices* 


The Reasons Leading to Advance and What Is Neces- 

cessary to Bring About Their Orderly Decline; 

the Manner in Which Prices Affect 

Credit Conditions 




Editor's Note: Prices are the problem of the day. 

In our issue of January 19 we stated that an article on "The 
Architect's Relation to Price Declines" would appear in this issue. 
The article which follows is an authoritative discussion of the funda- 
mental principles of price advances and declines. It is intended as a 
basic introduction to "The Architect's Relation to Price Declines," 
which will appear in an early issue. 

AN old school rhetoric gives the following coup- 
let as an example of figurative expression : 
"The dashing waves with fury driven 
Mount up and wash the face of Heaven." 

During a storm at sea the power of the wind 
makes successive series of waves, the causes of 
which the observer is usually in no condition to an- 
alyze. It is only in the peaceful period that follows 
the storm that the thoughtful mind might study 
the subject of wave formation and develop a the- 
ory based upon the direct force of the wind in its 
relation to the reaction from the water, the bottom 
of the ocean, and the distant shore. 

Similarly it is perhaps now possible, with the 
storm of war subsided and with the experience of 
a period of inflation and some measure of deflation, 
to analyze the causes which make the successive 
waves of price movement which characterize our 
economic life. It may also be possible to develop 
some principles of action to stabilize our govern- 
mental and business relations in the period of defla- 
tion before us. 

In studying price relations in order to make the 
analysis as simple as possible, it may be well to em- 
phasize in advance that, as in the formation of the 
waves of the ocean, there is a single initial force, 
the varying power of the wind ; so in the price 

Copyrighted 1920 by Edmund B. Fisher. 

changes of our business life there is also a single 
initial force, the varying spending power of gov- 
ernments and the people. It will be necessary, 
therefore, to consider the direct changes in the 
amount of money and credit used as spending 
power in relation to a given volume of commod- 
ities, and the relative amount so used when the 
volume of commodities change. 

Reference is frequently made to two forces af- 
fecting prices one the buying power (demand), 
dependent upon the supply of actual money, bank 
deposits, or the latent power of credit supporting 
the purchaser; the other the selling power (sup-- 
ply), dependent upon the volume of cmmodities 
or the amount of service to be sold. Both of these 
tendencies are, of course, affected by a temporary 
indisposition to either buy or sell at a given level 
of prices, as we well know from present conditions. 

But as price grows out of a definite relation to 
the standard of value (gold), it should be consid- 
ered as the result of a spending power which in- 
creases or diminishes directly (increase or decrease 
of money or credit), or relatively (increase or de- 
crease of commodities), to the volume of trade. 
Thus, although the standard remains fixed, the 
value of the dollar in actual use increases or dimin- 
ishes in relation to its own volume used as a spend- 
ing power. 

The principle to be established, therefore, is that 
the average level of prices is determined by the 
amount of money available as spending power. 
This is effected by the amount of gold in reserve, 
the volume of credit or currency which the gold 
supports, and the actual amount of money in the 
hands of the people. The greater the volume of 
money or credit, the higher will be the price level, 
production being relatively the same. 

On the other hand, assuming production rela- 
tively the same, the reverse is also true the weaker 
the spending power, as when money is hoarded or 
when loans are called or paid, the lower will be 
the price level. The operation of the principle to 
which reference has been made is easily lost sight 
of in the history of business experience, because, 
although spending power is the dominant factor, it 
is frequently confused with what are seemingly new 
conditions, such as war and the variations in pro- 
duction and selling power. 

THE entire subject may, perhaps, be better 
understood by a study of the following analysis : 







Stated volume of 
commodities at 
prices then fixed 

If money or 
credit increases 

Prices go up 

Reduced volume 
of commodities 

Amount of mon- 
ey or credit then 
relatively in- 

Prices go up 

Increased de- Amount of mon- Prices go up 
m a n d reducing ey or credit then 
commodities relatively in- 


During such a movement as the foregoing, as 
prices go up, the amount of credit and currency 
also directly, as well as relatively, increases, made 
necessary by the growing dollar amount of goods 
to be moved, until restrained by diminishing gold 
reserves or bank policy, impelled by increasing re- 
discount rates. 


Stated volume of If money or Prices go off 
commodities at credit decreases 
prices then fixed 

Increased volume Amount of mon- 
of commodities ey or credit then 

relatively d e - 


Reduced demand, Amount of mon- 
relatively increas- ey or credit then 
ing commodities relatively d e - 

Prices go off 

Prices go off 

During such a movement, as prices go off, the 
amount of credit and currency, directly as well as 
relatively, decreases, made possible by the lessen- 
ing dollar amount of goods to be moved, until 
stmiulated by increased gold reserves and a more 
liberal bank policy, impelled by lowering redis- 
count rates. 

A PERIOD of inflation and deflation may be 
pictured as a definite wave of price move- 
ment; but like the ocean, there are short waves and 
long waves. The price waves range from the move- 
s that grow out of the day to day fluctuations 
of the market to the long "ground swell" that seems 
us extends over a long period of years These 
movements are all operating constantly, are com- 
plexly interrelated, and grow out of the variations 
of spending power with the reactions from varia- 
tions m production and demand. A disintegration 
of these movements, however, would seem to de- 

n a tiL%r Iy C mprehensive classification, elimi- 
nating all temporary and superficial day to day price 


Seasonal Movement: Reactions from seasonal varia- 
tions in production and demand. 

Anuual Movement: Reactions from variations in an- 
nual production. 

Credit Movement : Direct result of varying amounts 
of bank credit and currency. 

Gold Movement: Direct result of variations of 
world gold production. 

Seasonal variations in prices are, of course, famil- 
iar to the business and buying world. Business 
men are also vitally interested in the statistics of 
annual production, as the increase or decrease of 
the principal crops in the reaction on spending 
power frequently makes important, though tem- 
porary price changes. 

The credit movement is a short period swing in 
prices. Without direct relation to the increase or 
decrease of gold, a spending power develops and 
recedes through the expansion and contraction of 
credit and currency. Beginning at a period when 
bank reserves are high and money is "easy," a 
growing business activity in all lines fosters a 
growth of loans made on both a sound and un- 
sound economic basis. While individual loans made 
in such a period of expansion may be perfectly 
good from the standpoint of ultimate payment, the 
composite influence of many loans that are not self- 
liquidating, such as mortgages, loans on stocks and 
bonds, and government securities, merely adds to 
the spending power of the period and directly op- 
erates to increase prices. The higher level of prices 
thus established necessarily increases the dollar vol- 
ume needed to conduct future trade, and so an end- 
less chain of increased loans and higher prices is 
established. The emergency brake is finally jammed 
on, and the financial gears thrown into reverse, and 
there occurs the liquidation of loans and the reduc- 
tion of currency, with the consequent diminishment 
of spending power. 

The gold movement, a long swing period in 
prices, is usually very sluggish, and is characterized 
by the basic variations in spending power caused 
by the economic effect of variations in gold pro- 
duction. As gold is the basis of bank reserves and 
currency issues, its gradual change in volume has 
an ultimate under-current effect upon all price 

(To be continued.) 
(Special Correspondence to AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. Jobbers of the Pacific Coast terri- 
tory report that the outside steel mills have hori- 
zontally met the Corporation price and are trying 
to -convince the retail and investment construction 
ade that rock-bottom has been struck for the sea- 
on and that a delay in placements bevond May 1 
will mean higher prices for them. Stocks on hand 
are now well balanced. The overstock is sufficient 



to meet any sudden movement in early spring 

The feeling toward building for 1921 is changing 
rapidly. Optimism has replaced the pessimism of 
December, and there is increasing evidence of con- 
fidence among investors and builders. Architects 
. report that builders are now convinced that the 
"holding off" policy for lower prices is now futile. 
Building labor is producing at normal per capita, 
new projects are slowly being released, the lumber 
market has undoubtedly struck bottom (as shown 
in the stationary bottom for the past two weeks), 
mill-; are resuming operations, and labor costs have 
been reduced. 

Wholesale and jobbing interests are co-operating 
in the tail-end liquidation, now believed to be well 
over. Minor reductions in building hardware dur- 
ing the week are putting the finishing touches on 
the orderly process. Larger operators believe steel 
will sustain itself, in view of demand and fair gross 
margins instituted by the mills after the war. 

Representatives of eastern roofing who sent out 
flunkeys with order books during the war to look 
over the territory and book orders merely because 
the demand far exceeded the supply are to come in 
for castigation by jobbers. The houses which took 
unfair advantage during the war are in process of 
elimination from the territory. 

Roofing prices are now on the past four months' 
levels. There is an oversupply, and liberal offerings. 
Three cement plants are now in full operation after 
two had been closed wholly or in part for six 
months. One attended to the export production, 
one closed entirely, and the third was on half time. 
This represents the total cement production, nor- 
mally heavy, in the North Pacific territory. 

Average prices received at the fir mills during the 
week at the mill were $59 to $54 for vertical grain 
flooring, $29 for No. 2 slash grain flooring, $51 for 
finish, $25 to $28 for ceiling, $31 for drop siding, 
$15 to $20 for boards and shiplap based on sizes, 
$23.50 to $14.50 for dimension, $19.50 to $21.50 
for plank and small timbers, and 26 for big timbers. 
The fir log market declined this week from $18, $24 
and $32 to $12, $14 and $20, and wages in the fir 
mills and logging camps are down 25 per cent., with 
no remonstrance from the men due to the unem- 
ployment situation. 

Red cedar shingles are steady on a speculative 
rather than an order basis, and stocks on hand in 
British Columbia, Washington and Oregon, the 
scene of production, are under normal at 500,000,000 
shingles, exclusive of transits and held for disposal 
at reconsigning points. Manufacturers are refusing 
to sell on the present price to the trade of $1.85 to 
$1.95 for stars and $2.00 to $2.10 for clears, 20-20 

or "square" pack basis, which has superseded the old 
per 1,000 basis. 

Seattle's building record for 1920 fell little short 
of that of 1919 according to the figures of the city 
building department. With the issuance of the per- 
mit for the 10-story Class A structure now in the 
last steel stages by the Pacific Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company the total for the year was brought 
up to $13,500,000, as against $15,000,000 for 1919. 

The contract for construction of the nurses' build- 
ing at the Puget Sound navy yard, Bremerton (17 
miles from Seattle), was let to Swennson & Co., 
contractors, of Seattle. 

(Special Correspondence to AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. The building public here is indulg- 
ing in a "buyers' strike" and is waiting for the actual 
materialization of the now famous rock-bottom 
basis. The endless circle of cause and effect lum- 
bermen blaming materials men, materials men blam- 
ing labor, and labor blaming the high cost of living 
is blocking building here for a while, at least. 
When this is disposed of, and actual materialization 
of rock-bottom prices comes into existence, there is 
no doubt that building will go forward in Chicago 
in a manner never before witnessed. 

The principal hope for this stabilization of the 
condition lies in the conference of all the varied 
industries in the building trades, which will take 
place here January 21-22 and in which keen interest 
is shown on every hand. President-elect Harding 
has written John H. Kirby, president of the Na- 
tional Lumber Manufacturers' Association, recalling 
the recent visit made to him by officials of the as- 
sociation and expressing the hope that the confer- 
ence will result in a plan which will serve to revive 
building and lessen unemployment. Mr. Harding 
also points out that this conference may very well 
inspire other lines of industry to do likewise. 

Labor is contributing its share to readjustment a 
trifle more readily than in the past. Far-seeing 
labor leaders are encouraging labor leaders to bear 
some of the shock of the readjustment period. Un- 
employment is unconsciously helping in this, but 
there is distinctly a tendency toward more active 
participation, a "day's work for a day's pay" now 
coming more generally into favor. Wages remain 
upon about the same levels, though longer working 
days are announced by several firms, notably the 
Pullman Company, the nine-hour schedule having 
been established in some of the construction depart- 
ments, over the protest of the employes. This af- 
fects two thousand men in Chicago, and possibly 
some in the Pullman works in Buffalo and Wil- 
mington, Delaware. 

Unemployment here has been exaggerated by va- 



rious sources, some putting the number of unem- 
ployment at 200,000. But George H. Burns, in 
charge of the Chicago District of the Department 
of Labor, maintains that his figures show about 
90,000 men out of work in this district. 

Excellent progress is reported in connection with 
the new union station. It is intended now to com- 
plete the building in two years. The completed 
building, trackage and the like will cost about 

The Wrigley building, which for a time at least 
is to be Chicago's most conspicuous office building, 
is now almost ready for tenants. 

Plans are under way for a new $1,500,000 build- 
ing in the so-called "Link District," which is an 
extension of Upper Michigan Avenue. The build- 
ing will be twelve stories, at Erie Street and Mich- 
igan Avenue, will contain shops of the smarter sort 
on the ground floor, and will be one of the units 
designed to cause New Yorkers to grow green with 
envy when they contemplate the beauties of the 
upper reaches of aristocratic Michigan Boulevard. 

Chicago is to have a million-dollar temple to 
Bahai, if present plans mature. It will be an ar- 
chitectural novelty, situated on an eight-acre tract 
in Wilmette, an exclusive North Shore suburb, will 
be 160 feet high, with a round base 160 feet in 
diameter. There will be nine sides, with a door in 
each side, typifying the doors by which the devotees 
of the nine principal faiths may enter the temple 
and the faith of Bahai. Henry J. Burth, of Hola- 
bird & Roche, architects, is structural engineer for 
the temple. Application has been made for a build- 
ing permit. 

Costs of lumber and other building materials 
have undergone no recent change of importance. 
Present Chicago quotations are: 

Yellow Pine: B. & B. 1-in., $95 to $130, depend- 
ing on thickness; 2x4, No. 1, 10 to 16 ft. length, 
$51 to $53; 2x6, $48; 2 x 8, $50; 2 x 10, $53; 
2 x 12, $55 ; 13-16 x 3>4 z & b flat flooring, $85 to 
$90; 1x6, No. 2 common, $48 to $90. Douglas 
Fir: 2 4 S, in sizes up to 12 x 12. in length up to 
32 ft., $65 to $70; 14 x 14, $68 to $73; 16 x 16, 
$72 to $75; 18 x 18, $75 to $80. Hard Maple: 
Four, % No. 1 and 2, $135; select, $120; No. 1 
common, $100; No. 2 common, $65 ; No. 3 common, 
$32. Birch: Four l / 4 No. 1 and 2, $160; select, $133 
to $138 ; No. 1 common, $95 to $100 ; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3 common, $40. Red Gum: Four 

14 No. 1 and 2, $150; No. 1 common, $90 to $92; 
No. 2 common, $45. 

Face Brick Standard, vitrified red, $32.00@ 
34.00; Smooth, Indiana red, $38.00@40.00 ; Smooth 
Ohio red, $38.00@40.00 ; Smooth, Pennsylvania red, 
$46.00@48.00; Smooth, buff, $45.00@47.00; 
Smooth, gray, $47.00@49.00 ; Rough, buff, $44.00 
@46.00; Rough, gray, $47.00@49.00 ; Variegated, 
rough texture, $34.00@49.00. 

Common brick, $16.00 per M. Portland cement, 
$3.00 per bbl. Torpedo Lake and bank sand, $3.50 
per yd. Crushed stone, gravel screenings, $3.50 per 
yd. Hydrated lime, Ohio, paper, $22.00 per ton. 
Hydrated lime, Ohio, cloth, $29.00 per ton. (In- 
cludes sacks at 30c. each.) Hydrated lime, Wis. 
paper, $20.00 per ton. Bulk lime, $1.75 per ton. 

(Special Correspondence to AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON. The optimistic tone noted at the be- 
ginning of the new year was justified in a great 
many instances, but there is still much ground to 
be recovered. 

The opening of many of the larger textile mills, 
a better sentiment in the woolen market in Boston, 
a return of confidence in the shoe and leather in- 
dustries, all point to better things. Shoe sales 
amounting to $10,000,000 during the recent National 
Shoe Retailers' Association in Milwaukee indicate 
the beginning of the end of the so-called "retailers' 
strike" which curtailed buying for a long period. 

One cloud in the bright building outlook in New 
England loomed up recently, when the United Build- 
ing Trades Council of Boston, representing about 
30,000 building mechanics, voted to reject the pro- 
posed 90-cent per hour agreement offered by the 
Building Trades Employers' Association, a cut of 
ten cents an hour from the old agreement. Contrac- 
tors interviewed by your correspondent see little to 
worry about in the situation, considering the move 
ill-timed just now, when there exists a large excess 
of workers, due to scarcity of building projects. 
General opinion looks for a satisfactory settlement 
of the matter before spring building starts. 

Your correspondent finds that contracts awarded 
for the week ending January 11 would appear to 
indicate a typical situation. For 1920, for that week, 
contracts awarded amounted to $2,175,000 as com- 
pared to $5,145,000 for the corresponding period in 
1920; $722,000 for 1919; $2,602,000 for 1918; 
$2,048,000 for 1917, and $3,248,000 for 1916. 











NUMBER 2354 



The Work of N. Max Dunning 

THE practice of architecture is of two classes 
considered as to its location. One may have 
his work confined to one locality, another 
may have his work widely distributed throughout 
the country. In the former case fellow architects and 
the public are familiar with his work and his posi- 
tion is well defined ; in the latter this condition may 
not exist and then it is by assemblage that study and 
appraisal is possible. It is in this latter class that 
the work of N. Max Dunning, F. A. I. A., is placed, 
as his work is widely distributed, literally from Hali- 
fax to Los Angeles. Here are illustrated several 
examples of Mr. Dunning's work, indicating its scope 
and character. 

The -great mail-order corporations in America are 
'but few in number. The two largest in the United 
States have their headquarters in Chicago and prac- 
tically all of their buildings, including numerous 
large branch plants, have been designed by archi- 
tects. The buildings of the great Canadian mail- 
order house. The Robert Simpson Company, Ltd., 
have been designed by Mr. Dunning. The main 
plant, located at Toronto, is characteristic of the 
branch homes located at Regina and Halifax. The 

Toronto building is eleven stories and basement in 
height and of sufficient ground area to present an 
imposing appearance. The greater portion of the 
wall surface is entirely composed of glass, excepting 
the spandrels. This scheme always presents a diffi- 
cult problem for architectural treatment. The main 
exposed exterior structural members are made of 
concrete with brick paneled spandrels. 

At each end of the principal elevation is a three 
bay pavilion, the center bay projecting. The vertical 
members are heavy and of substantial proportions, 
with an attendant reduction of the glass areas, pro- 
vision for shadow effects, concentration of ornamen- 
tation and emphasized cornice. The three principal 
divisions of the elevation are well balanced, the 
extremely plain central area is relieved by the 
more pronounced end pavilions and withal a 
simplicity of designing which satisfies. The 
five story building at Halifax is designed with the 
same central portion of glass excepting the spandrels. 
In the Regina building, one half of which has been 
constructed, all of the vertical structural members 
are expo'-ecl. The corner pavilions are designed with 
great simplicity and effectiveness. This building of- 

Cofyright, 1931, The Architectural <f Building Press (Inc.) 


fers an excellent opportunity to compare the effect 
of the exposed vertical structural members with the 
buildings in which these members are behind the 

In connection with the Toronto project a dormi- 
tory building was erected to house the female em- 
ployees of The Robert Simpson Company, Ltd., and 
the surplus accommodations allotted to art and other 
students. It is quite an extensive building but the 
funds available limited its design to service only and 
with little attempt to secure exterior architectural ef- 
fect. The dormitory was constructed at the rear of 
extensive grounds surrounding an old mansion on 
Sherhourai Street. The residence was remodelled 

cers are located on the first floor, the general office- 
on the second floor and in the basement are the mul- 
tigraphing, stationary, mailing, filing and exhibit 
rooms. In addition there is a men's and women's 
lunch room with kitchenette, a nurse's, examination 
and quiet rooms for the social service department; 
barber shop, shower baths, boiler and fan rooms; 
large vaults are provided on each floor. 

The Stromberg Motor Device Building, Chicago, 
has a special roof construction over the sixth story 
which is used as a brass foundry. A description of 
this roof was published in THE AMERICAN ARCHI- 
TECT/ Sept. 1, 1920, page 291. 

To adapt a plan to an irregular shaped area is al- 




and with the extensions provides the occupants of 
the dormitory with reception rooms, club rooms and 
grounds, comprising a most satisfactory plant. 

The buildings of the National Cloak and Suit 
Company at Kansas City, Mo., are designed along 
similar lines. The plant is being constructed in sec- 
tions with detached power house. Ample ground 
space permits the arrangement of complete railroad 
and vehicular transportation service. The office 
building for the Simmons Manufacturing Company 
at Kenosha, Wis., is a good example of the modern 
detached office building of a large manufacturing 
company. The private offices of the executive offi- 

ways an interesting problem, especially when the 
floors are divided for different purposes. The Hotel 
Winton faces two streets which are not parallel and 
an adjoining property cuts out a corner on the rear. 
Being located on inside lots it was necessary to use 
three courts to provide light to guest rooms. The 
typical floor plan shows a large number of rooms 
equally well lighted. The public rooms are in the 
basement, first and mezzanine floors. The power 
plant and laundry are located in an adjoining build- 
ing. The lobby, lounge and various dining rooms 
are large, well proportioned and very conveniently 
arranged. The decorative details are generally in 



low relief and simple. The colors applied and the 
woods and marbles used are quiet in tone and very 
harmonious. The principal elevation is of a red brick 
and light colored terra cotta. There are no extreme 
projections in any of the parts and the satisfactory 
impression produced is due to the disposition of the 
well proportioned openings and the well placed hori- 
zontal members. 

The Bethany Bible School is designed to be a com- 
plete institution in which there are provided dormi- 
tories, lecture halls and a chapel. The buildings are 
arranged about a city block with a large quadrangle 
in the center. The c e buildings were erected during 




a period of years and are of sufficiently varied design 
to present an interesting appearance. 

The building of the American Book Company, 
Chicago, is a very substantial and well proportioned 
structure. The offices are located in the top story 
and the balance of the building used for the storage 
of books, shipping and receiving departments. The 
exterior is faced with a rough faced red brick com- 
bined with very simple and effective terra cotta sills, 
caps and belt courses. The designing is simple, 
slight projections of the vertical members, the heavy 
projections of the belt courses and deep window re- 
veals provide excellent shadow effects. The treat- 

ment of the first and fifth stories provides the needed 
additional surface effects. In the tower are placed 
the sprinkler and house service tanks. 

Among other buildings designed by Mr. Dunning 



,are the Dixon National Bank and the Dixon Home 
Telephone Company buildings at Dixon, 111. ; the 
Kenosha Hospital and the Newell Memorial Chapel 
at Kenosha, Wis. ; the Fourteenth Church of Christ, 
Scientist, and the Oak Park Baptist Church, de- 
signed in association with C. A. Jensen and E. E. 





Roberts, respectively. Of the residences designed 
by Mr. Dunning, that of Mr. Robert J. Thorne at 
Lake Forest, 111., is the most important. This was 
designed in association with John W. McKecknie 














of Kansas City. These it is proposed to illustrate in 
succeeding issues. 

It is apparent that the hasis of Mr. Dunning's de- 
signs is a careful study of the elementary require- 
ments of the project. On these is erected the de- 
sign in a simple and logical manner, with careful 

consideration being given to the materials employed. 
There is no striving for effects not consistent with 
the requirements of the building, neither is there 
evidence of adaptations from other works. Sim- 
plicity, charm and dignity characterize the work as 
they are characteristic of the designer. 



Architectural Registration Matters 

HAVING received from E. I. Du Pont De 
Nemours & Co., Inc., of Wilmington, Del., 
certain inquiries as to the various states in 
which there are registration laws or other legislation 
controlling the practice of architecture, we referred 
the letter to the secretary of the National Council 
of Architectural Registration Boards. 

The reply to this letter was so thoroughly pre- 
pared that we are presenting it herewith in the belief 
that it will be of wide interest: 

"Gentlemen : 

"Your letter of December 16, 1920, addressed to 
the Architectural & Building Press, Inc., 243 W. 
39th street, New York City, has been referred to me 
for reply by Mr. W. H. Crocker, editor of THE 

"A list of the states having laws regulating the 
practice of architecture is regularly published in 
the Journal of the American Institute of Architects, 
see latest list, December, 1920, page VII. The re- 
quirements of the laws in the different states vary 
greatly. A digest of these laws would involve labor 
so extensive, that I am sure that you would not ex- 
pect anyone to furnish you with such information 
without adequate remuneration. 

"On November 18 and 19 there was held in St. 
Louis, Missouri, a meeting of the registration officers 
of the various states having registration laws. And 
there were in attendance at this meeting representa- 
tives from seventeen states out of the twenty having 
registration laws. And there were also present rep- 
resentatives from a considerable number of states 
which have laws pending in their respective legisla- 



tures. As a result of this conference, which lasted 
two days, the meeting unanimously resolved to form 
a National Council of Architectural Registration 
Boards, which, among other duties, should act as a 
clearing house for information regarding architects 
who might desire reciprocal transfer from one state 
to another. 

"I am enclosing copy of Constitution and By-Law.-; 
of this organization, and beg to say that the organiza- 
tion will be completed and ready to function on or 
about the second of January, 1921. This organiza- 
tion will be able to offer a great convenience to 
architects doing interstate business. Of course, as 
it is purely a voluntary organization, and no state 
board can surrender its function under the various 
state laws, it must depend for its value largely upon 
the spirit of co-operation, which was manifest in the 
council meeting held in St. Louis. 

"One may be entitled to practice architecture under 
the registration laws in a particular state and not 
entitled to transfer to another state, due to the 
stringent requirements of the laws in the state to 
which the architect desires transfer. To eliminate 
this difficulty and avoid taking a number of examina- 
tions, the council proposes to issue a standard N. C. 
A. R. examination, which when one has taken will 
be deemed sufficient evidence of competency to en- 
title that person to registration in any state in the 
United States ; due to the fact that the standard N. C. 
A. R. examination questions will require the candi- 
date to pass an examination at least equivalent to the 
requirements of every state in the United States. 
I would strongly recommend every architect who 
expects to engage in interstate business to prepare 
and take the standard N. C. A. R. examination. 

"It is expected that these examinations will be 
given by the state examining committee in the state 
where the man resides or in the state nearest to his 
residence. But the questions will be prepared by the 
National Council. The procedure will be about as 
follows : 

"The applicant for a standard N. C. A. R. exam- 
ination will file a fee of twenty-five dollars and 
apply to the National Council of Architectural Reg- 
istration Boards for a standard N. C. A. R. examina- 
tion, and will designate the state nearest his residence 
where he wishes to be examined. The council will 
then investigate the examination requirements of 
that particular state and prepare additional questions 
to cover the requirements of other states in addition 
to the requirements of that state, make an investiga- 
tion of the applicant's record in practice, certify to 
same and turn over to the officials where the appli- 
cant wishes to be examined. The applicant will 
then file an application for examination in the state 
where he wishes to be examined, stating that he 
wishes to take a N. C. A. R. standard examination. 

He will then appear before the local state committee 
and take the regular state examination and the addi- 
tional N. C. A. R. examination; and if successful in 
the examination, the local state examining committee 
will certify that he has passed the state examination, 
also the standard N. C. A. R. requirements. 

"A certificate of this kind and an application from 
the National Council of Architectural Registration 
Boards will entitle the applicant to registration in 
any state in the United States upon the payment of 
fees without appearing or examination, provided he 
keeps his record clear as to honesty, integrity and 
discreet caution in practice. Thus a competent archi- 
tect may dispose once for all of examination require- 
ments. Should an architect not wish to take the 
standard N. C. A. R. examination, but wish to be 
transferred from one state of registration to an- 
other state of registration, his procedure would be 
about as follows : 

"He would apply to the National Council of Archi- 
tectural Registration Boards for an application blank 
and pay a fee of fifteen dollars, fill out this applica- 
tion blank and return to the National Council. The 
council would then carefully investigate his record 
of practice in the state where he resides or in any 
other state where he is registered to practice. This 
would include correspondence with his clients, the 
local architectural societies, fellow architects and a 
transcript of his record with his own state examining 
committee. This material, carefully collected, 
collated and certified to, would be transferred by the 
council to the registration officials of the state where 
he wishes to enter practice and would be used by the 
examining committee of that state as evidence to 
determine his eligibility for registration in that 
state. If his previous examination was equal in 
standard to the state where he wished to be trans- 
ferred and his record in practice without blemish, 
he would in all probability be granted a certificate 
showing his right to" practice architecture in the 
state receiving the report of the council. And would 
thus be saved the time, expense and delay of a per- 
sonal appearance at an examination in the state in 
question. Should he fail in the examination in ques- 
tion and so desire, the council would refund his appli- 
cation fee. Should he wish to be transferred to still 
another state, he should file an application for addi- 
tional transfer to the council and pay a fee of five 
dollars, upon which the council would investigate 
his record during the interim between his former 
investigation and the time of second application, 
make a transcript of his complete record and trans- 
mit to the additional state where he may desire reg- 
istration. And this procedure would be followed in 
as many transfers as the applicant might wish to 

"In the case of an architect who had received regis- 



tration in the state where he resided on account of the 
'exemption clause' and because of years of practice 
at the time the law went into effect, he would not be 
entitled to registration in another state without ex- 
amination, as no other state would be under legal 
obligation to accept him without examination. In 
consequence, architects who have received registra- 
tion under the 'exemption clause' are urged to 
waive that right and be registered in their home 
state by examination. The council is recommending 
that in all such cases the form of examination for 
architects of ten or more years' independent practice 
of the profession of architecture as principal in 
charge of an architectural office, that these architects 
be given a special examination by exhibits in which 
they shall submit to the examining committee plans, 
specifications and detail of a number of their more 
representative buildings and appear before the com- 
mittee with these exhibits, answering such questions 

as shall be put to them tending to indicate that they 
were the real authors of the work, notwithstanding 
the fact that the drafting and clerical work may have 
been executed by others under their supervision. 
And if, in the judgment of the examining committee, 
they show a record in practice indicating competency 
equal to or in excess of the competency that might 
be indicated by a written examination prepared in 
accordance with the law, they should certify to the 
proper authorities their right to registration by 

"Architects of ten or more years' practice residing 
in states where there are no laws regulating the 
practice of architecture should take such an examina- 
tion as above indicated in the state having registra- 
tion laws nearest to where they reside. 

"E. S. HALL, Secretary. 

"National Council of Architectural Registration 
Chicago Boards." 



American Specification Institute 

We are heartily in favor of the movement sug- 
gested in your editorial of November 17. Such an 
organization as "The American Specification Insti- 
tute," whose object should be to increase the knowl- 
edge of its membership, in relation to the prepara- 
tion of definite specifications, should receive the 
hearty support of every practicing architect. 

Your editorial in November 17, of THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT speaks the truth in relation to altogether 
too many specifications when you charge that "The 
preparation of specifications receives less study and 
attention in proportion to their importance than any 
other phase of architectural or engineering practice." 

The growth and development of the very compli- 
cated work of the present day architect calls for the 
fullest development of every branch of his service. 
Heretofore much effort has been put upon the de- 
velopment of carefully wrought drawings and de- 
tails covering all the various parts of the work. This 
is as it should be, and in so doing the architect has 
kept pace with the almost abnormal requirements. 
The work of preparing the specifications was pushed 
aside as of not much importance ; however, it has 
been found that as a companion of complete and ac- 
curate drawings which together form the basis of 
every contract, the specifications should have the 
same careful consideration and be prepared by those 
experienced and skilled in specification work. 

As the work under the care of the architect be- 
comes more and more complicated and important, 
the necessity of perfect (if possible) specifications 
will be more and more apparent. 

Too often the specifications only meant so many 
typewritten pages to be discarded by the builder be- 
cause of their discrepancies and meaningless and 
impossible requirements, indicating a lack of knowl- 
edge of good construction principles, the proper use 
of materials and equipment. 

Specifications should be accurate and definite the 
same as is required of the drawings. 


Cincinnati, O. 

Replying to your letter of November 24, I have 
been greatly interested by your editorial of Novem- 
ber 17. on the American Specification Institute. 
Specification writing has undoubtedly lagged far be- 
hind the advancing standard of architectural prac- 
tice generally. Your proposal to give prominence to 
this work is exactly in the right direction. 


San Francisco, Cal. 

I concur in almost every detail with your editorial 
and feel that there is need for a better set of specifi- 
cations than is now adopted by the average archi- 
tects' offices, and it appears to me that the formation 
of a specification institute would be a much needed 
service that can be rendered to architects. 

Augusta, Ga. 

We are in receipt of your letter of November 24 
asking our opinion of The American Specification 

We cannot entirely indorse the statement that 
the specifications are the least creditable part of an 
architect's production. The object of both drawings 
and specifications is to form a definite basis for esti- 
mating and construction, and in our experience ques- 
tions arise due to the defects in one as much as the 
other. It is axiomatic that better information and 
education are desirable. 

As to The American Specification Institute, how- 
ever, your article does not give sufficient particulars 
on which an opinion may be formed. Is this an as- 
sociation of specification writers? If so, who is 
getting it up? What are the objects and how may 
membership in it be obtained? We should be glad 
to receive further information on the subject. 

New York, N. Y. 

In answer to yours of November 24 in regard to 
the American Specification Institute, I am much in- 
terested and would like to know more about this. 

I thought that our Structural Service Committee 
of the American Institute of Architects was doing 
this work and doing it well. At present I see no rea- 
son for a rival organization. 

I await your next letter with interest. 


Boston, Mass. 

Your letter of November 24 referring to editorial 
of November 17 received, and we are glad to inform 
you that we heartily approve of the plan. 

Whether the formation of an institute is the ideal 
thing to do we are unable to state, but some good, 
sound articles on specification work, in your maga- 
zine, will certainly be of great value to every archi- 


per C. WM. PALMER. 

Detroit, Mich. 



Old State House, Newport 

(See reproduction of original drawing by O. R. Eggers on opposite page) 

The public buildings designed during our early Colonial 
period are, in general, excellent in design. 

While simple in style they have a certain elegance that 
may properly furnish inspiration to modern builders. It 
is in its disciplined and almost universal refinement and 
dignity that lies the chief beauty of this work. Even when 
the early builders sought to venture on display they seemed 
to possess an innate sense of good breeding which taught 
them to avoid the vulgar and the eccentric. 

This rugged refinement is shown in the fact that classic 
detail was a common language, and even the humblest 
carpenter was able to use it with intelligence and appro- 
priateness to express the joy he evidently found in his work. 

The State House at Newport was built in IJ43> ana 
Richard Munday was its architect. Olaff C. Revin, writing 
in the Georgian period of Munday and his work, states: 
"This building is symmetrical, well proportioned and quiet. 
For suggestion Munday depended on the type then in 
vogue. The dimensions are forty feet by eighty. 

Honestly constructed of brick and stone, it bravely promises 
to weather the seasons for many generations to come." 

Some critics of the architecture of our Colonial period 
have contended that, while its purity and classic beauty 
cannot be questioned, it was nevertheless based purely on 
domestic types. This State House at Newport is cited as 
a case to prove this contention. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT S.ri,, of Etrl, Amtri,,n ArthiMtur, 

Ignoring Our American Art 

ELSEWHERE in this issue there appears a news 
item stating that Frank Brangwyn, the English 
painter and etcher, has accepted a commission to 
decorate the dome of the state capitol in Jefferson 

The Missouri press, seeing only the obvious result, 
passes by the deeper, more subtle one, and enthusias- 
tically congratulates Missouri on its selection of an 

We do not challenge Mr. Brangwyn's competence 
to carry forward the work in hand. He will doubt- 
less undertake it with that same spirit and skill 
which has been at the base of his success. But the 
question must be asked, why was this important work 
not assigned to some American artist. It would have 
been an opportunity that might with advantage to 
American art have been availed of, for if the Ameri- 
can spirit is to prevail anywhere, surely an American 
cSpitol building would suggest itself. 

American art will be slow to arouse world interest 
if Americans themselves give such evidence of lack- 
ing confidence. If America herself is indifferent 
to her genius, where can she hope for the respect she 
craves from the old, sophisticated nations across the 
seas? Why should the decoration in an American 
capitol building express the feeling of one whose 
traditions have nothing in common with American 
traditions and whose work is necessarily colored by 
other and foreign ideals ? This great country is not 
without its genius, but genius needs to be appreciated. 
It is an injustice to American artists to deny them 
the opportunity for service. It is against the spirit 
of American art to assign so typically American a 
commission to one without "America first" in his 
heart. It is against the interests of America to ignore 
its home product and go so far afield for talent. 

This country is famous for the way it has adver- 
tised its own powers. It has developed its resources, 
encouraged its commerce, cheered and boosted every- 
thing American. It would seem a duty for those in 
charge of art matters to do their part to stimulate 
American art also and help it to those heights which 
give us pride in other things American. 

Where Does the "Evil" Lie? 

/ T^HE New York American of February 14 
*- printed a long and misleading editorial on the 
"evils" of the so-called Esch-Cummins law. "Each 
day," this newspaper stated in a headline, "Reveals 
New Evil in the Esch-Cummins Law." 

Now, there is much that is good and much that 
is bad in that editorial. It is of vital interest to every 
architect in the country, because an architect's bread 
is buttered by no one factor more than efficient trans- 
portation. The so-called Calder Committee (the 
Senate's Special Committee on Reconstruction and 
Production) very clearly proved that. Housing all 
over the country progressed or stopped in direct ratio 
to the effectiveness of the transportation facilities to 
and from any given point. This, of course, was a 
self-evident fact before the investigation was begun . 
by the Committee. Whatever Senator Calder and 
his colleagues unearthed merely substantiated a fact 
of which all architects were only too well aware. In 
any industrial scheme as complex as ours, transporta- 
tion necessarily must play one of the most important 

Knowing that, architects should be, and undoubt- 
edly are, familiar with the provisions of the Esch- 
Cummins law. The point most at issue just now is 
the recent contracts which the private managers have 
made with private repair companies for the repair 
of locomotives and cars. It is contended that the 
railroads have always maintained their own repair 
.shops, and have kept the accounts of the average 
costs of repairing engines and cars. This average 
cost was between $4,000 and $5,000 for a locomo- 
tive, but today the repairs are said to cost about $20.- 
000 per locomotive, due to the fact that the repairs 
are done by private companies, not directly con- 
nected with the railroads, but "controlled" by the fi- 
nancial interests which maintain the Class 1 rail- 
roads [the Pennsylvania and other large systems]. 

If this be true, the railroads are most certainly at 
fault and should be made to continue their repairs 
under the old scheme, because under this new ar- 
rangement, the total cost of repairs to locomotives 
and to cars is more than $750,000,000 a year. 



THIS would be all right, if the railroads them- 
selves met this huge expense. But they do not 
meet it. The Esch-Cummins law provides that the 
stockholders of the railroads shall have 6 l / 2 per cent, 
dividends, but under the "guarantee" system and 
the high rates made necessary to meet that arbitrary 
dividend, the American ]>eople must pay out more 
and more until the 6^2 per cent, level is reached. 

If all these charges are true, and if it is actually 
found that the repair factor in the operation of 
American railroads is being artificially and deliber- 
ately increased because of a desire to profiteer, then 
the officials of whatever railroad companies are in- 
volved in such practices should not only be com- 
pelled to explain every detail, but also to go back 
to whatever order of things is best suited for rigid 

As indicated above, this is of extreme importance 
to every architect. Everything that goes into any 
building or arch or memorial or anything else is 
directly affected by the cost of transportation. The 
price and the availability of the smallest nail, as well 
as of the largest beam, are both immediately and 
directly affected by the efficiency of the transporta- 
tion facilities of a community. 

Now, where does the "evil" lie ? 

You will find this journal's answer to that ques- 
tion in our next issue. 

The Holy Land in 1920 

NEITHER stuffy tenements nor dirty factories, 
narrow streets nor sullied slums will be toler- 
ated in Jerusalem and other urban centers of Pales- 
tine, "the Jewish Homeland." 

Anticipating a heavy influx of Jews back to the 
Holy Land, a city and town planning commission 
has been appointed to regulate the distribution of 
population, and prevent a mushroom growth from 
spoiling forever the beauty of the ancient cities. 

All town plans will have to be approved by the 
commission. Civic commissions with full authority 
will control building development in Jerusalem, Jaffa, 
Haifa and Tiberias, working on plans approved by 
a central commission. This body may be headed 

by Sir Patrick Geddes of the University of Edin- 
burgh, town-planer of Bombay and other cities of 
India. Landowners have been advised to consult 
with the local commissioners before attempting new 

Palestine is now half empty and there is ample 
room for new communities and modern quarters. 
In building them the poor must not be huddled in 
crowded settlements while th'e rich enjoy spacious 
houses and delightful gardens. 

It is the duty of the government to supervise such 
things. It is hoped to have here noble cities with 
parks and open spaces, designed, not in the foreign 
extraneous style, but breathing the spirit of the land, 
representing the best ideals of those who work for 
its upbuilding. 

IT is interesting to learn that concessionaires have 
applied to General Ronald Storrs, governor of 
Jerusalem since the city was captured by Lord Al- 
lenby, for permission to run a street car line to the 
Mount of Olives and an interurban to Bethlehem. 
There is a shock in the news ; it seems like some of 
the more objectionable fooling in "Innocents 
Abroad," but it is a sober fact. Remembering that 
Palestine, the Holy Land and the center of the reli- 
gious aspiration cf so large a part of humanity, is 
still an ordinary inhabited country with citizens who 
want to do business and manage their affairs like 
other communities, serves to give some idea of the 
difficulty of the task of the British governor. Drink- 
ing bars have been forbidden in the city ; the street 
railways to the holy places have been refused fran- 
chises; modern building of all sorts is forbidden, as 
the feeling is that the country should preserve as 
much of its patriarchal look as can be saved. 

The conflict between historical and artistic inter- 
est and the economic development of a country is an 
ancient one. Italy suggests itself for comparison, 
and seems to show that compromise is possible. The 
Italians developed their industries as much as they 
could, but still with attention to the tourist values, 
the only thing, incidentally, that enabled the Italian 
nation to come through each year with a credit bal- 
ance on the national books. 




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The coal unloading tower is seen to the right 

Steel Sheet Piling 

Application, Design and Methods of Construction in Foundations 


STEEL sheet piling has found application in 
foundations in many ways. Its growth has 
dated from its first use as curtain walls driven 
along the foundations of buildings adjacent to new 
foundations requiring deeper excavations for the 
purpose of holding securely the foundations of old 
buildings and materials under them. This use has 
now developed so that sheet piling has found suc- 
cessful and growing application in underpinning of 
these older foundations of adjacent building and in 
underpinning the building foundations along route 
of subway construction. Its next application was 
in general cofferdam work surrounding a building 
site or in small pier cofferdams to unwater these 

areas in which to construct the foundations as 
planned. This application of this type of piling to 
foundation work is generally understood. 

During twelve years of study in the design and 
development of sheet piling, however, the possibili- 
ties of its use in deep open cylindrical cofferdams or 
caissons for building pier foundations as well as for 
bridge pier and other deeper foundations have been 
very apparent. The progress in this direction, how- 
ever, has been slow, due to the necessity for a com- 
plete change and for abandoning old plants and 
erecting new plants for a method the merits of which 
were not thoroughly understood. 

It is not uncommon now in bridge pier design 




Steel pipe holds cylinder of piling vertical for driving 

to make pier excavation in open cofferdams of steel 
sheet piling, seventy to ninety feet in depth, using 
telescopic cofferdams of two or more leaves, each 
leaf of thirty to 
fifty-foot lengths 
of sheet piling. 
Single pieces fif- 
ty to seventy- 
five feet long 
have been used 
in a number of 
instances in va- 
rious construc- 
tion jobs. It has 
also been demon- 
strated by im- 
proved methods 
of installation, 
and by assem- 
bling the piling 
in wall form, 
splicing piles for 
longer lengths is 
entirely practi- 

Experience has 
thoroughly de- 
monstrated the 
water tightness 
of single wall 



I Permanent fyinkn of Lackawarm I2$c$' Bent-Vteb 
5M Shut Pito. (16 Piles per ytirder) 


sheet piling, both straight and circular construction, 
by side contact or by compression and side contact. 
A preconceived plan and method in building pier 
foundations in open caissons of steel sheet piling, as 
in other types of building foundations, is necessary, 
particularly in large power house foundations. The 
Buffalo General Electric Company's River Station, 
Buffalo, N. Y., and the power house of the Phila- 
delphia Electric Company, at Philadelphia, Pa., and 
part of the foundations of the new power house, 
Lackawanna Steel Company, Buffalo, N. Y., were 
constructed by this method, using Lackawanna steel 
sheet piling. 

The new power plant of the Lackawanna Steel 
Company, Buffalo, N. Y., recently completed, has 
an interesting foundation, inasmuch as steel sheet 
piling was used in four distinct and separate appli- 

This power house was constructed on a site pre- 
viously excavated for a canal slip in Buffalo Harbor 
to 23 feet of water. The materials as shown by a 
cross section below were mud and silt, sand and 
gravel and hardparr to rock. 

This foundation required first a single-wall braced 
cofferdam within which to construct intake and pump 
well. This required 14 x ^-in. arched-web Lacka- 
wanna steel sheet piling, 44 ft. in length. 

This cofferdam was constructed by first excavat- 
ing the remaining materials from the slip. The 
bearing piles were driven and followed to grade and 
the cage of bracing was framed, the bottom tier first 

and building up- 
on this until 
complete, allow- 
ing the cage to 
sink of its own 
weight. Addi- 
tional weight 
sunk cage to 
water level. The 
piling was then 
around the peri- 
meter of this 
cage and the 
closure pile set 
when all the 
steel sheets were 
driven. The 
steam pile driv- 
ing hammer was 
suspended from 
end of derrick- 
boom. Upon 
placing of pumps 
the cofferdams 
were ready to be 
pumped out. 


This improvement also required a bulkhead or 
dock wall adjacent to and on both sides of power 
house to hold in place soft materials and a fill place 
to bring the site to yard level. The bulkhead re- 
quired 14 x ^-in. arched-web piling, 53 ft. in length. 

To make bulkhead continuous, a cut-off wall of 
14 x %-in. arched-web piling about 22 ft. long had 
to be constructed under the intake well. This was 
accomplished by driving piling in the cofferdam after 
it was unwatered and by moving one timber in each 
of four tiers of braces at one time. 

Since the loading on partition wall between power 
house and boiler house was heavier and since the 
foundation was also in canal slip area, five cylin- 
drical piers to bedrock were needed. These were 
constructed within walls of 14 x ^ in. arched-web 
piling, 42 ft. in length. 

The method of constructing these cylinder piers 


Cylinder at the left has been driven 

here used differed only in that a fixed leader pile 
driver rig was blocked in position to hold the mast 
vertical. The method of doing this will be described 

The building is approximately 240 x 223 ft. in 
plan, with a floor level about 40 ft. above bedrock 
and about 5 ft. above water level. A series of bore 
holes developed that bedrock lay almost horizontal 
and about 35 ft. below the surface of the ground. 
From 5 ft. to 7 ft. of mud and silt, 25 ft. to 28 ft. 
of sand or quicksand, and 3 ft. of clay, containing 
large gravel and small boulders, lay on the rock. 

The plan called for 157 cylinder piers varying in 
diameter from 33 to 81 inches. The maximum com- 
pressive stress allowed anywhere on the reinforced 
concrete was 500 pounds per square inch. The 
larger piers carry as high as 874 tons per pier. 
These foundations were constructed in open cylinder 
caissons of steel sheet piling, 12^ * %-in. straight- 
web and bent web sections being used. 


Excavation has not been started 


Number of Piles 
18 ... 



ngle of Bend 
eb of Steel Pile 
rees straight web 
bent web 


5' 4 15/15" 
4' 8 13/16" 
4' 11/16" 
3' 4 9/16" 
2' 8 7/16" 
2' 3/8" 
Four 90 degrees bends 






. 11 


. 17 



6 . 




Cylinders of 8, 12 and 14 piles of bent web piling 
and cylinders of 18 and 20 piles of straight-web 
piling were used. In these cylinders 1,296 tons of 
piling in 33-ft. lengths were used. The piling re- 
mains permanently in position as part of the struc- 
ture. The accompanying plan shows the general 
arrangement and size of the piers. 

The pier foundation work consisted essentially in 
driving closed cylinders of sheet piles, excavating 
the enclosed material by jetting it out, and filling 
the opening left with reinforced concrete. The con- 
struction of these cylindrical piers is novel and orig- 
inal, both in design and execution. Two cableways 
with two portable timber towers 70 ft. in height, 
built on skids, were placed over the center lines of 
two rows of piers and were used to handle the piling, 
timber mast, steam pile driving hammers, wooden 
assembling tower, etc. 

A timber pile was first driven on the exact center 





of each pier. These piles were later dressed at the 
top and a hole bored at the center of pier. Excava- 
tion proceeded around this pile to a point near the 
water level, when the lower templet was set in posi- 
tion and secured to the center pile. The timber 
assembling tower was then placed over the lower 
template, and the upper template and guide ring 
were centered in this tower in correct position over 
the lower template. 

The steel sheet piling was handled by the cable- 
ways and assembled one piece at a time around these 
templates, the cableway being of sufficient height to 
raise the pieces above the 33-ft. sheeting already 
assembled. Thus, the piles could be interlocked at 
the top. The position of the cableways also per- 
mitted all of the piles in one cylinder, or all the cyl- 
inders in the row, to be assembled. 

This method of assembling allowed the entire cyl- 
inder to be set and held vertical, and the closure pile 
assembled for its entire length. A 14 x 14-in. wood 
mast, 43 ft. long, was then mounted and held in 
position on top of the wooden pile by a 2-in. steel 
pin. This was guyed at the top by four 5^-in. wire 
cables, the mast being free to move within the top 

A No. 7 McKiernan-Terry steam pile driving 
hammer, weighing 5,500 Ibs., was lifted by the cable- 
way and supported from the mast by a steel A-frame 
so designed as to allow the hammer and frame to 
slide freely upon the mast. The mast was free to 
revolve, and the hammer was offset from the mast 
the required distance to bring it centrally over the 
pile walls. The hammer was lowered or raised by 
a set of double blocks provided on the side of the 
mast above the hammer, the power line passing over 
a sheave in the top of the mast to the stationary 
hoisting engines. 

Two sheet piles were driven by this steam hammer 
about 3 or 4 ft. Then the hammer was raised and 
placed upon two adjacent piles, driving them about 
the same distance. This operation was repeated 
until the entire circle was driven into bedrock. The 
average time of driving was about 6 hours for each 


cylinder. A large portion of this time was required 
to drive the piles through the glacial drift and into 
the disintegrated top of bedrock. Penetration into 
rock as closely as can be determined from original 
borings was from 6 to 18 inches. The work of 
assembling and driving the cylinders was entirely 
completed in a total of about 70 working days. 

A multiple-stage centrifugal pump with a capacity 
of 1,500 gal. per min. against a pressure of 125' Ib. 
per sq. in. was installed on a timber pile trestle on 
the shore of the river. An 8-in. main with a 6-in. 



distributing pipe carried the water close to the cyl- 
inders. A sand jet pump constructed with a 6-in. 
pipe about 40 ft. long, having an elbow at the top, 
and a right angle pipe 10 ft. long (with two water 
jets fastened to opposite sides of this pipe) was used 
as a water jet pump. The two pipe jets had reducers 
at the lower end. One 2 l / 2 -in. reducer was turned 
upward and toward the center of the bottom of the 
6-in. pipe, the other \ l /2-\n. reducer was straight and 
extended about 12 in. below the end of the larger 
pipe. These jets had the effect of stirring the sand 
and forcing it upward through this larger pipe. To 
complete this pump a 2-in. pipe connection was 
made in the elbow, directly opposite the horizontal 
piece of 8-in. pipe. These three jets were connected 
to the pump by fire hose. 

The pump thus assembled was raised by the cable- 
way and stood vertically in the material within the 
cylinder, the upper end of the 6-in. tube being closed 
by a gate valve. The water was then turned into 
the jets, and as the only avenue of escape was 
through the bottom the pump rapidly settled under 
its own weight to the bottom of the cylinder. The 
gate at the top of the pump was then opened and 
the pressure from the jet caused a large stream of 
sand and water to be discharged. This method of 
excavation proved to be so rapid that only 2 hours 
were required to remove all the sand, the loose mate- 
rial from a cylinder. An independent jet was used 

until the hard formation was broken up so that it 
could be removed by a small orange-peel bucket. 
The final operation in cleaning bedrock inside the 
cylinders was to replace the large jets by 2-in. jets, 
one operating vertically, the other horizontally. 
These carefully washed the rock and the degree of 
cleanliness of the bottom was thoroughly tested with 
a sounding rod. 

After inspection had proved that the rock was 
clean and ready for concrete, the jet pump was re- 
moved and a cage of reinforcing steel, previously 
assembled, was lowered into the cylinder. These 
steel cages were provided with stub guides which 


Showing reinforcing steel at floor beam level 


Rain water collects on top of concrete 

to clean the sand and material from near the walls 
of the cylinder. Circular wooden forms were bolted 
to the top of the steel cylinders to permit the spoil 
to be vised to raise the general ground level. 

To remove hard clay conglomerate, heavy gravel 
and boulders remaining in the cylinder, a 14-in. 
arched web 35 ft. long, weighing 1,425 Ibs., was 
hung inside and used as a vertical battering ram 

held them in proper position relative to the sheet 
piling forming the cylinder shelves. 

Concrete^vas chuted to the hopper of an ordinary 
tremie pipe which deposited it on the bottom. The 
tremie was hoisted and sections of it removed as 
the level of the concrete rose. The lower end of 
the tremie was maintained from 1 to 2 ft. below 
the surface of the concrete. It was operated with 
extreme care so as never to lose its seal in the con- 
crete nor its charge of concrete. 

By this method each cylinder was filled with con- 
crete to a point 2 to 3 ft. below the top of the sheet 
piling. After allowing sufficient time for the con- 
crete to set, water was pumped out of the top to 
the level of the concrete, and the laitance (usually 
2 to 3 in. deep) was removed. 

The wooden forms were then built for the cap 
of the pier and the reinforcing bars required for the 
floor beams were placed in position. All the con- 
crete for top and caps was poured at one time. The 
reinforced concrete caps of piers were 2 ft. larger 
in diameter than pier. The steel sheet piling, there- 
fore, carried part of load on pier. 

This work was designed by the Stone & Webster 
Engineering Corporation, Boston, Mass., and was 
executed by the Stone & Webster Engineering Com- 



pany, George Q. Muhlfeld. Construction Engineer. 
S. L. Shuftleton, \Yestern Manager in charge, and 
E. C. Macy, General Superintendent. H. G. Stott 
was Consulting Kngineer for the Buffalo General 
Klectric Company. 

Upon the completion of this power house, the con- 
tractors moved their forces and plant to the site of 
the Philadelphia Klectric Company's power house. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

These foundations of the boiler house and coal 
tower unloader were constructed in an almost similar 
manner to the foundations of the River Station of 
the Buffalo General Electric Company. They dif- 
fered in the number and size of piers, however, 
there being but four rows of piers, of seven piers 
each under the boiler house and four piers only un- 
der the coal unloading tower, all these on centers of 
37 ft. and 25 ft. These piers were about 14 ft. in 
diameter or larger and made up of 38 or more pieces 
of Lackawanna 14-in. arched-web piling in 37 to 55 
ft. lengths. 

This foundation was constructed on the site of 
an old shipyard with old timbers and timber piles 
buried in the old .ship ways. At the center of each 
pier a timber pile was driven. In this pile at the 
exact center of pier was bored a 2-in. hole to receive 
the pier at the bottom of the timber ma-t. The 
ground timber templet was then carefully placed 
and held securely. After the upper templet was 
set and held, the steel sheet piling was assembled 
and the timber mast was placed, set and held at the 
top by steel cables, after being carefully pumped. 

The hammer drove two piles a few feet at each 
driving. Then it was raised and placed on adjacent 
piles, continually driving in this manner until the 
cylinder of sheet piling was finally driven to bedrock. 

In cylinders of steel sheet piling, the length of 
steel should be such that when driven into rock the 
top of steel cylinders should be as nearly as possible 
at the level of low water. The design of the pier 
should contemplate a reinforced concrete cap of 
larger diameter than the sheet piling cylinders so 
that the piling can be figured in the bearing value 
of the pier. 

The New York City specifications for bearing 
values of steel shells of this character were given 
in a previous article on foundations, appearing in 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT, November 3, 1920. 

A careful analysis will show that one large cyl- 

inder of steel sheet piling, with possibly some rein- 
forcement, will simplify any foundations where 
otherwise a cluster of bearing piles is required. It 
also has the advantage of having a large area in 
bearing on bedrock which has been examined and 

The simple method of assembling, the driving in 
one operation, the necessity of one excavation only, 
the ability of steel sheet piling to conform in its 
bottom edge to the rock surface, the examination of 
the rock surface by steel ram or diver, the ability 
of cylinders to retain their cylindrical shape even 
though excavated in wet to considerable depths, and 
the trueness of a cylinder so that a cage of reinforc- 
ing steel or steel bracing can be lowered through 
the water and the cylinder pumped out when bracing 
is placed, make this form of foundation elastic, and 
economical both in design and execution. 

Fire-Protective Materials for Steel 

TESTS on the fire-resisting qualities of various 
kinds of protections for steel columns have re- 
cently been conducted by the Associated Factory- 
Mutual Fire Insurance Companies, the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters and the Bureau of 

The results of these tests show that the period of 
resistance for an unprotected column is only ten 
minutes. Solid columns partly protected by filling 
the re-entrant spaces with concrete to the extreme 
of the metal stood up from one-half to three- 
quarters of an hour, while open-latticed columns 
under the same conditions stood up from 2 to 3 l /2 

The best protective results were obtained with a 
limestone or calcareous gravel concrete covering to 
a depth of 4 inches. All the columns so protected 
withstood the eight-hour fire test, and, while hot, 
sustained such large additional loads as to justify 
the conclusion that in the lower range of results 
with similarly protected columns the working load 
will be maintained during an eight-hour fire period. 

Common surface clay brick laid on side to form 
a solid protection about 4 in. thick resisted fire for 
a period of five hours and proved to rank second 
to concrete in this respect. 


Thick, of 

2 layers, 
each %" 
2 layers, 
each 2" 


Fire Res. 
10 min. 
% hr. 

3l/o hrs. 

IV> hrs. 

8 hrs. 
3 hrs. 

5 hrs. 

Type of Column 
Struct., steel 



Min. thick, of metal 2". 
Mixt. 1:6. Vert, and horiz. steel 
Mixt. 1 :6. Filling ends to out- 
side rivets and covers lattice 
and main members. 
1:1-10:2% Port, cement, hydrat. 
lime, sand. 
Mixt. 1 :6. Cone. tied. 
Motor joint bet. tile and col. 
flanges and webs, metal ties in 
horiz. joints. 
Brick laid on side. 

Min. Sq. In. 
Solid Mat'l 





Struct., steel, solid 

Struct., steel, open lattice. . 
Struct., steel 

entrant space with concrete, 

Struct., steel 

Cone li Cnt " ^ 

Struct., steel, solid 

FI ill ' t'l f 1 l, 11 

Struct., steel 

tile flll. 

on rick, surtace clay. 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 
and the Allied Arts 

American Architects Invited to 
Exhibit in Paris Salon 

Through the courtesy of Monsieur Maurice Case- 
nave, Director General of French Services in the 
United States, an invitation has for the first time 
been extended by the Societe des Artistes Francais 
to the American Institute of Architects to make a 
comprehensive exhibition of American architecture 
at the Paris Salon which opens in May, 1921. The 
drawings will be selected by the Committee on For- 
eign Building Cooperation of the Institute acting as 
a jury. While this exhibition is gotten up under the 
auspices of the Institute, it is open to any architect 
in the country irrespective of Institute membership. 

A charge of $1.50 per square foot on drawings 
accepted will be made to cover cost of crating, stor- 
age, hanging, etc., the French Government paying 
the expenses of transportation to and from Paris. 

Insurance on exhibits can be arranged for by the 
Committee from the time of their departure from 
New York until their return at the rate of $1.50 per 
hundred dollars if desired by exhibitors. 

To allow sufficient time for transportation to 
France, the date for submission of exhibits has been 
set for February 14. 

Those desiring to exhibit should apply to Mr. 
Julian C. Levi, secretary, 105 West 40th street. New 
York City, for entry slips which must accompany 
all drawings. 

Brangwyn to Decorate Missouri 

Frank Brangwyn, the English painter and etcher, 
has accepted a commission to decorate the dome of 
the state capitol in Jefferson City. The Kansas City 
Times discussing the matter believes that if any 
painter has found the poetry of industry, it is Brang- 
wyn. He never has looked upon painting as the toy- 
maker's art, to provide trifles or even treasures to 
gratify individual whims and fashions. The picture 
market never appealed to him. His work, whether 
in separate canvas or as a part of an architectural 
scheme, is always decorative in idea, never wholly 
divorced from architecture, but obedient to a scheme 
of line and color as music is obedient to counter- 
point and harmony. 

Brangwyn's father was an architect, which may 
account for the structural quality of his painting 

ideas. And yet he did not develop his gifts directly 
under his father's influence. William Morris helped 
him, but he was shaped far more by his love of life 
in its more vigorous aspects. 

In the work he will do in the Missouri capitol, he 
will have free scope and large spaces in which to 
express himself. 

The "eye of the dome," which is assigned to him, 
measures eight hundred square feet, and the four 
other spaces he is to fill with mural paintings are 
each 650 square feet in size. Each painting will be 
more than thirty-eight feet square. 

Westminster Acknowledges Ameri- 
can Gift 

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 
has received from Herbert E. Ryle, Dean of West- 
minster, a message of thanks for the gift of 10,000 
toward the restoration of Westminster Abbey. The 
letter, which -was made public by Dr. Nicholas 
Murray Butler, chairman of the division of inter- 
course and education of the endowment, read, in 

"The great American people has always had a 
warm affection for Westminster Abbey, and I re- 
joice to know that this inheritance from early cen- 
turies of English history is felt to be one of those 
most hallowed pledges of brotherhood which help to 
unite the two great nations in enduring harmony and 
good will." 

Similar messages of acknowledgment are an- 
nounced by the endowment from Rheims and Bel- 
grade, where the endowment is erecting libraries to 
replace the structures destroyed by the German and 
Austrian armies. 

The Neglect of the Back Door 

So much has been said about the beauties of old 
Colonial doorways, the fan-lights, the panels, the 
knockers and the antique porticos, that the unobtru- 
sive and homely back-door has been grossly neglect- 
ed. There is, however, a charm, an individuality, and 
a human touch about the humble back door, which 
the stately front door can never claim, writes E. G. 
Babson, in the Boston Transcript. The back-door 
and its environs tell the story of the occupants of the 
house. Here is one doorway, with a neat little mat 
outside for the iceman or the grocer boy to wipe his 



feet on (he never does, but it shows aspiration ) ; the 
door-steps are swept daily, the garbage can under- 
neath is in a good state of preservation, perhaps even 
fenced in. The well-washed dish-towels hang in an 
orderly row, and the empty milk bottles fairly gleam 
with cleanliness. 

By contrast look at another picture; a broken 
screen-door, dirty steps, dented-in garbage pail, with 
cover half off; odds and ends of old cloths hanging 
up to dry, and broken flower-pots cluttering up the 
back porch. No invidious reflections are intended to 
be cast upon those responsible for this latter picture. 
They may be possessed of all the Christian virtues. 
but they have acquired an indifferent attitude to the 
effect of their back-doors on the neighbors. So much 
of women's time now is spent in the kitchen, why not 
make the back doorway a place of beauty? 

From the back door in the small town or suburb 
one can see much more interesting signs of life than 
from the front, which merely shows humanity on 
parade, as it were. But from the back porch, as I 
write, I see activities of all kinds ; hens in one yard, 
happily enclosed, and with no four o'clock rooster, 
visible or audible (Allah be praised!) ; a doghouse, 
tenanted by a fairly amiable non-growling canine, 
several garages and two beehives. Busy housewives 
are shaking mops and dusters from their back doors, 
and we exchange a few words on the nobility of la- 
bor. Our ashcans, although badly dented, compare 
favorably with our next-door neighbor's which have 
lost all semblance to a cylindrical shape. We view 
our new clothes-line with pardonable pride, and let 
our eyes wander speculatively to our neighbor's Mon- 
day wash, hung out in all its expansiveness. Ah, we 
draw a veil, but back-door life is interesting it has 
the human touch. 

Traveling Exhibits of Art 

To inaugurate a movement to increase art appre- 
ciation among Americans, the American Federation 
of Arts has launched a series of exhibitions. Be- 
ginning with a collection of 400 prints in color and 
photographs suitable for home decoration recently 
shown at the Sage Foundation Building, New York, 
this series will ultimately embrace other items of 
home decoration such as wall paper, pottery, etc. 

A first exhibition of this kind shown last season 
formed the inception of a campaign for improving 
home environment on the principle that a picture in 
the home is a silent partner in cultural growth. That 
any national organization should make a country- 
wide effort under the slogan "Art in Every Home" 
is a novelty in American Life. Yet under this sig- 
nificant motto the Federation, which has 250 chap- 
ters in 38 states, has grouped a series of traveling 

exhibitions, all bearing on the single purpose of im- 
proving home furnishings. 

The original exhibition of prints met with such 
success that two others had to be arranged at once 
to meet the demands of societies and institutions in 
different parts of the country. 

New publications of American prints have in- 
creased so rapidly that a complete revision of the 
original collection has now been made. These have 
been selected by a jury of experts. Every taste and 
fancy of the individual may be satisfied in this ex- 
hibition ; history, chivalry, love, the home, childhood, 
music, patriotism, nature in all forms, figure, land- 
scape and sea subjects, in fact, subjects eminently 
suitable for every home are there. All rooms in the 
house are taken care of living room as well as 
chamber ; the boy's room or the girl's room ; the den 
or the nursery. The great majority of the 400 sub- 
jects on view are reproductions of works by 
American artists. There is also a small group of 
foreign subjects, as well as a number of reproduc- 
tions of famous paintings by old masters. The 
prints are in various sizes and finishes, and suitable 
for framing and immediate use. 

New reproductions have also been added from 
works privately owned. 

There is also an exceptionally good series of pho- 
tographs, among them a selection from paintings in 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art published by the 
Museum as part of its extensive educational work. 

A most interesting feature of the exhibits is that 
the Federation will sell at the exhibition rooms copies 
of all the prints exhibited at prices from 35c to $18, 
demonstrating the wide range of selection and the 
fact that there are offered excellent reproductions at 
prices that readily accommodate themselves to the 
size of any home-maker's purse. 

The exhibition will form one of a number on tour 
throughout the country under the direction of the 
American Federation of Arts; 46 exhibitions of 
paintings, prints, crafts, war memorials, architecture, 
etc., being on the road all the time, each being shown 
in a different citv each month. 

Factory Machinery No Longer Black 

Twenty-five years ago little thought was given to 
the interior of factory buildings; "sanitation" was 
an unknown word; proper lighting, health and 
care of workers were not considered. Today there 
are very few factories, prompted by the wish for 
higher efficiency, that do not have interior walls and 
ceilings finished in white or some other light color. 

And it is little over five years ago that careful 
thought was given to the question of proper lighting 



of working areas at night, and in such plants where 
the nature of the business required very high ceil- 
ings and the effect of white walls was not so pro- 
nounced, as would be the case in foundries, etc. 
This led to a careful study of suitable lighting fix- 
tures for such plants and was followed by the de- 
velopment of suitable lighting fixtures for factory 
buildings of all kinds. Today more and more 
attention is given to proper illumination for the 
dark hours of the day and for night work. 

Clean, healthy surroundings, fresh air and proper 
lighting are now the rule and help greatly in insuring 
the contentment of workers and steady production 
which will pass rigid inspection. 

Today progressive manufacturers are completing 
the triangle of bright factory conditions by adding 
to the light walls and the proper lighting fixtures 
brightened surroundings to the very machine on 
which the workers are employed. These manufac- 
turers have found that by doing away with the black 
color so common on machinery and substituting for 
it a bright, pleasant color they lessen the eyestrain 
of the worker, do away with his restlessness at the 
job and materially reduce spoilage. 

One company through extended tests along this 
line has proved conclusively the advantage 9f light- 
painted machinery. When given the privilege to 
choose from machines finished in different colors, 
all the employes desired to work on the machines 
finished in the lighter colors. A light gray color has 
been proven satisfactory because this color is suffi- 
ciently off the white light to prevent undue glare and 
sufficiently light to eliminate dark shadows. 

A Silencer for the Street Noises 

One of the disadvantages of city life is its noisi- 
ness. The larger the population the more kinds of 
noises there are and the greater is its volume. Most 
people would gladly escape from it, if to do so were 

Hence the advantage of a contrivance invented by 
Hiram P. Maxim, which has for its object the elimi- 
nating of street noises from buildings. It is meant, 
especially, for apartment houses, hotels and 

Having effectively muffled guns with his silencer, 
Mr. Maxim has turned his attention to the hubbub of 
our city streets. 

Of course, nobody can get away from noise who 
opens his windows upon the streets of a town. Hence 
it is that Mr. Maxim's invention seeks to do away 
with the necessity of opening windows for ventila- 
tion. He proposes to supply from the roof all the 
fresh air that is wanted, using machine driven fans 
to draw it down through the halls and into the 

In order that the air may not bring sound vibra- 
tions with it, resort is had to the expedient of silenc- 
ing it. For this purpose there is erected on the roof 
of the building a circular structure which has a spiral 
interior. But it is a broken spiral, and the passage of 
the air drawn down through it is further interrupted 
by twists and turns, so as to break up all noise vi- 
brations. It is further suggested that the silencer 
here described might be lined with felt or some other 
sound-deadening material. 

There are familiar means for making walls sound- 
proof, so that, in an apartment house or hotel, nobody 
ought to be annoyed by the noises of his neighbors. 
In a properly constructed building, then, the occu- 
pant of a room should be able to get rid of all noise 
by simply closing the windows, and this he can do 
without shutting off the fresh air supply if Mr. 
Maxim's silencer is in use. 

Fighting a Burning Coal Mine Under 
a City 

There is a coal-mine burning under one of Pitts- 
burgh's most exclusive residential sections. The fire 
started in 1914. A few months later, it is learned 
from the Popular Science Monthly, it spread rapidly 
and became a source of great danger to the commun- 
ity. To know that a fire is burning under the street 
you live on, with the possibility that it may actually 
extend under your home, would not add anything to 
your feeling of comfort and security. 

The people in the Squirrel Hill section of Pitts- 
burgh, where the fire occurred, did not give the mat- 
ter much thought until the street above the burning 
mine became so hot that pedestrians were unable to 
walk upon it. The street was completely undermined 
by the fire, and part of it caved in. 

This was no job for the fire department. Putting 
out mine fires is a job for engineers. Water could 
not be used, and it would not do any good even if it 
were possible to apply it. 

When the city engineers reached the fire and 
studied it, they decided to dig down a short distance 
and build a clay wall or barrier beyond which it 
would be impossible for the fire to spread. This plan 
was put into effect, and it was thought that the fire 
would soon burn itself out. But the engineers were 
disappointed. The fire did not burn itself out. It 
grew hotter and hotter. The heat caused the clay 
wall to crumble, and the fire spread rapidly to thick- 
er coal deposits. 

There was another hurry-up call for the engineers. 
This time they decided to strip the vicinity of coal 
as far as possible, and steam-shovels were put to 
work. The excavation was carried on with great 
haste to prevent the fire from spreading to sections 
forty feet beneath the surface. To permit the fire 



to reach these areas meant almost complete disaster 
to the entire community. It was very difficult to fight 
the fire at depths varying from ten to twenty feet. 
At a depth of forty feet, effective work would have 
been almost impossible. 

The race with the fire continued for some time. 
Steam shovels dug frantically. Coal became so plen- 
tiful that it was sold to the people in the neighbor- 
hood for one dollar a ton. At times during the oper- 
ations burning portions of the mine were exposed. 
Although the fire was subdued to a great extent, it 
was not entirely extinguished. The battle with it is 
still being waged. 

The coal-mine in which the fire started is a very 
old one. It has been abandoned for forty years. The 
fire received its necessary supply of oxygen through 
several openings. It is difficult to imagine how fero- 
cious a coal fire may become, burning underground. 
As the oxygen is used up in the combustion of the 
coal, a partial vacuum is created. This lowering of 
pressure causes air to find its way in from the outside 
and the fire never lacks a fresh supply of oxygen. 

Coal-mine fires are not uncommon, but they usu- 
ally occur in unpopulated districts, where they are 
allowed to burn themselves out, owing to the great 
cost of extinguishing them. A coal-mine burning 
under a city is a more serious matter it simply must 
be put out regardless of cost and trouble. If it is 
allowed to reach deposits that extend beyond a cer- 
tain distance underground, the job of putting it out 
becomes well nigh impossible. The use of dynamite 
is bad. It loosens the coal and offers more fuel for 
the fire. 

Indians Had 45-Story Apartment 

The discovery of a stone apartment building, 
forty-five stories high and containing one thousand 
rooms, believed to have been the home of a now 
extinct tribe of American Indians, was announced 
at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica at Johns Hopkins University. 

The apartment was uncovered in one of a group 
of towns representing an ancient civilization in the 
midst of the Southwestern Desert. Several thousand 
persons may have lived in the newly discovered 

Find a Fine "Rembrandt" 

An interesting discovery has been made in a lit- 
tle half lost village in the Harz Mountains. In a 
house there, states the New York Times, a picture in 
oils of an aristocratic old gentleman has been hang- 
ing for many years. It was only a little while ago 
that the owner thought it might be of value, and made 

the discovery that the picture was by Rembrandt. 
Several experts say there can be no doubt that it is 
by the famous Dutch master. 

The picture is painted on an octagonal piece of 
oak, about two feet high by one and one-half feet 
wide. It still is in its beautiful original frame and 
one of the experts, Dr. Hofstede de Groot, declares 
that the frame must have been made at Rembrandt's 
special instructions out of Scotch fir. The work 
dates from the time of Rembrandt's stay in Leiden 
and probably was painted in 1630 or 1631. The ini- 
tials R. H. L., which stand for Rembrandt Harmen- 
zoon Leiden, appear in a typical monogram above the 
shoulder. The discovery was made by Egon Mueller, 
a well-known art expert of Hamburg. 


Edward F. Stevens,' 9 Park street, Boston, and 
Frederick C. See, 62 Clark street E, Toronto, archi- 
tects for medical institutions, have officially an- 
nounced the formation of a partnership at the same 
addresses. They have been associated for a number 
of years. 

R. S. Tyson and H. N. Foster announce that they 
have taken over the office of Mr. J. M. King and 
will practice architecture under the firm name of 
Tyson & Foster, with offices in the Woods Building, 
Ashland, Kentucky. 

James H. Ritchie, architect and engineer, formerly 
located at 8 Beacon street, Boston, Mass., has associ- 
ated himself with F. R. Jonesburg, and the firm is 
now operating at 15 Ashburton place, that city. They 
also have an office at St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Herbert C. Hearne, architect, who formeily prac- 
ticed at 145 State street, Springfield, Mass., is now 
located at 356 Main street, that city. 

Bowen, Bancroft Smith & Geo. Provot, architects, 
announce that they are now located at 48-50 West 
47th street, New York City. 

James Kleinberger, architect, is now located at 20 
West 43d street, New York City. 

Edward Fanning, architect, is now with Goodwin 
& Woolsey, 4 East 39th street, New York City. 

Charles Volz, architect, announces that he is now 
practicing at 371 Fulton street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

L. R. Barber, architect, has just been discharged 
from the army and opened an office at 325 Guarantee 
Trust Building, Atlantic City, N. J. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 




(Vice-President, Bank of Detroit) 


[Refer to Page 107, Issue of January 26, 1921] 

THE credit swing in prices, however, is the one 
that is most unsettling to the business world. The 
movement has been frequently called a "financial 
cycle." Prior to the organization of the Federal 
Reserve System the financial cycle seemed to be 
permanently established as a reoccurring factor in 
American business life, although each succeeding 
period had certain characteristics peculiar to itself, 
which frequently tended to deceive even the vet- 
eran business man. 

Common to all these periods, however, was a 
period of inflation, followed by a period of defla- 
tion. Such a period was invariably characterized 
by a crisis year, one or more dull years, culminating 
in a number of active business years. These active 
business years were followed by another period of 
readjustment, included in another financial cycle. 
As the active years were years of increasing prices 
and years of growing inflation, it is evident that 
during these years there were committed the eco- 
nomic errors which were ultimately disfurbing to 
trade and necessitated readjustments of prices and 

(Annalist Index Number Showing Varying Prices) 

1914 146.069 

1915 148.055 

1916 175.720 

1917 261.796 

1918 287.080 

1919 295.607 

Nov. 13, 1920 238.557 

The period commencing with the World War in 
1914 is illustrative of such a period of inflation, 
whose effects were world wide. The new and ab- 
normal spending power of the various governments, 
growing out of non-liquid loans, fiat or quasi-flat 
currency issues, and increased taxation, "bulled" 
prices. Business men bid against each other in 
supplying raw material and manufactured goods 
to meet war demands. Labor received increasingly 
higher wages and came into the market for lux- 
uries in abnormal volume. Bank loans increased, 
following the necessity for increased capital, to 

'Copyrighted 1920 by Edmund D. Fisher. 

build new factories, and to finance the growing dol- 
lar volume' of trade. Population of cities in- 
creased, weakening the primary basis of production. 
The normal relations of production, manufacture 
and distribution were disrupted. Much of the 
wealth produced was non-productive and fed the 
fires of war. Yet all these tendencies which made 
for an inevitable readjustment were more or less 
obscured for a while, and the feeling developed in 
the United States that the nation was growing 
wealthy. People were certainly busy, but finally 
began to feel through the strain of increased prices 
that it might be a period of lessening wealth. 

Theoretically it is possible to conceive of prices 
remaining relatively stable during a war period, if 
the buying power of the people were restricted 
through saving, offsetting the increased buying 
power of the government. Practically, however, 
the people do not save the necessary amount for 
this purpose. The government, therefore, con- 
tinues to borrow heavily, bank loans expand and 
the added spending power thus created stimulates 
the increase of prices. As a consequence, of course, 
the value of the dollar itself tumbles. 

THE rather comprehensive subject suggested 
for this address includes in addition to the rea- 
sons leading to advance in prices "What is neces- 
sary to bring about their orderly decline." As the 
phrase is, "There ain't no such animal." That is, 
yet to be found in the American financial zoo. It 
could not live with the "bulls" and "bears." An 
orderly decline in prices must follow a preceding 
period where business is well under control, where 
reserves are laid aside to break the shock of future 
changes, where inventories are not too large, where 
new equipment and new factories are planned for 
an average rather than an abnormal business, and 
where there is a potent economic control working 
through the entire financial cycle by a strong central 
banking organization. In the past many European 
countries have had such relations fairly well estab- 
lished, and where the credit cycle has had no ex- 
tremes in price movement. 

English experience ranging over a long period 
of years shows that the credit cycle of prices very 
nearly coincides with the average annual discount 
rate of the Bank of England. As prices go up the 
discount rate advances. As prices go off the rate 
declines. The economic control of the bank over 
prices is thus made evidetit. This condition is par- 
ticularly interesting in view of the power of the 



Federal Reserve System to control discount rates 
in the United States through the principle of re- 
discount for member banks of approved commer- 
cial paper- This power was not exercised during 
the war period because it was deemed wise to help 
government financing through the maintenance of 
a low interest rate. Furthermore, the gold reserves 
of the Federal Reserve Banks were comparatively 
strong, owing to the great influx of the precious 
metal from abroad, sent in payment of foreign pur- 
chases, chiefly in 1915, and the substitution of 
credit balances for money reserves in the member 
banks of the country. The conditions thus estab- 
lished, of course, were elements of inflation, par- 
ticularly as the Federal Reserve Act provided for 
lessened reserves in the national banks. 

Under normal international conditions the ad- 
vance of the discount rate of a central bank tends 
to draw capital from foreign countries and offsets 
the necessity of gold exports. It tends generally to 
minimize bank loans and promote liquidation. The 
effect of this policy, as we have seen, is to promote 
the reduction of commodity prices. On the other 
hand, a reduction of the discount rate would tend 
to increase loans, tend to stimulate enterprise gen- 
erally, and ultimately advance prices. The proper 
function of a central bank, or of a central board 
with corresponding power, is, of course, to stabil- 
ize prices so far as possible and to minimize the 
ups and downs of credit movements. Such move- 
ments, however, are more or less inevitable, grow- 
ing out of the inherent errors in business life. 

Recently, the rediscount rates of the various Fed- 
eral Reserve Banks have been advanced. This ac- 
tion was followed by a tendency to curtail credit 
by the member banks, with the consequent reaction 
on the price fabric of the country. In general, 
therefore, it cannot be claimed that in this particular 
credit cycle, the Federal Reserve System has acted 
as a stabilizing element ; but it is now functioning 
along approved lines, although somewhat late, and 
should prove to be an important factor in approx- 
imating an orderly decline in prices. 

THE chief element which has caused our pres- 
ent inflation, our great government debt, is likely 
to remain a non-liquid element in our banking and 
currency fabric for some time to come. This sug- 
gests that a large amount of inflation may remain 
in our price schedules and only be eliminated as the 
debt is gradually paid or absorbed through the sav- 
ings of the people. It will be remembered that 
prices following the Civil War, with some erratic 
exceptions, declined very gradually for a long pe- 
riod of years. The changes are shown in the fol- 
lowing index : 


1865229 (Peace established) 1873147 







1879 99 
(Resumption of specie payments) 

The business world has no guide to point to fu- 
ture price movements, or determine a sane reduc- 
tion from year to year. Prices will brook no con- 
trol they look out for themselves and are really 
the governors on the machinery of business, if not 
interfered with by governmental price-fixing 
schemes or trade agreements. It is possible that 
price-fixing may be justified during a war period, 
but from an economic standpoint the price tenden- 
cies are stronger than the forces of governmental 
or trade regulations. Fixing prices during a de- 
cline would be very difficult, although theoretically 
possible under seasonal readjustments. 

A merchandising concern that does an annual 
business of seventy-five millions of dollars has 
taken an attitude which emphasizes a seasonal basis 
of prices. It is announced that they have begun 
their spring buying in lines where the manufac- 
turers have been able to standardize prices. It is 
pointed out that business and confidence must be 
re-established, and that it devolves upon the pro- 
ducer to set prices which he can stand by. The 
statement in part says: 

"Labor must be kept employed; mills throughout 
the land must be heartened by real orders to set 
in motion wheels already stopped, and to speed up 
those that are running. 

"No sane manufacturer will at this time make 
goods without orders ; because, however carefully 
he figures, he would have to force the goods for 
sale if they did not move quickly, and pocket new 

"Prices are not done coming down, though some 
lines have struck the cellar, and must rebound a bit 
to reach a live-and-let-live basis. But a start must 
be made somewhere to re-establish business and 
confidence. The pessimist will create worse havoc 
if the optimist does not prevail over him." 
(To be concluded.) 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT,) 

SEATTLE Stabilization of prices and conditions 
continues very favorably here. The steel market 
has invited the confidence of investors and build- 
ers during the past month. Architects report 
a more definite inquiry as to costs. Pencil sketches 
are rapidly multiplying. Lumber is acting sympa- 
thetically with steel, and is now on a new lower oper- 
ating cost. Increased production by labor is chiefly 
to be credited. 

With labor generally producing at normal capacity. 



it is felt that the spring building season on the Pacific 
Coast will gradually improve. 

Sheet metal is meeting the Steel Corporation levels, 
and there are sufficient stocks on hand for present 
or early spring requirements. The railways are now 
handling the hulk of the stock in transportation, 
intercostal water transportation having proved rather 
unsatisfactory. Pipe arrivals and deliveries are con- 
siderably improved. All sizes are available. The 
jobbing trade expresses the opinion that the situa- 
tion is now satisfactory. 

Seattle architects estimate this week that it will 
require an expenditure of $125,000,000 to meet Pa- 
cific Coast building needs, and that $50,000,000 spent 
on construction in this city alone would not over- 
build it. Architects who are willing to go on record 
on this statement are firmly of the opinion that every 
essential item in the construction line is now at a 
reasonable basis, including labor. This city is three 
years behind in Class A office buildings. A num- 
ber of old office buildings await remodeling to be 
brought to a modern revenue-producing level. There 
is also a great need for Class A apartment houses. 
Architects are recommending that this type of con- 
struction be henceforth six and ten stories in height, 
with most modern equipment and roof gardens. 
There is a great need for hotels, an auditorium, hos- 
pitals, a temple of music and more school buildings. 

Methodists of this North Coast territory are gath- 
ering funds for a $1,000,000 hospital, which they 
hope to build in this city within the next two years. 
Congress has been asked to appropriate $1,000,000 
for a new immigration station at Seattle, and owing 
to the urgent need for such a structure, it is be- 
lieved here that the congressional budget will include 
an appropriation for it. 

The "Own-Your-Home" campaign is on in Seattle 
this week. Posters are everywhere. Literature pre- 
pared by the Seattle Real Estate Association is being 
spread broadcast. Motion pictures are also being 
utilized in the campaign of publicity. 

Fir lumber wholesalers are refusing to sell short 
on this market, indicating better confidence in fu- 
tures than was shown'during the last quarter of 
1920. Reduced log and labor costs, it is conceded, 
will bring a recession in the market in big timbers 
used in railway construction, but will not be reflected 
in the building industry. Progress is being made in 
securing water rates intercostal for hauling Fir lum- 
ber tonnage into the Atlantic seaboard and south- 
eastern territory, and with $18 from Puget Sound 
to New York as competition, the railways announce 
that a rate of 95 cents per hundred pounds may be 
expected early in March. Should the overland lines 
name this figure, it is certain that water rates will 
decline still further, possibly to $15 per 1,000 feet. 

Average prices at which the Fir mills sold lumber 

during the last week mill basis were $49 for vertical 
grain, and $23.50 to $29 for slash grain flooring, 
$62 for stepping, $23 to $28 for drop siding. $15.50 
for boards and shiplap, $13.50 for dimension and 
$18.50 for plank and small timbers. The mills are 
not accepting business on the present shingle price 
to the trade of $1.85 to $1.95 for stars, and $2.10 to 
$2.20 for clears, square-pack basis. The per thou- 
sand basis of quoting shingles will be permanently 
abolished when the mills resume the spring cutting. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO The work of last week's conference 
of lumber and building materials manufacturers 
showed practically no tangible results, and was sum- 
marized in two resolutions, the first calling upon 
building materials manufacturers to exert their best 
efforts for reductions in construction costs, the 
second suggesting that Congress be requested to 
direct its amendatory attention to those laws which 
interrupt the operation of natural economic laws, 
such as unscientific revenue acts, excess profits tax, 
excessive surtax on individual incomes, the Clayton 
anti-trust act and the Adamson law. 

The public uncertainty as to building costs is at 
present blocking building, according to the opinions 
of the majority present. This is the big factor. One 
of the most important subordinate factors, as in- 
dicated by many of the speakers, is the reluctance of 
investors to take up mortgages when many tax-free 
investments offer much better returns. Tax exempted 
mortgages is one of the necessary steps in the build- 
ing renaissance. 

The conference looked upon the price problem as 
the big obstacle. This is the reason for public uncer- 
tainty, of course. There has been deflation in cer- 
tain materials, but a great deal more in those 
materials, and in others, was held by the conference 
to be necessary to any sort of building program. 

The meeting resolved itself finally into a general 
plea for everyone to get down as close to bedrock 
as it is now possible, so that public confidence may 
be secured. 

Labor came in for its share of criticism, practically 
all present at the conference being distinctly of the 
opinion that the desire of the Chicago Building 
Trades Council to continue the $1.25 hour for union 
building workmen for three years was wrong. It 
was held that labor must take its loss with the others, 
or else hold up the building program or invite an 
open shop fight. 

Speaking again of public confidence, the discussion 
turned to advertising. The conspicuous example of 
the Northern Pine Association in its "public confi- 
dence" advertising campaign was referred to, as 
well as the action of the paint and varnish industry 
in its "Save the Surface" campaign. In line with 



this policy of favorable publicity, the board of 
directors of the National Lumber Manufacturers' 
Association, the official host of the conference, de- 
cided to raise and spend a fund of $300,000 to pro- 
fnote public confidence in building and to do away 
with the "unjustified prices" criticism. 

Another important item in local building is the 
recent indictments brought against 46 millwork 
manufacturers, carpenter-contractors and union 
leaders, alleging that the 1918 agreement which pro- 
hibited Chicago union workmen from using non- 
union sash, door and blinds established a virtual 
monopoly by Chicago manufacturers on that line of 
business, the open shop towns outside Chicago stand- 
ing no chance in competition. It is said that the 
arrangement added about $3,000,000 to the annual 
rental bill of the city. 

The manufacturers and carpenter-contractors hold 
that the agreement was really a war-time truce with 
union labor, and that they themselves would like to 
see the agreement abrogated. 

Building here is waiting for a further shakedown 
in prices. 

Lumber remains on fairly stable levels, with up- 
ward tendency. 

Local quotations are as follows : 

Yellow Pine:B. & B. 1 in., $95 to $130; 13-16, 
3J4 flat flooring, $85 to $90 ; 2 by 4, 10 to 16 feet, 
No. 1 long leaf, $51 ; 2 x 6, $48 to $49; 2 x 8, $49 
to $50 ; 2 by 10, $52 to $54 ; 2 by 12, $54 and $56. 

Northern Hardwoods, carload lots, Chicago : 

Birch, four % No. 1 and 2, $155 ; select, $130 to 
$138; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

Hard Maple, four y 4 No. 1-2, $135 to $140; select, 
$115 to $120; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3, $32 to $50. 

Red Gum, four % No. 1 and 2, $148 to $152; 
No. 1 common, $88 to $92 ; No. 2, $43 to $47. 

Birch, four ^ No. 1 and 2, $155 to $160; select, 
$130 to $139; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 
2, $60 to $65 ; No. 3, $35 to $40. 

Douglas Fir, 12 by 12, No. 1 up to 32 feet, $65 to 
$75 ; 14 by 14, $68 to $75 ; 16 by 16, $70 to $75 ; 
18 by 18. $75 to $80. 

Cement : Universal, $3 ; Lehigh, $3.00 ; Portland, 

Bulk lime, $1.70 to $1.90; face brick, octagons, 
$68 to $75 ; fire brick, $32 to $40; 12 in. .24 to .27, 
18 in. .46 to .54. 

Crushed stone gravel, $3.40 to $4 ; lake and bank 
sand-torpedo, $3.40 to $4. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT,) 

BOSTON. Unemployment continues, a recent 
survey of the organized workers of Massachusetts by 
the State Department of Labor and Industries show- 
ing that it affects more than one-quarter of the 
organized workers. Labor unions reported that out 
of a total membership of 199,022, the number of idle 
was 57,420. Inactivity in the boot and shoe industry 
is about 45 per cent. But conditions are really 

The strike of 30,000 building mechanics in Boston, 
which started this week, continues. It was stated 
at the headquarters of the Building Trades Em- 
ployers' Association a few days ago that the employ- 
ing contractors were seriously considering a reduc- 
tion to 80 cents an hour, 10 cents below their former 
offer of 90 cents. It is the opinion of many archi- 
tects and engineers that a reduction to 90 cents an 
hour is not sufficient to stimulate building. 

In some sections and industries in New England, 
confidence is nevertheless returning. New Bedford, 
Fall River and other mill cities report an encourag- 
ing flow of orders. The textile situation has defi- 
nitely turned for the better. Wool showed a rebound 
in prices, and the volume of business is decidedly 
better. Some shoe factories report operation of ma- 
chines which have been idle for months. 

Deflation has yet to make its mark on some other 
lines. It is reported that several of the independent 
steel corporations, for instance, have cut plates this 
week to $4 a ton under the U. S. Steel's figure. 

It is thus evident that the whole problem is one 
of adjusting prices in all industries to a common 
level, so that the products oi one may be exchanged 
for those of another on a fair and equal basis. 
























NUMBER 2355 



What Is the Industry Going to Do About It? 

Pertinent Proceedings and Impressions of the New York District Conference 
of the Building and Construction Industry, Held in New York City, 

January 25, 1921 

You who transform the trees of the forest into lumber 
for the building of homes ; you, the workers in clay and 
the quarriers of stone ; you, who mine, convert and work 
the metals used in construction; you, who buy and sell 
the products of the quarry, the pit, the mine, the 
forest, or manufacture them for sale in useful forms ; 
you, who employ these products, as the artist uses his 
colors and brush, as the mediums for permanent con- 
crete expression of your genius in design ; you, who by 
the work of your hands or your skill in executive man- 
agement, assemble and fabricate these products into 
buildings ; and you, who control the flow of industry's 
life blood capital and credit; all of you who, function- 
ing together, constitute the building and construction 

industry are called to take hold of your industry, lift 
it off the flat of its back and stand it on its feet that 
it may again go forward with increasing vigor in the 
service by which it lives and the community prospers. 
From the Program of Action. 

AND you, having just read this declaration of 
purpose, are probably recalling, with a cynical 
sort of smile, similar phraseology in several 
such declarations which heralded other meetings of 
this nature in the immediate past and which have 
already sunk into an oblivion as complete and dis- 

Copyright, 1981, The Architectural & Building Press (Inc.) 


couragingly thorough as that oblivion which today 
surrounds the details of Aztec civilization in Mexico. 

But there is the exception to all things, and this, 
in the overworked program of that much abused 
"co-operation" which we are all only too anxious to 
secure, will very probably prove itself a notable ex- 
ception. There will be no need for the cynical 

For this movement has already achieved both mo- 
mentum and at least the beginnings of national im- 
portance. From August 6, 1920, when the idea of 
bringing all the elements of the building and con- 
struction into a common meeting was actually made 
concrete in the Atlantic City conference, there has 
been the gradual growth of momentum. It has taken 
root in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh, Chicago and 
St. Louis, where groups, representative of the whole 
local industry, are either organized or organizing to 
discuss industry problems and group policies as a pre- 
liminary to the first congress to be convened in the 
Spring of 1921. 

The district conference in New York City was 
one of several which have already been held for the 
purpose of sounding sentiment on the matter and 
gathering whatever preliminary data on the subject 
may be now gotten together for the Spring congress 
of 1921. 


The need for a congress such as this one, and for 
local district councils, was emphasized by all the 
speakers, but the fundamental and really significant 
need was best pointed out, not so much by what was 
actually said by two of the speakers as by a most 
important fact developed as the result of their 

One of those addresses was made by Clarence 
Kelsey, first vice-president of the Title Guaranty 
& Trust Company of New York. It was, to our 
way of thinking, the most important address of the 
day, primarily because it came from a man in as 
important a financial position as Mr. Kelsey, and 
secondarily because it indicated the bankers' attitude 
on building construction in the highly important 
matter of credit. This is the first time, we believe, 
that the financial element (and we take Mr. Kelsey 
as representing a goodly portion of that element) 
has spoken so directly on a topic which has unfor- 
tunately been subjected to a silence second only to 
that of the Sphinx. 

"There are three main factors in any construction 
undertaking," Mr. Kelsey began, "capital, material 
and labor, and an owner who has or will borrow the 
capital, invest it in the material and labor and look 
to the result for profit. 

"Capital is the fundamental requisite. Without it, 
the next steps cannot be taken, but the procuring of 

capital is only the first step and accomplishes nothing 
if the next two cannot be taken. 

"The second will not be taken no matter what the 
prices for material and labor unless the third step 
is covered in the promise of a reward to the owner. 

"In the State of New York, the rent profiteering 
laws have so far as housing is concerned practically 
blocked the way for production or encouragement 
in taking the third step. Those are temporary and 
will soon, I believe, either be repealed or disre- 
garded, and at any rate, in a little more than a year, 
will have expired. 

"The factors, therefore, for a great construction 
movement are a supply of capital and a supply of 
willing and faithful workmen and reasonable costs 
of material. 

"There is no great difficulty in the matter of 
capital- not nearly as much as is generally supposed 
at any rate so far as mortgage money is concerned. 
It is true that the income surtaxes have driven the 
large individual and estate mortgage lenders out of 
the market, but their place is being taken, in a meas- 
ure, by small ones through the activities of the title 
insurance and mortgage companies, by their methods 
of cutting up the large mortgages into small pieces 
represented by certificates, sold to small investors. 
The institutions also are coming back into the mar- 
ket to some extent and making loans on their own 

"With regard to the balance of the capital required 
to carry the equity, there is, I believe, greater dif- 
ficulty, and that difficulty is involved to a consider- 
able extent in the costs of labor and material. As 
long as these costs remain so high, it is evident that 
the builder or owner has to have a much larger 
amount of capital of his own than was formerly 
necessary, but neither the mortgage lender nor the 
owner is eager to proceed until the costs of labor 
and material come down. This, I believe, is the 
crucial point to be covered if we are considering 
a great construction development. It will not take 
place on the current scale of material costs or of 
labor cost and inefficiency. 

"The recent exposures of the way material costs 
are kept up are very disheartening and it is a bold 
man who will proceed with an extensive building 
program until assured that these combinations are 
absolutely abandoned and that real competition in 
price can be secured. Neither will there be a great 
building movement until labor comes to its senses. 
I do not mean by this, necessarily, a great cut n 
wages, but I do mean a great change in what the 
laborer gives for his wages. I cannot understand 
that labor can be so blind as to believe that business 
can go on with ever increasing wages to labor and 
ever decreasing performance by labor. 

"I have not much hope of a satisfactory change 



in this respect until the fundamental principles of 
labor unions are reformed. The individual laborer 
is standing in his own light and dwarfing his future 
by consenting to them. How can the ambitious, in- 
dustrious and thrifty mechanic expect to get ahead 
unless he is rewarded for his skill and efficiency? 
Until the labor unions permit classified lists, with 
graded pay or piece work or some other method by 
which the skilful can do better than the unskilful 
and lazy, labor is bound to be inefficient. 

"The result of the present policy we see all about 
us. The more the employer pays to labor in dollars, 
the less he gets in service. We all know that this 
cannot last, that it is dishonest, and that nobody 
suffers from the failure so much as the employee. 
The whole thing travels in a circle and comes back 
to the laborer in the rent that he pays, in the price 
that he pays for everything that he buys. 

"In my judgment, it is in the hands of the mate- 
rial men and the labor unions to correct the whole 
vicious situation which confronts us today and to 
start a construction program that shall give work 
and prosperity to all. Decreasing continually the 
brick that a mason can lay, or the plastering that a 
plasterer can put on, or the lath that one can affix, 
the more his wages go up, means but one thing 
just what we see all about us. 

"The problems stated in the program of this asso- 
ciation that are crucial to its purposes are plainly 

stated and can be easily solved if there is the real 
and sincere will to do it. 






"The first is, how can an adequate sup- 
ply of skilled craftsmen be provided? 
The answer is by giving the skilled crafts- 
man a chance to do better than the veriest 
slob at his trade. 

"How shall the proper functions of the 
respective elements be defined ? By each 
one putting an honest price on his wares 
or on his labor and honestly competing to- 
get a job by fixing his price right and! 
making his services efficient. 


"How can abundant credit resources be 
made available at a reasonable cost? By 
presenting for security to the mortgage 
lender a property built with honest labor, 
and material honestly priced, and so far 
as the bank credits to the builder are con- 
cerned, by convincing the banks that the 
job is one honestly conducted and that the- 
owner's money is not to be wasted on ma- 
terial bought under the conditions of dis- 
honest and unlawful combinations in price, 
and with labor honestly endeavoring to 
earn the money that is paid to it. The 



banks will not lend to builders or ' material-men if 
present conditions continue and they see that so 
much money is wasted on the job that it never can 
pay. They do not wish to lend to an owner whose 
undertaking is bound to be a failure because he is 
robbed in the construction of his building." 


Mr. Kelsey was subjected to an unusual amount of 
cross-questioning after his address. This came from 
not only some of the labor leaders present, but from 
others as well. On practically every matter affect- 
ing labor about which he had anything to say [no- 
tably the statement that certain mechanics were 
limited to a fixed daily production by the unions or 
some other element] he prefixed his answers by the 
words, "I am informed," or "I believe." 

These words were taken by Hugh Frayne, gen- 
eral organizer of the American Federation of Labor, 
in charge of the New York office, and formerly a 
member of the War Industries Board, as the keynote 
of his address. 

"The best argument put forward here for a con- 
gress such as this one," Air. Frayne em- 
phasized at the very beginning of his re- 
marks, "was Mr. Kelsey's speech." 

There was a noticeable gasp at this state- 

"His ignorance of labor conditions," Mr. 
Frayne continued, "emphasizes the need for 
just such a gathering and just such a congress 
as this gathering proposes. He tells you that 
he is informed of the existence of certain 
conditions. Now, we are all informed of 
almost everything, but there are degrees of 
being informed. 

"He tells you that he 'understands there 
exists' or is 'informed' of certain malprac- 
tices, among which is the arbitrary reduction 
of individual daily production by certain 
agencies, just what he does not know. Let 
V me say that in my long experience with both 
employers and employee, with the man who 
^ hires and the man who is hired, I have never 
known of any organization going on record, 
or of any law intended to limit the amount 
of work any individual may do in a day or 
week or month. No one is more opposed to 
the man who isn't willing to give service than 
I, but I do not believe it fair to charge labor 
as a whole with inefficiency because of isolated 
cases. I admit that such cases exist, but they 
are comparatively insignificant in numbers. 
"I don't say that we have all the good peo- 
ple in labor, but I do deny that we have all 
the bad ones. I speak as a mechanic, who has 
worked with his hands and has had expe- 
rience in handling men on many construc- 
tion jobs. I know the elements that enter 
into individual production, or group produc- 
tion. Various factors, such as weather, 
enter into the problem of production ; 
and no one can arbitrarily set a daily 
standard for production, because no one 
is powerful enough to remove the factors which 
naturally increase or decrease such production from 
day to day-" 

Speaking of the so-called "war record" of labor, 
Mr. Frayne said : 

"We have heard all sorts of talk about the ineffi- 
ciency and high pay of labor during the war, and 
it is most unfair talk. What happened at that time? 
The shipyards illustrate it vividly. The Government 



and private corporations were forced to get men and 
get them quickly, and as a result they took them 
wherever they could find them. A young fellow, ac- 
customed, let us say, to stenography, went into the 
shipyards to work. His reaction to his surroundings 
the noise, the dirt, and even those with whom he 
worked was psychologically horrible, and as a re- 
sult, that young fellow could not possibly produce 
efficiently. He wasn't trained, he wasn't accustomed 
to the work, and he didn't like it. He could be 
nothing but an inefficient worker. 

"There were thousands like him. Their combined 
efforts produced astounding inefficiency. And who 
suffered most? 

"The trained worker, of course. He was used to 
the work, knew his trade, and liked it, and he was 
producing. But he was arbitrarily dumped into a 
general rating-pot, with the newcomers [necessarily 
inefficient] and his efficiency rating was based on the 
total man power, instead of the trained man power." 

Mr. Frayne then discussed the moral responsibil- 
ity of employers toward the men they hire, and em- 
phasized the fact that in all discussions and all the 



talk about labor the human element has been com- 
pletely lost sight of. He maintained that it was 
the duty of the employer, when he hired a man to 
work for him, to see to it that that man was either 

trained when hired or was trained after being hired. 

''What's wrong?" he asked. "Is labor getting too 
much pay? Is production low? Is labor failing 
to do its full duty? 

"Wages are not too high. The price of almost 
every commodity went up before wages, and that 




increase had to be, and was met by increased wages. 
We are not going back to pre-war standards. 

"We are part of an industry upon whose well- 
being the livelihood of millions of workers depends, 
and we are looking here for some remedy to an 
appalling situation. 


"The remedy is simple enough. Keep in mind 
always the human equation. There you have it. 
More specifically, see to it that a better system of 
training for the workers of the industry is brought 
about. Pick trained men when you hire them, or 
train them. I am for this conference, heart and 
soul as many architects and engineers here can tell 
you. I have always believed in agreements between 
employer and employee. I have sat down and talked 
things over with some of the men in this room, and 
they were all employers of labor. I have found that 
when they knew our side of the case, from first hand, 
when they had facts, and not gossip, at their com- 
mand, they always treated us fairly. 



"I am satisfied that this is a great step forward, 
for it brings all the elements of the industry together. 
And all the elements have never before been brought 
together. Mark that statement. 

"This is a big thing, and I am for it, personally 
and officially, and I can assure you that co-operation 
of the sort intended here will do more to clear the 
situation and put the building industry back on its 
feet than any other factor. 

"Let me add this. There are thousands upon 
thousands of trained and skilled craftsmen and 
workers in the building industry, and they can find 
work. If you employers in New York co-operate 
with them, they will work for you and work well 
for you. But if you don't co-operate, if you don't 
show some intention of laying your cards on the 
table, they'll go elsewhere to work. And there is. 
work to be had elsewhere, gentlemen. 

"As for labor, I want to say right here that we 
will lay our cards on the table, face up and in full 
view of whoever may wish to look at them. I prom- 
ise you that." 

These two addresses sum up the spirit and essence 
and possibilities of this conference better than any- 
thing else that was said, because they come author- 
itatively from two of the most vital factors in any- 
building program, and because they represent the 
official attitude of those factors. 


The morning session of the conference was given 
over to five addresses, two of which were of un- 
doubted importance to architects. One was Mr. 
Frayne's, the other that of Robert D. Kohn. Mr. 
Kohn took no pains whatsoever to spare the feel- 
ings of other architects present, and his remarks, at 
the opening of the session, were made doubly im- 
portant in view of his personal and particular im- 
portance in this movement and in the profession of 

"I am ashamed of the industry of which I am a 
part," he said, "I am ashamed of what I myself may 
have done in that industry. I know nothing about 
this great industry as a whole. I don't know why 
materials fluctuate as they do, why men come into 
the building industry and leave it, how many do so, 
what controls material prices, and why there isn't 
any money to be had for the second greatest industry 
in America. 

"I recognize as one of the fundamental difficulties 
that there is a shortage of skilled labor, due, as I see 
it, to competitive bidding between employers for that 
labor. This was especially true during the war 
period. . . . 

"The problems before us are reduceable to one, 
and that problem is how best to get at facts and 
secure co-operation. T confess that architects have 

been of the 'stand-offish' sort for too long a period, 
but they have come to the point today where they 
realize that they are an integral part of the. in- 
dustry. . . . 

"We are not here to argue over matters, or to 
discuss the open shop or any other factors having 
to do with that phase of the labor situation. We 
don't care about the open shop, and we don't want 
to hear about it. We do want to conduct a scientific 
investigation into five things, as I see it. One is 
the supply of labor. The second has to do with 
those reasons which impel men to come into this 
industry and work in it, whether they be architects, 
craftsmen or bricklayers. The motive may be simple 
enough, but what authoritative data have we regard- 
ing the labor turnover in the building industry, and 
all such factors? We want to find out just how 
important the architect is or should be in this great 
industry, and why he is actually that important. We 
want to find out about materials. And we shall hear 
something today about finance. 

"The second largest industry in the United States 
is helpless today, because there is a lack of co-opera- 
tion. That is a ridiculous situation. An industry in 
which at least 15,000,000, perhaps 20,000,000 people 
are engaged, finds itself on its back, unable to get 
up and stand on its feet. Due to finance? Well, it 
seems to me that the millions engaged in this in- 
dustry can create their own credits, quite independ- 
ent of banks and trust companies. That may be 
far fetched, and probably is, but it points a solution. 

"We are here to determine the need for a national 
movement, for a local group, and the field of 

W. G. Luce, of Hegeman-Harris Company, rep- 
resenting the contractors, then emphasized what Mr. 
Kohn had said regarding co-operation, pointing out 
that at a dinner in Philadelphia, similar in purpose 
to this conference, the Executive Committee of the 
American Federation of Labor had this to say re- 
garding the movement and the Congress idea: 

"The architect has been way up in the sky for a 
long time, and we never felt that we could get to 
him. If he comes into this thing, as he has here 
and will do so in other places, we will be just fifteen 
years ahead of the game, because the presence of the 
architect at gatherings like these indicates a genuine 
desire to get down to brass tacks and do something." 

Mr. Luce referred to a conversation he had with 
one of the associate editors of this journal on the 
previous day, in which the editor told him that the 
housing problem had reached the point of a national 
crisis (strikingly similar to the war) and that co- 
operation such as the war brought forth among every 
industrial element of the nation should now show 
its hand on the same basis. 

"I thought that over last night," Mr. Luce said, 



"and that fellow was right. This is a national crisis, 
and we need co-operation of the sort we showed 
during the war." 


The afternoon session was given to several ad- 
dresses and a great deal of discussion, but the most 
important and vital of them all, from the standpoint 
of the architect (in that it provided ten more or less 
concrete things which the local councils and national 
congress may actually get under way immediately) 
was the short address by Louis K. Comstock, of 
L. K. Comstock & Company, which presented the 
point of view of the sub-contractor in the situation. 

"Business men today don't know where they stand 
under the law," Mr. Comstock stated emphatically. 
"There is no machinery for finding out in advance 
if you're going to violate the law or not. We need 
that, to begin with, and this local group can con- 
tribute its share of such information to the national 

"We need a code of practice. Not a Hettrick 
code, but a code based on the old English Law of 
Merchant. We need a machinery to enforce that 
code. . . . 

"We need a great many things, but here are ten 
which I believe we can get at in this national congress 
this spring; and these things are justification enough 
for this and similar meetings which have taken place 
or will take place in other cities. 

"The Congress can : 

1. Improve the facilities of the building industry; 

2. Standardize documents and laws affecting the build- 
ing industry; 

3. Secure harmony of action on questions affecting 
materials, finance, and credits; 

4. Safeguard the building industry against waste and 

5. Increase total production in the building industry 
by elimination of waste effort; 

6. Work for trade regulations and legislative increases 
which will facilitate and encourage the development of 
the economic side of the building industry. 

7. Centralize data concerning the technical and eco- 
nomic features of the building industry; 

8. Inform and create public opinion, through publi- 
cation of facts regarding conditions in the building in- 
dustry and through the dissemination of views of tech- 
nical experts and business men; 

9. Cultivate personal acquaintanceship among build- 
ers, architects, engineers, and contractors in order to 
lessen group and sectional prejudices and misunder- 

10. Promote peaceful progress, cordial relationships 
and co-operation among individuals of the industry. 

"These are the things," Mr. Comstock concluded, 
"that we can investigate now ; these are some of the 
things that demand correlation of facts; and these 
are the sorts of problems which this congress will 
be fully prepared to deal with accurately and 
effcctii'dv if local groups, such as this one, do their 
full share toward contributing their co-operation in 
the general scheme of action." 


A resolution designed to give continuity to the 
conference and permanance to its work was intro- 
duced by H. C. Turner, and unanimously adopted. 
The resolution read as follows : 

WHEREAS it is the conviction of this New York Dis- 
trict Conference that a National Congress of the Build- 
ing and Construction Industry, in which there will be 
represented every functional element of the industry, is 
the indispensable instrumentality for the needed co- 
ordination of the industry to the end that the industry 
may progressively raise the standard of quality and 
the extent of its services to the public; and 

WHEREAS the National Congress, to be successful, 
must result from a local demand for it arising from an 
understanding of the constructive value of the contacts 
and frank discussion which are possible only locally; 

WHEREAS, the National Congress can be given con- 
tinuity _only by reason of continuous local contacts and 
discussion, be it 

RESOLVED, That a permanent conference of the Build- 
ing and Construction Industry in the New York District 
be created; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That to the end that such a permanent 
conference be created, that an organizing committee 
be appointed consisting of two architects, two general 
contractors, two sub-contractors, two labor representa- 
tives, two manufacturers, two dealers, two financiers 
and two engineers, together with such others as will 
make the committee representative of every interest 
and element in the industry in the New York District 
to prepare a program providing for the creation of a 
permanent conference of the Building and Construction 
Industry in the New York District. 

Further discussion of routine matters followed 
this introduction, after which adjournment was de- 
clared by the chairman, Mr. Kohn, until the organiz- 
ing committee should be ready to report. 


Sullivan Jones, who acted as chairman of the 
morning session, and who is temporary secretary of 
the movement at present, explained the idea of the 
congress. Mr. Jones has been one of the most active 
members of the Executive Board of the Congress. 

"To get at the facts," Mr. Jones explained, "to 
establish the basis for common action and under- 
standing upon common interests, the idea of a per- 
manent congress of the several elements in the in- 
dustry was evolved at a conference in Atlantic City 
on August 6, 1920, which was attended by repre- 
sentative architects, contractors, sub-contractors, en- 
gineers, manufacturers of building materials and 
labor men. This conference appointed a Congress 
Organizing Committee, which met in Chicago on 
September 27th, and that committee declared the 
National Congress of the Building and Construc- 
tion Industry created, to bring together in co-opera- 
tion every element contributing towards or concerned 
in the building industry in a movement intended to 
promote the efficiency and improve the quality and 
extent of the service rendered for the public good 
by that industry. It was resolved that a thorough 



study be made of the relations of the various ele- 
ments and industries which enter into building and 
construction activities, that a congress be convened 
as soon as practicable to consider the ways and means 
of eliminating the various factors which have re- 
tarded necessary building and construction, and that 
a building and construction congress be permanently 

tion. The congress should not be regarded as an 
organization, but as an institution. It is to be a 
deliberative body or forum without mandatory 
powers. For its own enlightenment it may, if it so 
decides, create and direct or employ research 
agencies. And to give its effort continuity it may 
set up executive machinery. 




established to give continuity to the national bene- 
ficial objects which gave it birth. 

"The committee then appointed a Congress Ex- 
ecutive Committee which met in Pittsburgh on Octo- 
ber 29th and reorganized itself into an Executive 
Board of forty to be composed of five representa- 
tives from each of the following elements of the 
industry : general contractors, sub-contractors, archi- 
tects, engineers, manufacturers and distributors of 
materials and equipment, labor and investment 


"The purpose, as expressed by the Executive 
Board, is not to create another national organiza- 

"The driving power behind the movement is the 
fervent hope that the congress may become a brain 
for the building and construction industry; that it 
may become an instrument for securing facts, for 
thinking in terms of facts, and for planning the 
future course of the whole industry as a unified, 
frictionless, productive mechanism. But there is no 
thought that the congress should usurp or infringe 
the prerogatives of, or limit the autonomy of any 
existing organization." 

Some of the men thus far identified with the 
movement are : 

General Contractors W. G. Luce, F. G. Webber, 
A. P. Greensfelder, Otto M. Eidlitz. 



Sub-Contractors L. K. Comstock, Oscar A. Reum, 
Frank W. Howard, Ronald Taylor. 

Engineers Morris Knowles, F. C. Shenehon, F. A. 

Architects Robert D. Kohn, M. B. Medary, Jr., E. J. 
Russell, S. W. Jones. 

Labor T. R. Preece, James P. Noonan, John H. 
Donlin, George F. Hedrick. 

Manufacturers Wharton Clay, W. L. Hodskin, O. 

Investment Bankers Walter Stabler. 

amount of projected work is released? In the fu- 
ture, how shall the industry escape the effects of 
both under-production and over-production? 

How is an adequate supply of skilled craftsmen 
in the several trades to be provided and maintained ? 

How is genuinely co-operative effort by employers 
and wage earners (whether the wage earners are 
organized or unorganized) to be substituted for the 




The first congress is to be convened early in 1921. 
This first congress will be composed of fifteen dele- 
gates from each of the named elements of the 


Among the problems which the first congress will 
probably consider, the Executive Committee men- 
tions the following : 

How is the industry to prepare itself to meet the 
demand for structural materials; a demand now po- 
tential, but which will become real when the vast 

antagonism which, in the past, has checked pro- 

How shall abundant credit resources be made 
available, at reasonable cost, to the industry in order 
that it may function in satisfying public need ? 

How shall the industry be led to adopt a uniform 
and equitable policy in bidding and with respect to 
contract terms and conditions ? 

How shall the industry be led to adopt a uniform 
of the respective elements of the industry be defined, 
and how shall performance be assured in order that 
maximum efficiency may be attained? 

Quite a program ! 



A Street in Newport 

(See reproduction of original drawing by O. K. Eggers on opposite, page) 

There is nothing in the view of this quaint, winding street, 
so picturesquely shown by Mr. Eggers, to suggest that it is 
a close neighbor to a section renowned all over the world for 
its palatial residences and the homes of multi-millionaires. 

The native population of Newport, with commendable 
regard for the traditions which surround this town, have 
kept as far as possible free from incursions of modernism. 
The artist in drawing this picture has presented a street in 
the old town of Newport as it probably looked a century ago. 

One may almost with accuracy trace the successive stages 
of building. Undoubtedly the houses, with their gambreled 
gables facing on to the street, were the earliest types. In 
the distance rises the spire of Trinity Church, shown in an 
earlier illustration. There are many well designed historic 
buildings in Newport. The neighborhood has long been a 
favorite sketching ground. 

The State House, illustrated in an earlier issue, and in 
which is hung the original portrait of Washington by 
Gilbert Stuart, the old market house, dating from Ij()^, the 
Redwood Library and the Jewish Synagogue are among 
those best known. 



ARCHITECT Serlt, of Earl, Ameritaa Arthtttttur, 


American Architecture 

IX this column the idea of regional and indigenous 
architecture has been discussed frequently. In 
a country which embraces such a diversity of cli- 
mate, topography and structural materials as the 
United States, this is but a natural consequence and 
these regional types are being developed gradually. 
The ultimate center of population, culture and wealth 
will embrace a vast territory. The natural resources, 
topography and climate will not be so diversified but 
that a great regional and indigenous architecture will 
be evolved. By mere preponderance of numbers and 
extent this may become the American architecture 
and the other types become regional. Be this as it 
may, the entire subject is one for interesting spec- 

The attitude of the architectural schools will have 
a powerful influence and indications justify the opin- 
ion that the educators are now busily taking stock, 
to use a phrase from the article entitled "Westward 
Ho !" on another page, with the endeavor to place 
architectural education on the new basis that con- 
ditions demand. To aid them in this, the profession 
should lend its assistance and in doing so lay aside 
intolerance and prejudice, approaching the subject 
with an open mind. 

tained the idea that the practice of architecture 
is a business as well as an art and profession. In 
the new scheme for architectural education these two 
components must be recognized, each in its proper 
proportion. Shall these matters be adjusted as the 
result of demands or will they be established in lead- 
ership? There need be no ruthless tearing down of 
old idols and the institution of new gods, but rather 
a revaluation of the stock in hand which will natur- 
ally cause the development of new ideas and poss\bly 
an American architecture through the eternal force 
of evolution, quickened by the fast changing condi- 
tions of this day. Education of today influences the 
architecture of the morrow and we must unselfishly 
prepare for the architectural future in which we can 

have no participation except through the influence of 
our works of this day. The educational scheme of 
today must be predicated on the suppositional needs 
of the future and these can only be established by 
free, open and unbiased discussion. Professional 
thought cannot be directed toward a more worthy 

Ethics in Architectural Design 

"^ HAT men retain an architect to design their 

-1 buildings is a confession that they themselves 

know little of architecture. That they engage interior 

decorators is further proof that art holds aloof from 

them shrouded in a haze of misunderstanding. 

What is the mental process of the architect or the 
decorator when a client first consults him? Where 
does sincerity enter into his calculations in conform- 
ing to the wishes of the client? 

Should an architect or a decorator express the 
client's individuality even if the result be artistically 
bad, or should he express his own properly developed 
sense of art though it may not represent the client. 
Shall he descend to a French rococo house for the 
prim spinster who has inherited a fortune but knows 
nothing of art, or may he build a pure Georgian for 
the artistically ignorant butcher. Shall he design an 
inferior house to represent an inferior person, or 
shall he make it possible for an artistically ignorant 
man to pose as a connoisseur by means of a few well 
learned phrases about the beauty with which an archi- 
tect or a decorator may have surrounded him ? 

These questions sooner or later force themselves 
upon every architect. 

The very fact that an architect is retained presup- 
poses a certain amount of carte blanche for him. 
The chances are that if he is tactful he can prevail 
upon a client to modify his preconceptions. Hence 
the importance of his influence and the need for his 
having a point of view. 

An architect is a professional man who by educa- 
tion and training has a certain public responsibility 
to bear. He must uphold the dignity and beauty 
of architecture, and through it the dignity and beauty 



of human beings. He cannot assume that certain 
persons are inferior. It is up to him to do his part 
to keep them at the level of their best moments. A 
man's intercourse with an architect may be the one 
contact of a lifetime with art. If architects are to 
do their full duty to raise the standards of living, 
they can find ample opportunity in their intercourse 
with prospective clients, to teach them the whys and 
the wherefores of good architecture, and make it 
something to be respected and loved, and then logi- 
cally followed. While to adapt the architecture to 
the type of owner is considerably simpler than to 
adapt the owner to the type of architecture, it is de- 
sirable to do this in cases where it seems possible 
to develop the owner. Instead of building down to 
the level of the inartistic butcher, give him the sort 
of house that he must live up to. If he is surrounded 
with certain refinements in his home, these will in- 
evitably tell, for environment is more powerful than 
we suspect. By going into the elements of archi- 
tectural design with a client, it is possible either to 
teach him, or to convince him that your experience 
and advice is the thing he has sought. 

If the artistically ignorant man poses in his new 
home, the very fact that he acts the artist gradually 
tends to give him the artist point of view. One 
cannot pretend to appreciate a thing without soon 
really appreciating it. 

It is, of course, fortunate when a client sincerely 
yearns for good architecture and is willing to defer 
to his architect for most of the details. But such 
clients are rare and hard to find. It is infinitely more 
to the credit of an architect to succeed when all the 
circumstances are trying and difficult ; when the client 
is perverse, the money scarce, and all the rest. In 
the building of homes, architects do more to con- 
serve and promote the happiness and well-being of 
communities than can be readily conceived. When 
they do it without co-operation, when they turn 
antagonism into harmony, when they raise vulgarity 
to refinement, then, indeed, have they done a great 

Reducing Transportation Tangles 

THERE is nothing which will further reduce the 
cost of building than effective transportation of 
materials. This statement is based upon the sup- 
position of fixed prices for fixed periods, of course. 
There is nothing that will better speed the building 
program of this nation than efficient transportation. 
It is therefore the important duty of every archi- 
tect to be familiar with transportation. Architects, 
as a whole, realize this. And nothing is of more im- 
portance in this problem at the present moment than 
the Esch-Cummins law and its effects. It may be 

shown that it works injury, and that it was actuated 
by motives not entirely of a constructive nature, yet 
the fact remains that 1920 was the record railroad 
year for a nation whose railroads have most certainly 
been the "standard of the world" from the stand- 
point of efficiency. These achievements of the year 
were achievements in every sense of the word. 
In the nine full months (only nine months in which 
to recover from government control) since the Gov- 
ernment turned back the railroads to their owners 
on March 1, the railroad companies under private 
operation have: 

"1. Increased the average movement per freight 
car per day 6.3 miles from 22.3 to 28.6 miles. 

"2. Increased the average load per car 1.7 tons 
from 28.3 to 30 tons. 

"3. Made substantial reduction in the number of 
unserviceable locomotives. 

"4. Reduced the accumulation of loaded but un- 
moved freight cars from 103,237 on March 1, to 
21,991 on December 3, of which only 6,386 were de- 
tained because of the inability of the railroads to 
move them. 

"5. Relocated approximately 180,000 box cars 
from the East to the West for the movement of farm 

"6. Relocated approximately 180,000 open top 
cars from the West to the East to keep up the pro- 
duction of coal. 

"7. Moved the third highest coal production in 
the history of the country. 

"8. Spent over $500,000,000 extra on improving 
the maintenance of tracks, bridges, cars and locomo- 

"9. Contracted to spend about $250,000,000, 
largely out of earnings for additions and betterments 
to promote the movement of cars. 

"10. Made arrangements to purchase approxi- 
mately 50,000 new freight cars, 1,500 new locomo- 
tives and 1,000 new passenger cars. 

"11. Begun the reconstruction of thousands of 
old cars. 

"12. Moved with a deteriorated plant, under 
disturbed labor and business conditions the largest 
volume of traffic ever known in a single year, with 
the highest efficiency yet achieved, and with a min- 
imum addition to the value of the property on which 
the public has to pay a return through rates." 

Such a record is one of which to be proud. It 
shows efficiency. It shows a splendid grasp of the 
railroad problem by the men whose business it is to 
keep those roads running. It indicates what can be 
done in 1921 if the brains of the railroad companies 
really get into the full swing of efficient reconstruc- 
tion and recovery. 


Westward -Ho! 

FOOD and shelter are the two essentials for 
human existence. The first is universal; the 
latter varies with the latitude. The one con- 
cerns agriculturists, fisher-folk and stockmen; the 
other, architects. All shelter involves architecture 
whether it consists of caves or structures made of 
assembled parts; therefore, architecture is essential 
to human existence. Architecture, being the art of 
constructing buildings, varies with the latitude pri- 
marily and with the civilization of the people sec- 

A civilization can be accurately gauged by its food 
and its architecture. Related indications are too nu- 
merous and varied for present discussion. The high- 
est degree of civilization is that whose architecture 
has the correct relation between utility and beauty; 
the kind, preparations and manner of consuming its 
food is also a certain indication. The hut of the 
aborigines may contain all of the utilities that they 
require but in them we, at least, find no evidences 
of beauty or the conveniences of civilization. The 
richly decorated tent of the wandering Bedouin pos- 
sesses beauty of color and texture but, like the abor- 
iginal hut, lacks in comparative utility or conve- 
niences. And so it goes, until we enter the XIX 
century when utility and beauty approach a parity. 
At the present time utility is probably in the lead 
due to the predominance of commercialized industry. 
To make a parity there must be an increase of beauty. 
In Harper's" Magazine for January, Mr. W. L. 
George makes this statement : "The civilization that 
the Middle West creates within the next fifty years 
will be the American civilization." The certainty of 
this prophecy can be demonstrated. The civilized 
world today is taking stock and everything therein 
is invoiced and the evaluation will be carefully con- 
sidered. What, then, of architecture? Will it as 
one of the two essentials to human existence be in 
its rightfully dominant position with food or will it 
find collocation in parity with less essential things? 
Architecture is either quick or dead. There can 
be no in-between existence. What, then, is that 
architecture which can be called "quick" ? In taking 
stock, this must be determined, as "dead" commodi- 
ties are not an asset. "Quick" architecture can only 
result from the efforts of a creative instinct. This 
instinct must be the underlying motif of architecture. 
It seems that the written words of that beloved Old 
Roman of Western Architects, Irving K. Pond, state 
the fundamental principle: 

"Man has been struggling upward throughout the 
ages, struggling to attain the ideal. By this struggle, 
conscious as it has been, and with definite purpose, he 

is marked as of an order higher than the beasts, which 
struggle for existence impelled by habit and guided by 
instinct only. Habit is life in the beast's creation; but 
habit in man has been aptly denominated the soul's 
tomb. In reviewing the struggles and achievements of 
man it will become apparent that habit builds the tomb 
of art; that when the spirit no longer inspires, but 
forms are repeated from mere habit and for form's 
sake, art has ceased to live and architecture reared in 
her name is her tomb." 

Habits of the right kind which control personal 
conduct are desirable and necessary and so is rational 
thinking. Can live architecture result from the habit 
of designing from the great volumes which illustrate 
the works of Good, Bad and Indifferent, or Brown, 
Black and White, copied largely from the old mas- 
ters; or will it result from hard work actuated by 
a creative instinct ? Is American architecture a dull 
habit or a live, potent actuality? 

Good architecture will live through the ages only 
in its native environment. It cannot be transplanted 
to other lands, peoples and amid strange ideals, with- 
out depreciation. The same is true of Sumatra 
wrappers grown in Connecticut. The good archi- 
tecture of the past should be acknowledged, appre- 
ciated and absorbed and it will be reincarnated only 
through the inspiration and culture it yields to a 
creative spirit. 

In Washington and other cities there have been 
erected imposing structures consisting of correctly 
proportioned basement, colonnade and entablature, 
duplicates of those erected by the ancients for an 
entirely different purpose and relationship to the 
building itself. Was this designing the result of 
habit or a frank acknowledgment of inability to 
treat those great bulks of structures as wall surfaces 
enclosing a building? It was obviously the most 
easy thing to do. 

Nearly three decades ago a great exposition was 
constructed on the shores of Lake Michigan and it 
had a pronounced influence on American architec- 
ture. The classic school was the one more in vogue, 
one example of Spanish and one which might be 
called American architecture. Recalling those days, 
the impression of the Corinthian water gate and 
peristyle and the agricultural building is that of a 
dead age, ruins, a tomb. Perhaps the old illustrated 
books of history and foreign travel which showed 
ruins consisting of a few standing columns with 
entablature and pediment in part connected with the 
impression of ruins with the peristyle. 

The administration building, with its great dome 
designed in a French style, did not fit either to the 
classic Watergate and peristyle or the low extensive 
buildings adjacent. All these white buildings against 



the cold blue lake give a sense of chill and departed 

Hut turn from the setting sun, standing on the 
bridge over the lagoon to face the great golden west- 
ern door of Sullivan's Transportation building. One 
stood still and looked with sheer delight at the pros- 
pect. That great door with its marvelous arch so 
richly and delicately ornamented, so beautifully col- 
ored, was a living, vibrant, pulsating thing and alive. 
It stirred all the senses, reacting through those beau- 
tifully chaste and splendid Muses of poetry, painting 
and music. Face then the West and through the 
golden dusk of the Midway behold 

"Gamboge and gold, broad sunset colors strewed 
The purple west as if, with God imbued, 
Her mighty palette Nature there laid down." 
Architecture, the quick and the dead ! 

Of that American civilization developed in the 
Middle West an American architecture will be a 
concomitant. A starting has been made, the influ- 
ence of which is becoming more discernible as time 
passes and prsjudices are broken down. The burden 
of its development does in truth seem to rest with 
the Mid-west universities and architects. They will 
be equal to the demand, imbued with the spirit of 
that great empire, the Valley of Democracy through 
which flows the Father of Waters. A. L. 

Are You a Trained Observer? 

THERE is a world of difference between casual 
observation and systematic, purposeful obser- 
vation. A careful scientific observer can learn 
more in a few months about a given subject than the 
average man learns in a lifetime about it. The 
difference lies mainly in two factors: (1) the rela- 
tive concentration of attention, and (2) the analysis 
and comparison of data. 

Mr. Ernest Coxhead, of San Francisco, has 
written on "Training the Architect by Direct 
Method." One of his most suggestive statements 
was this: 

"The power to visualize architecture is not to 
be developed to any extent merely by seeing things, 
or by gaining fleeting impressions, but by observa- 
tion, focused and concentrated upon the object in 
general, and in detail, by actual contact with the 
building and by means of measured drawings and 
sketches and notes, further impressing upon the 
mind the observations made. The essence of the 
direct method then lies in taking the student to 
architecture and confronting him with it in three 
dimensions, life-size, as opposed to the atelier 
method of focusing his attention upon mere docu- 
mentary representation of the actual building. In 
the latter case his sense of scale is undeveloped, his 
ideas of proportion remain distorted, and, by labo- 
rious mental effort, he sometimes is able to con- 
struct in his mind from the documentary study of 
plan, elevation, and section what the subject of 
study, or something akin to it, is in the reality." 
Mr. Coxhead is emphasizing the "direct method," 
or the "field work method," of training architects, 
with particular reference to developing a sense of 
proportion. We quote him, however, for another 

purpose, namely, to emphasize the value of "ob- 
servation, focused and concentrated upon the sub- 

When an engineer is asked to state his experience 
in a given field we are all prone to give undue 
weight to the number of years of his experience. 
Rarely do we undertake to measure the degree of 
his concentration of observation during those years. 
Yet without concentration of observation, mere 
personal presence among suitable surroundings 
adds little to any man's knowledge. During the 
last 200 years men have learned more about natural 
laws than during all the countless centuries before, 
not because modern man has a better brain than 
his ancestors, but because he has employed better 
methods' of studying nature. In like manner a well 
trained young engineer may learn more in ten years 
than an ill trained engineer has learned in fifty. 

More and more do educators realize that their 
main functions are, first, to arouse ambition, and, 
second, to instill lasting habits of carefully observ- 
ing, reading and reasoning. It seems to us that 
engineering societies should also endeavor to 
strengthen such habits. To this end it will be wise 
to have classes in scientific observing, classes in 
systematic reading, classes in memorizing, and 
classes in logic. Call them classes in applied psy- 
chology, if you please, to differentiate them from 
classes whose main object it is to impart informa- 
tion rather than to develop mental habits. 

It does not suffice to know what to do and how 
to do it. Men must be habituated by long practice, 
usually under mental trainers, to act in accordance 
with the principles to which they readily give lip 











> < 






VOL. CXIX No. 2355 


FEBRUARY 9, 1921 













I I 









u b 


d, W 

m < 

I a 








I I 







Good Design Increases Rental Values 

Common-Sense Alterations Made an Old Loft Building Into Desirable 

Space and Brought Increased Rentals 


N all the big cities 
there are a large 
number of loft 
buildings that have got- 
ten into such a state of 
disrepair that they are 
undesirable, are hard to 
fill and bring exceedingly 
low rentals. Such was 
the case with No. 45 
Maiden Lane, New York 
City. The photograph 
shows just how it looked 
on the outside and is a 
good indication of the 
interior appearance as 
well. Before it was re- 
modeled the outside fire 
escape shut off light, was 
unsightly, and it is even 
doubtful if it could have 
served the purpose for 
which it was intended 
if an emergency should 
have arisen. 

The building was not 
attractive either outside 
or inside ; it was even 
repulsive. There was 
difficulty in finding 
tenants and the rentals 
hardly paid for the main- 
tenance and o p e r a t - 
ing expense. These fac- 
tors prompted the lessee 
to remodel the building 
along up-to-date lines. 

Note the ventilating louvres at the left 


CHITECT presents here, 
as an example of the 
best method of rehabil- 
itating such a building, a 
description of the thor- 
ough alteration made at 
45 Maiden Lane through 
the plans and supervis- 
ion of the firm of 
Charles H. Higgins, Ar- 
chitects Engineers, for 
Adolphe Schwobe, Inc. 
Importers and Assem- 
blers of Watches. 

In discussing the de- 
velopment of this proj- 
ect, Mr- Higgins was 
emphatic in stating that 
the principal motive in 
the design of this plan 
was "fitness to accom- 
plish the owner's pur- 
pose." The arrangement 
and character of parts, 
movement of materials 
and persons, protection 
from weather and fire 
compactness, orderliness, 
convenience, and proper 
working conditions for 
men and women, safety, 
light, heat, ventilation, 
sanitation, all make for 
accomplishment of this 
purpose. A home for 



As the second photograph indicates, the obscuring 
and unsightly outside fire escape was removed from 
the front of the building and was replaced by fire- 
proof enclosed stairs within. It was then possible 
to give the front of the building a clean and neat 
appearance at a fairly nominal expense. 

The interior alterations included an attractive en- 
trance hall and mezzanine balcony that increased the 
floor space in addition to making the appearance 
more attractive. The walls and floors were refin- 
ished throughout the entire building. 

From the floor plan it will be seen that the build- 
ing is a long and narrow one, 17 ft. 3 in. x 124 ft. 
3 in., to be exact. The difficulty of properly light- 
ing, heating and ventilating such a building is at once 
apparent inasmuch as the side walls, 125 feet long, 
are solid walls and necessarily few windows or 
other openings. Even where windows were allowable, 
the light would be cut off by the adjacent buildings.' 

Part of the problem was solved by the method of 
indirect light. The fixtures were suspended from 
the ceiling and the light was reflected upon the white 
surface and then diffused through considerable area. 
The white walls and ceilings were necessary adjuncts 
to this method of lighting the interior. In order to 
get the proper intensity of light for the requirements 
on each floor, careful study was necessary to deter- 



The problem of ventilating and 

lighting these floors becomes 

apparent at a glance 

mine the size and number of lights, the spacing and 
the Height from the floor. In this the architects 
were unusually successful. When this form of light- 
ing is properly designed and installed, it is conceded 
to be more effective and less trying on the eyes than 
when direct lighting is employed. Such was the case 

The question of proper ventilation was also solved 
in an interesting way. Naturally it was expected 
that the space near the windows on each floor would 
be partitioned off for private offices. This would 
leave 75 feet of inner space that would present a 
ventilating problem just as important as the lighting 
problem. The doors of the private offices could be 




expected to be closed most of the time and there 
were no windows or openings in the side walls. 

The solution lay in running ducts under each floor 
and through the wall, terminating at the face of the 
street wall in louvres. At the intake on each floor 
was placed a heating coil so that warm fresh air 
from the street could be by-passed under the private 
offices and drawn into the interior of the building. 

In the ceiling and in the corner diagonally oppo- 
site the intake there was located a vent to exhaust 
the stale air. In this way there was always a con- 
tinuous supply of fresh air at the right temperature 
in the center of each floor as well as at the ends. 
The louvres covering the street end of the ducts may 
be seen in the photograph of the remodeled building 
at each floor level. 

The picture of the top floor is a story in itself. 


This gave a north light over the entire floor 

The floor was intended as a watch and jewelry 
assembling shop and the lighting requirements for 
watchmakers are of prime importance. This roof 
was entirely torn down and replaced by a modern 
saw-tooth roof, giving a north light in the interior. 
On dark days additional light is obtained by turning 
on the electric lights which are shown inclined up- 
ward. This light is reflected upon the floor by the 
reverse surface of the saw-tooth. 

The walls are white to within 5 feet from the 
floor. From there down they are green for the com- 
fort of the watchmakers' eyes. Individual drop cords 
are located at each bench for use on very dark days 
and when working on exceedingly fine work. The 
neat arrangement of condulets carrying the wire for 
these lights avoids the usual tangled and confused 
appearance of a lot of wires running haphazard in 


Note heating coils above 

the air. Each condulet terminates sufficiently high 
above the bench to allow flexibility in moving the 
light about by means of the drop cord. 

The lighting scheme on this floor in particular has 
been very successful and shows the results of care- 
ful thought and study of the needs of the men. 
After the remodeling of the building there was little 
difficulty in securing the best workmen. First-class 
men are apt to choose their working place with a 
view to their surroundings and working conditions. 
The new shop attracts high-grade men and the em- 
ployer always has his pick of the best. He attributes 
this to the improved working conditions. A watch- 


Note the effect of indirect light and white walls and ceiling 





maker's eyes are his stock in trade. When he injures 
them, there is not much left for him to do. The work- 
men realize this and value accordingly good con- 
ditions of lighting where they can carry on their 
trade. This makes selection of the best practicable. 

The welfare of the employees is cared for by 
providing ample locker, toilet and washrooms, 
sufficient light, heat and ventilation, and safety from 
fire hazards. The owner felt very strongly that 
these facilities should be made ample and convenient. 

The operation of this building has practically 
demonstrated the many contemplated economies of 
operation which were discussed during its planning. 
Logical, clean-cut and efficient methods of planning 
have proved their merit. The building is interesting 
in its fitness for the purpose; effective protection 
and good conditions for those using it. 

There are literally thousands of loft buildings 
in large cities where the top floor is the least de- 
sirable space in the building. In these cases the 
alteration of the roof along these lines to admit the 
north light, and plenty of it/would greatly increase 
the desirability and rental value. These floors would 
always'be in demand for studios, drafting rooms, 
watchmakers' shops and all classes of trade where 
light of the right kind and intensity is of great 

This job in Maiden Lane was handled by the firm 
of Charles H. Higgins, architects and engineers, New 
York City. Every detail shows the careful thought of 
the trained specialist in making wrong things right, 
and adapting existing conditions to the special re- 
quirements of a particular job. It shows the value 
of the trained architect and engineer even on a small 
job like the alteration of a loft building. 

Making the Crane Safe* 

CRANES of the earlier types were constructed 
with overhung wheels, i. e., the wheels were 
entirely outside of the bridge frame, and no part 
of the bridge extended over the rails. The manu- 
facture of cranes of this type has been discontinued 
for the most part, but some examples are still met 
with in practice. This method of construction has 
been responsible for a number of serious accidents 
because, if a shaft 'or axle breaks, the crane may fall 
to the ground. A break of this kind may be due to 
a flaw in the metal, or to "fatigue" of the material. 


The sketch shows a method which has proved 
satisfactory and practicable for providing against 
similar accidents with cranes of this type. Pieces 
of 4-in. angle-iron are bolted to the ends of the main 
frame at a distance of approximately one inch above 
the rails. These angles project out over the rails so 
that if the shaft breaks the crane will drop only the 
distance between the angles and the rails. In at least 
one known case a bridge wheel came off from a 
crane on which these braces had been installed, and 
the angles prevented the crane from falling. 

Extract from the Travelers Standard, January, 1921. 


New Basis for Rating and Comparing 

Warm-Air Furnaces 

Discussion of Recent Results in Warm-Air Furnace Research Work at the 

University of Illinois 


ONE of the principal objects of the cooperative 
research program of the National Warm 
Air Heating and Ventilating Association 
has been the development of a method of rating and 
comparing two or more warm-air furnaces over a 
wide range of operating conditions. The research 
staff has given this matter much thought, in the at- 
tempt to get a comprehensive method of expressing 
the capacity, efficiency and other characteristics of 
a furnace over its complete range of operation. 
With positive and accurate means of measuring the 
amount of air handled and determining the correct 
rise in air temperature, it is now possible to study 
the performance of a warm-air furnace with definite- 

Recent tests under the immediate supervision of 
Professor A. P. Kratz and Mr. V. S. Day of the 
Engineering Experiment Station of the University 
of Illinois show that it is entirely feasible to rep- 
resent this data for any given furnace by a series 
of simple curves which tell the whole story of 
furnace operation almost at a glance. With this 
information before him, the engineer, heating con- 
tractor, or architect can not only compare warm- 
air furnaces of different types and makes, but he 
can also compare a given warm-air furnace with 
a steam-heating boiler or a hot-water heater. 


Such information as this has long been desired, 
but has never before been obtainable. It represents, 
probably, the most important single result of the 
Warm-Air Furnace Research Investigation. It 
means that the warm-air furnace manufacturer will 
be able to publish as definite engineering data con- 
cerning his equipment as any maker of steam or hot- 
water heating boilers can possibly issue in these 
closely allied fields. In fact, very few makers of 
steam and hot-water heating equipment possess such 
complete data as is represented by these results. As 
a result of such tests as those shown here, the per- 
formance curves of a warm-air furnace can be 
drawn as definitely as the so-called "characteristic 

Professor Heating and Ventilation and Head of Department of 
Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois. 

curves" of an electric motor, steam engine, steam 
turbine or pump. 

Typical results in the shape of performance curves 
(Fig. 1) are given for one series of recent tests 
on a pipeless furnace. Since the final data from any 
portion of this research work is not released by the 
University of Illinois and the National Warm Air 
Heating and Ventilating Association until it is pub- 
lished as a Bulletin of the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station, the dimensions and description of the 
furnace have been withheld. Complete data will, 
however, be reported at the annual meeting of the 
association. It is sufficient to say the curves are 
based on actual tests of commercial apparatus, and 
are used in this discussion to illustrate a new method 
of testing, rating and comparing warm-air furnaces 
for the benefit and information of the furnace in- 
dustry as a whole. 


The tests on which these curves are based were 
all run on the same pipeless furnace to determine 
the following factors, all of which are essential to 
the proper design and installation of a furnace (pipe- 
less or piped). 4 

(a) Rate of combustion (pounds of coal burned 
per sq. ft. of grate per hour). 

(b) Efficiency of the furnace (ratio of heat 
put into air passing furnace to total heat value 
of coal burned, usually expressed as a percentage). 

(c) Capacity of furnace in B.t.u. per hour. 
(British thermal units), which is the heat put 
into air passing furnace. 

(d) Equivalent register temperature of air 
leaving register based upon a 65F. inlet tem- 
perature. To get actual rise in temperature it is 
only necessary to subtract 65 from these tem- 
perature values. 

(e) The draft at the smoke outlet of the fur- 
nace in inches of water, which indicates the great 
importance of providing a satisfactory chimney 
if the full capacity of the furnace is to be real- 
ized. It also shows that capacity is entirely de- 
pendent on draft for a given furnace and a given 



In addition to the above factors, much additional 
data, such as CO'- content and flue gas temperature, 
was determined, but as it is not introduced into this 
discussion it has been omitted from this list of 

An inspection of Fig. 1 will show that the per- 
formance of the furnace tested is completely shown 
for all combustion rates between 4.5 Ib. and 10 Ib. 
per sq. ft. of grate per hr. The combustion rates 
are indicated along the horizontal line at the bottom 
of the figure. Five tests were run at five different 

by reading to the right or left as indicated by the 
arrows, the following rating and performance data 
is obtained. 

1. Efficiency = 64 per cent. 

2. Heating capacity = 120,000 B.t.u. per hr. 

3. Equivalent outlet register temperature 

202 F. 

4. Draft in inches of water = 0.085. 

5. Rate of combustion == 5.6 Ib. per sq. ft. of 

grate per hr. 
The heating capacity just found (120,000 B.t.u. 


20^ I&OOOG 
.15 1 170000 
.05Q 150000 
65 I4OOOO 

60 ^ 130000 




50^ I/OOOO 

45 <$>IOOOOC 




vinq Relation Betwet 
' and : 
7) Efficiency- Percent 
'e) Heating Capac/ty-8.1 
3) Equivalent Register 
2) Draff -Inches Wafei 


!/? Combus 

'u perttr /x 


// into Air 





vB PS; Cy {> N> t\> f\> 
n O c%. (\ u . % ui 

Equivalent Outlet Register Temperature 
Based on 65 Inlet Temperature 

k ' 







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3 4 5 & 789/0 
Combustion Rate - Lb. Coat Burned per Sq. Ft Grate per fir. 

rates of combustion and the results from each test 
plotted against the corresponding combustion rate 
at the bottom of the chart. It was then found pos- 
sible to draw smooth curves through these points 
and these curves have been numbered and labeled 

1. Efficiency in per cent. 

2. Heating capacity in B.t.u. per hr. 

3. Equivalent outlet register temperature based 

on a 65 inlet temperature. 

4. Draft in inches of water at smoke outlet. 
After the curves are drawn, it is a simple matter 

to ascertain under what conditions this furnace will 
develop its maximum efficiency. To do this, draw 
a vertical line (shown dot and dash in figure) 
through the highest point of the efficiency curve 
(1). This line will cut all the other curves, as 
well as the combustion rate axis at the bottom, and 

per hr.) is not the maximum capacity of this furnace 
by any means, but it is the capacity at maximum 
efficiency. The heating capacity of this same furnace 
can be increased nearly 50 per cent, if the chimney 
draft can be approximately doubled. By increas- 
ing the draft to 0.18 inches it is possible to burn 
coal at the rate of 9 Ib. per sq. ft. of grate and the 
rating and performance data becomes (see vertical 
dot and dash line at 9 Ib.} I 

1. Efficiency =55 per cent. 

2. Heating capacity = 169,000 B.t.u. per hr. 

3. Equivalent outlet register temperature = 

242 F. 

4. Draft in inches of water = 0.18. 

5. Rate of combustion = 9 Ib. per sq. ft. of grate 

per hr. 

The significance of this method of showing rating 
and performance data is of the greatest value in 



determining upon the selection of the proper fur- 
nace or in comparing two furnaces or a furnace 
and a boiler. Assume the heat loss from a certain 
house is 170,000 B.t.u. in the very coldest weather 
which lasts for only a few hours, and that the heat 
loss under average cold weather conditions which 
last for many hours is only about two-thirds of this 
or 113,000 B.t.u. It will be at once apparent that 
this furnace will handle the average cold weather 
load at very nearly its highest efficiency, which the 
efficiency curve showed to be 64 per cent, at about 
this same rating. This same furnace as shown by 
the rating and performance curves has a heating 
capacity of 169,000 B.t.u. when burning coal at a 
combustion rate of 9 Ib. per sq. ft. of grate with a 
draft of 0.18 inches of water. It would also, there- 
fore, readily handle the severest heating load dur- 
ing the winter, provided the chimney in this house 
could develop a draft of 0.18 inches of water. 

This furnace would, of course, be operating in 
the latter case at an efficiency of only 55 per cent, 
with an outlet register temperature of 242F. as 
shown by the curves at 9 pounds combustion rate. 
This reduced efficiency and high register tempera- 
ture is not a serious matter, however, as the very 
severe conditions referred to only last a few hours. 


It should be noted that in the example just dis- 
cussed not only has the register temperature in- 
creased from 202 to 242 F., but the weight and 
volume of air passing the furnace has also increased 
greatly. The curves can readily be made to show 
the amount of air handled, as well as the tempera- 
ture of the air leaving outlet register. 

If it is desired to compare this furnace with a 
steam heating boiler operating at the same combus- 
tion rate, it is only necessary to fix the combustion 
rate in order to make the comparison. Suppose 
boiler and furnace are to burn the same kind of coal 
at a nine pound rate of combustion and that the draft 
is satisfactory. Refer to the rating curves and take 
nine pounds on the horizontal axis as the index 
point. The heating capacity as already found is 
169,000 B.t.u. per hr. which is equal to 169,000 -5- 
250 = 680 sq. ft. of steam radiation. (Each sq. ft. 
of standard steam radiation transmits 250 B.t.u. per 
hr.) Now a steam boiler large enough to supply 
680 sq. ft. of radiation would need to have a rating 
of 25 per cent, more than this to allow for mains 
and branches, or 850 sq. ft. The pipeless furnace 
requires no allowances for piping connections and 
the capacity curve shows practically its true heat- 
ing capacity over its entire range of operation. 

Recent Developments in Spray 

^ HE test samples of spray versus brush paint- 
ing, conducted at the U. S. Naval Hospital in 
September, 1919, and described in the pamphlet 
entitled "A Study of the Practicability of Spray 
Painting," were inspected during December, 1920, 
after exposure for about fifteen months. 

The exterior brick walls of the building had been 
painted with a light buff paint, one-half of the area 
being brush-coated and the other half spray-coated. 
The wearing properties of the paint applied by the 
two methods seem to be almost the same, both coat- 
ings being in fair condition. Medium chalking had 
developed and some unevenness of the yellow tint 
was shown in the form of light colored spots. The 
latter defect, however, is often characteristic of 
paints tinted with ochre. Close inspection of the 
two surfaces with a high-power magnifying glass 
indicated a rather characteristic spatter effect where 
the paint was applied by the spray gun, and ridgy 
brush lines where the paint was applied by brush. 

Inspection of the large roof area painted with red 
oxide paint showed that the brush-coated and spray- 
coated paints were giving equal satisfaction from the 
standpoint of durability. Where the paint had been 
applied with spray guns by workmen not acquainted 
with the method of application excess quantities, 
which were piled up in some instances, had run 
together with the formation of a somewhat wrinkled 
film in spots. Such films, remaining rather soft, 
necessarily took up dust from the atmosphere and 
became slightly darker than the areas coated with 
thinner films. 

Due to the fact that the spraying machine, espe- 
cially in the hands of inexperienced operators, is apt 
to apply a larger quantity of paint over a given area 
than the hand-brush method the heavier films would, 
of course, show slower drying properties. With 
certain paints, therefore, which are ordinarily made 
with raw linseed oil and a minimum of drier and 
thinner, slow drying properties might be observed. 
In such instances the use of a substantial percentage 
of a rapid drying reducing oil of the varnish type 
would overcome this difficulty. A small percentage 
of a heavy bodied blown oil to cause "flowing out" 
and thus obliterate sptay-pit marks might also be 
advocated. Manufacturers of special spray paints 
might take these points into consideration. 

Extract from a paper presented by Henry A. Gardner before the 
Pennsylvania State Association of Master Painters. Reading, Pa., 
January, 1921. 


Proper Size and Design for Flues 

Space Requirements of Flues and Breechings. Obstructions Often Limit 

Good Design. 

THE proper size for breeching and flue connec- 
tions is not always given sufficient attention in 
the layout of a building, and the result is that 
frequently the contractor installing the flues finds it 
necessary to resort to all sorts of ingenious schemes 
to get his equipment in, and in many cases he has to 
make his flue smaller than good practice demands. 
This is not a matter of guess or convenience or any- 
thing of the sort. If the flue is too small it offers 
too much resistance to the gases which it is sup- 
posed to carry away. The result is that the gases 
"back up" into the furnace and an actual pressure 
is built up when there should be a vacuum. A pres- 
sure in the furnace forces the intense heat into every 
crack, and the result is that it does not take long to 
destroy the brickwork, boiler and furnace equipment 
and there is a high maintenance cost- 


It is good engineering practice to design flues so 
that there will be 35 square feet in the cross section 
for every rated boiler horsepower. It is important 
to note that the sectional area of the flue is based 
upon the builder's rating of the boiler and not upon 
the actual horsepower developed. For example, a 
500-horsepower boiler should have at least 17.5 
square feet in the cross-sectional area of its flue 
connection. If there are four such boilers, the area 
in the main breeching should be 70 square feet, while 
each individual connection would still contain 17.5 
square feet. 

These boilers may actually be designed to develop 
200 per cent, or 300 per cent, of their rated capacity. 
In that case, to increase the flue area is going to help 
reduce the resistance and will tend to get the gases 
away faster. In such cases it is desirable to increase 
this area if space permits. In no case should the 
area be less than stated above, even though it is 
known that the boilers will be operated considerably 
under rating. If the architect bases his calculations 
accordingly, he is on the safe side. 


A circular flue is the ideal flue because it presents 
the least surface area to the gases. Due to cost of 
construction and difficulty in making connections 
and alterations, however, the circular flue is not 
much used. Of all other shapes, the square flue 
approaches nearest to the circular flue in the matter 
of offering the least resistance to the flow of the 

gases. It is not always possible to use a square 
section, but the nearer the rectangle approaches to 
the square the more ideal it is. 

In cases where more than one flue connects into 
the main breeching, it is good practice gradually to 
increase the area of the breeching in the manner 
shown in Fig. 1. The height h\ is twice h and h z is 
three times h. If there are only three boilers the 
height remains constant from A to the stack. The 
width of the breeching should remain the same. 






Another important matter is that in proceeding 
from the boiler to the stack no point of the breech- 
ing or flues should be at a lower elevation than any 
preceding point. There should be no downward 
flow of the gas. Sometimes it is difficult to get 
around obstructions in existing buildings without 
doing so. In new" buildings this point should be 
borne in mind, as well as the fact that obstructions 
should not be so placed that it will be necessary to 
construct the flue area in one point or to flatten the 
flue in any marked degree or to change the sectional 
shape merely for the sake of getting around these 
obstacles. All these things only add to the resist- 
ance and either make necessary higher stack and 
induced draft equipment or result in furnace pres- 


In figuring allowances for flues in cramped quar- 
ters it must be remembered that the flues themselves 
must be insulated after erection. It is customary to 
leave an air space of at least one inch between the 
steel of the flue and the insulating material. This 
is generally done by wrapping the flue with chicken 
wire or some such material to hold the asbestos and 
separating the wire from the flue by inserting dis- 
tance pieces. The asbestos is then applied to an 
additional thickness of 1^ to 2 inches, depending 
upon the conditions. To the width of flue, there- 
fore, there should be added 5 to 6 inches to deter- 
mine the overall clearance width of the flue. The 
same applies to the depth. 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

High Bridge Has Been Saved 

Through the untiring efforts of Mr. Arnold Brun- 
ner, representing the New York Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, and Col. Wm. J. 
Wilgus, representing New York engineers, High 
Bridge is not to be destroyed. As the result of their 
extended addresses before the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment, it has been finally decided to 
preserve this structure and the alterations proposed 
will not mar its beauty. For the first time in that 
body, a vote of thanks was extended to the speakers 
for their work toward this end. 

American Academy in Rome 

The annual Fellowship in architecture, of the 
value of $1,000 a year for three years, is to be 
awarded by the American Academy in Rome, sub- 
ject to the usual conditions. All persons desiring 
to compete for a Fellowship must fill in an applica- 
tion to be obtained from the secretary, Roscoe 
Guernsey, 101 Park avenue, New York. This appli- 
cation must be filed, with letters of reference and 
other information, not later than March 1. 

The competition is open to unmarried men, citi- 
zens of the United States, who comply with the Reg 
ulations of the Academy. These and all necessary 
details may be learned from the secretary. 

a number of visiting architects and engineers, at- 
tracted by an interesting and important lecture on . 
"Recent Developments in Concrete," by Lt. Col. 
Boyden. The lecturer brought out instructive and 
startling facts as to the hitherto neglected impor- 
tance of the proper proportion of water in mixing 
concrete. Thousands of experiments prove the fact 
that a small quantity of water in excess of the proper 
proportion will reduce the strength of concrete al- 
most fifty per cent. 

A discussion was had on the proposal before the 
Board of Standards and Appeals to amend the 
plumbing rules so as to permit the use of "standard" 
cast iron pipes, instead of extra heavy pipes. Unani- 
mous disapproval was voiced by the meeting against 
the proposed change in the plumbing rules, and a 
resolution was passed to that effect. 

Two new members were elected and two proposed 
for membership. 

Announcement from N. C. A. R. 

Architects intere ted in reciprocal transfer can 
obtain information with reference thereto by ad- 
dressing the National Council of Architectural 
Registration Boards, 3230 West Monroe Street, 

Chicago Architectural Exhibit Nebraska Chapter Elects Officers 

Announcement is made that the Thirty-fourth An- 
nual Chicago Architectural Exhibition will be held 
at the Art Institute of Chicago, March 8th to April 
5th. This year the exhibition is held in conjunction 
with the Applied Arts and National Farm and Gar- 
den Associations. It is given jointly, as previously, 
by the Chicago Architectural Club, the Illinois 
Society of Architects, the Illinois Chapter of the 
American Institute and the Art Institute of Chicago. 
The chairman of the exhibition committee is John 
A. Holabird, while Paul S. Esser is secretary and 
Hubert Burnham, treasurer. 

New York Society of Architects 

This Society held its usual monthly meeting at 
the United Engineering Societies Building, West 
39th Street, on Tuesday, the 18th inst. There was 
a large attendance of members present, together with 

H. W. Meginnis, of Lincoln, was elected presi- 
dent of the Nebraska Chapter of the American In- 
stitute of Architects at the third annual meeting of 
that body in the University Club. 

C. W. Steinbaugh, of Omaha, was elected vice- 
president, and J. D. Sandham. also of Omaha, was 
re-elected secretary and treasurer. G. B. Prinz was 
elected a new member of the executive committee. 

Alan McDonald, retiring president, was toastmas- 
ter at the dinner at the University Club. Guests of 
honor were: Governor McKelvie, William L. Steel, 
of Sioux City; George W. Bates, Lincoln, city engi- 
neer; Charles Battelle, Omaha; V. Ray Gould, 
Omaha, contractor; Charles F. Harrison, Clark E. 
Mickey and Dr. J. E. Summers, all of Omaha. 

The new registration law, now before the State 
Senate, which provides for the establishment of two 
boards of examiners, one for engineers and one for 



architects, was a main topic of discussion at the af- 
ternoon session. Architects generally favor the bill. 
An exhibition of four typical small house plans 
was also a feature of the meeting. The exhibition 
was made with the idea of formulating a method 
which will permit good-looking houses to be built 
more economically. 

Roosevelt Memorial to Surpass All 

To erect the finest memorial erected in America is 
the aim of the Roosevelt Memorial Association. The 
Roosevelt memorial will be erected in Washington. 
Its form is being debated. 

But as a work of art and architecture it is in- 
tended to make it surpass even the Washington mon- 
ument and the Lincoln memorial, recent reports 

International Congress of Cities in 

Paris has been chosen, at a recent meeting of the 
Union Internationale des Villes, as the next meeting 
place, in 1922, of the International Congress of 
Cities. The last congress was held at Ghent in 1913, 
and proved very stimulating to municipal, official 
and civic reform organizations the world over. A 
special effort will be made to secure attendance of 
representatives from all national associations for 
civic betterment. 

World's Fair in Philadelphia 

A committee of 100 has been named to have charge 
of arrangements for and financing of the proposed 
exposition to be held in Philadelphia in 1926, to cele- 
brate the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

Mayor Moore was named active chairman and 
John Wanamaker, who served on the centennial com- 
mittee of 1876, honorary chairman. Alba B. John- 
son, president of the Chamber of Commerce, is vice- 

An inspiring and comprehensive plan by Dr. Paul 
P. Cret for the arrangement of a site has been sub- 
mitted to about 400 representative citizens and re- 
ceived with enthusiasm. 

The plan was presented and explained at the forty- 
ninth annual meeting of the Fairmount Park Art 
Association by Andrew Wright Crawford, secretary 
of the art jury. 

Dr. Cret, noted French architect, who is professor 
of design in the school of architecture of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and who has been promi- 
nently identified with city improvement activities 

several years, proposes that the Parkway and both 
the east and west banks of the Schuylkill be utilized 
as grounds for the international exhibition. 

Mr. Crawford, who outlined the plan in an ad- 
dress on "World's Fairs and Their City Planning 
Salvage," said Dr. Cret's suggestion to use the 
Schuylkill embankments, beautified and connected by 
ornamental bridges, was "astonishing because it could 
be carried out so easily." 

Details of the project will appear in a future issue 
of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT as they are developed. 

Co-operative Housing and Garden 
City League Formed 

Lender the name of the Co-operative Housing and 
Garden City League of America, a new society has 
been formed, with the landscape architect Robert 
Anderson Pope as chairman, to promote co-operative 
housing and to create for this purpose a loan fund 
to be applied to the investigation of the advisability 
of acquiring basic sources of essential building ma- 
terials, their means of production and distribution, 
and if more capital becomes available, to the con- 
struction of model housing estates. 

Jersey City Planning 

Jersey City has completed within the last few 
weeks an organization to plan for the future develop- 
ment of the city. The mayor has appointed a com- 
mission of five t'o which the Chamber of Commerce 
has added four of its members. They will co-oper- 
ate with a number of city officials appointed for this 
purpose on a joint City Development Plan Commis- 
sion. The program embraces development of through 
streets and highways, civic centers, parks, play- 
grounds, tunnel routes, a housing system and a high 
speed motor vehicle belt road. The City Commis- 
sion, by resolution, endorsed the plan and appropri- 
ated the money needed for investigations and other 
preparatory work by the city engineers. 

Jersey City Building Active 

Houses for two hundred families will be built by 
a corporation authorized a few weeks ago by the 
Jersey City Chamber of Commerce and financed by 
business men of that city. The new houses will be 
of the so-called Philadelphia plan of five-room 
double-houses, with two families to each side. It is 
expected that costs will be reduced 25 per cent by 
the simultaneous construction of fifty such two- 
family houses. Each two-family house when com- 
pleted will be sold separately at about $10,000, with 
a first payment of $2,500 and monthly installments 
of $98, including taxes, water rent and insurance. 



The first mortgage of $7,000 will be placed by the 
corporation. As the estimated shortage of homes 
in Jersey City is over 1,400, this project is not ex- 
pected to discourage private construction. 

Inter-State Bridge 

One of the greatest projects of its kind in New 
England, according to the Portland Express, is 
about to be started. This is the magnificent Maine 
and New Hampshire Memorial bridge to be erected 
over the Piscataqua river between Portsmouth, 
N. H., and Kittery, Me. Estimated to cost over two 
million dollars, it will completely outshadow the 
famous local Portland Bridge, which reached the 
million mark but which could not be duplicated today 
for a very much larger sum. 

While the cost of the new structure is to be 
divided equally among the two States and the Fed- 
eral Government, the major portion of the benefit 
to be derived from it is to be received by Maine. 
The great local advantage, however, is to go to Ports- 
mouth. The bridge is to form a remarkable gate- 
way into the Pine Tree State, through which will 
pour at least 75 per cent, of the automobile tourist 

The great local benefit received by Portsmouth will 
be the fact that it will form a free means of access 
for the towns of Maine, in its vicinity, into the New 
Hampshire metropolis to trade. 

Balsa Wood Lighter Than Cork, 
Durable as Cedar 

Balsa wood, growing notably in Costa Rica and 
Ecuador, is the lightest wood known, weighing only 
7.3 pounds to the cubic foot. Cork weighs 13.7 
pounds. Growing more rapidly than almost any other 
known tree, it is said that within four years a balsa 
tree will attain the height of 30 feet, with a diameter 
of ten inches. It is as durable as cedar. 

The wood is white, extremely straight grained and 
easy to work. It is soft when green, but seems to 
harden later. It is used extensively for making life 
rafts and life preservers, anl it is thought that it will 
eventually constitute a valuable source of pulp wood. 
A brown-colored cotton-wool, commonly used for 
stuffing pillows and mattresses, is also produced. 

It is believed that the tree would flourish in Florida 
and because of its rapid growth would spread easily 
over the southern part of the state. 

Billboard Nuisance in Massachusetts 

At a cost of millions, says the Boston Globe, 
Massachusetts, has built a system of magnificent park 
boulevards and highways from the Atlantic Coast to 
the Mohawk Trail. "No sooner do these roads bring 

the splendors of our landscape within reach of the 
eye (and we are no worse sinners in this respect 
than our sister states) than we allow them to be 
defiled at every turn by glaring atrocities which urge 
us to invest in this brand of tooth paste and that 
brand of chewing gum." The Women's Municipal 
League of the City of New York, which quotes this 
and other evidence of the continued existence of the 
billboard evil, is endeavoring to check the abuse. 

Niagara Power 

From Niagara River only 26 per cent of the total 
flow is diverted for generating electricity, and en- 
gineers say that 60 per cent could be diverted with- 
out marring the scenic beauty of the falls, hence 
it is asserted that "millions of horsepower are go- 
ing to waste." A treaty with Great Britain limits 
the amount of power that can be developed at 

Puppets in Egyptian Tomb Show 
Ancient Conditions 

Innumerable puppets, representing the household 
retainers of Mehenkwetre, a great Egyptian dignitary 
of 2000 B. C., taken from a concealed chamber of 
his tomb and illustrating in detail the life of the 
people of that time, have just been put on exhibi- 
tion at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. They 
were excavated by the Museum's Egyptian expedi- 
tion at Thebes and are considered one of the most 
important of. recent discoveries. 

The puppets, who are shown performing dif- 
ferent household arts and duties in the fields and 
on the water, are funerary models and form the 
most complete set ever excavated. 

Mehenkwetre was a chancellor and steward of 
the royal palace in the reign of King Mentuhotep 
III., and his tomb was located in the choicest spot 
in the necropolis of his day, overlooking the mor- 
tuary temple of the sovereign. 

The tomb had been plundered several hundred 
years after the interment of the. dignitary whose 
body it contained, but neither those early nor later 
visitors discovered the hidden chamber which the 
museum excavators found intact. To facilitate the 
carrying on in another world of the pleasures 
which the great man had enjoyed on earth prac- 
tically every occupation which ministered to his 
comfort had been reproduced with these miniature 
servitors, that he might enjoy them in the new life 
he was entering. 

The puppets seem to be inhabitants of a doll 
world, but they actually reproduce the life of the 
early Egyptians and, from the fullness of the de- 
tails, they throw light upon many interesting points 
not previously understood. 



Circulating of Pictures 

Circulation of pictures, on a plan similar to that 
followed in the circulation of books by public libra- 
ries, has for some time been carried on to a small 
extent in Boston. New York, and possibly other 
cities. The Brooklyn Y. W. C. A. has recently 
started such a circulating library for reproductions 
of the best pictures, which are lent for two weeks or 
a month. Each picture is accompanied by a brief 
account of the artist's life, data about the school and 
l>eriod of art and the significance of the particular 
work. The next step, apparently not contemplated 
in this case, but adopted elsewhere, is that of en- 
abling borrowers to buy at a modest price pictures 
which especially appeal to them. 

U. S. Is Wearing Away 

An average of 95 tons of soil, pebbles, and loose 
rock is carried by the rivers into the ocean every 
year from every square mile of the United States, 
according to the United States Geological Survey, 
Department of the Interior. The immensity of this 
contribution may be better comprehended when it 
is realized that the surface of the United States 
covers 3,088,500 square miles. 

Old Paris City Walls to Be Used for 
War Area Homes 

The inner walls of Paris, relics of the city's de- 
fenses in the old baronial days, are going to make 
buildings in war devastated areas of France. Where 
they stood, Paris will have its first model playground, 
in the Pagnolet quarter, laid out on American lines 
by the Junior Red Cross. Announcement by the 
Red Cross said twenty miles of good building stone 
had been saved from leveling the old fifty-foot 
defenses bordering the Paris moat. 

Conspicuous Automatic Doorsill 
Permits Exit Only 

To enforce the one-way traffic rule through the 
establishment, the management of a large garage has 
installed an automatic doorsill across the exit. The 
device is made of heavy steel and is hinged and 
counterweighted in such a way that, normally, the 
edge toward the street is held several inches above 
the drive level. This presents an obstruction which 
cannot fail to challenge the attention of an approach- 
ing driver. To a car advancing from the street side, 
the obstruction is very real. Immediately the wheels 
of an outgoing car bear upon the sill, the apparently 
formidable bump becomes a smooth, level path, the 
heavy threshold sinking into a recess in the drive- 
way. A conspicuous decorative scheme and the 

admonitions to use the entrance and also to cross 
the sill in low gear have the desired effects of pre- 
venting movement against the direction of traffic and 
of making cars leave the building at a safe rate of 

Borglum to Carve Army on Mountain 

Gutzon Borglum has taken up again his plans for 
carving a vast memorial to the Confederacy on the 
face of Stone Mountain, a great granite monolith 
just outside Atlanta, according to a recent announce- 

Nothing so stupendous as the Stone Mountain 
undertaking has ever been planned in art. Stone 
Mountain is a solid block of granite, the northern 
side of which is a sheer cliff nearly 1,000 feet high 
and 1,500 feet wide. That perpendicular surface, 
is was explained, is without seams and even enough 
to offer a vast natural canvas for the sculptor's chisel. 

The memorial will take the form of a big army, 
composed of more than one thousand figures of 
southern leaders, marching across the face of this 
cliff. Mr. Borglum, it was stated, will cut the figures 
in heroic proportions, forty or fifty feet in height, 
so that they can be recognized for four or five miles. 
The principal figures will stand out in complete re- 
lief, while other figures will be scaled clown through 
various stages of relief to mere chisel sketches on 
the surface of the stone, thus giving the appearance 
of an army fading into the heart of the mountain. 

Mr. Borglum plans to retain a large number of 
artists under his supervision. The artists will work 
upon the face of the cliff from steel cages swung on 
cables down the side of the mountain. 

Mr. Borglum estimates that it will take about 
eight years to finish the work, at a cost of several 
million dollars. 


Mr. Gerald Joseph O'Reilly, Room 11, Hippo- 
drome Bldg., Miami Florida, is desirous of receiving 
manufacturers catalogs, specifications and price lists 
to complete his files. 

Damon, O'Meara & Hills, Architects are now op- 
erating offices in Suite 1123-1124 Merchants Na- 
tional Bank Building, Saint Paul, Minn., and at 19 
East Mason Building, Fort Dodge, Iowa. The Saint 
Paul office would like to receive literature. 

T. Beverly Keim, Jr., architect, has moved from 
room 202 to room 716 Haas Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

A. E. Sedgwick and N. W. Alpaugh, architects, 
have moved their offices to Suite 506, Garland Bldg., 
Los Angeles, Cal. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 




(Vice President, Bank of Detroit) 


[Refer to page 107, issue of January 26.] 

An old English document states that in 1314 
"Complaints to the King that the market of Ox- 
ford ran unreasonably high, so that poor scholars 
could hardly live, so the King sent down his Man- 
date to regulate this affair." An attempt was then 
made to establish the following price schedule, 
which is interesting in view of present costs : 

1. s. d. 

A stalled, or corn-fed ox. 

A grass-fed ox 

A fat stalled cow 

An ordinary cow 

A fat mutton, unshorn 

A fat mutton, shorn 

A fat hog, of two years old. 


A fat goose, in the city, 3d, but every- 
where else 00 

A fat capon, in the city, 2yZd, elsewhere.OO 
A fat hen, in the city, l/4d, elsewhere. .00 
2 chickens, in the city, Ij4d, elsewhere. .00 
I pigeons (in the city but 3 pigeons).. 00 
24 eggs 00 












This comment is made in the article in question : 
"Things could not be purchased at these rates, for 
people would not bring them to the market (and 
that is a thing that Parliaments cannot remedy), 
and so the King was fain to revoke the former 
act, and leave the people to sell as they could (for 
a trade will do as it can, and never be forced, one 
way or the other)." 

READJUSTMENT should contemplate_a rea- 
sonable profit, and prices should bear a proper 
relation within the season to the preceding season's 
or preceding year's price schedules. An economic 
commission might very happily analyze the entire 
subject, and, for what it is worth, publish what 
would seem to be a proportionate basis of prices 
from year to year within the economic period in- 
volved. In correlation with this, the government 
should develop a comprehensive plan of taxation 
fairly distributed and provide for a stated reduc- 
tion of the national debt over a sufficiently long 
period of years. This would at least serve as a 
guide to the business world, and tend to prevent 
the business difficulties which are sometimes de- 
veloped by the discussion or operation of unsound 

'Copyrighted, 1920, by Edmund D. Fisher. 

It is comforting to realize that a period of de- 
flation, based upon average experience, is a period 
of growing wealth. Take a characteristic period 
of deflation in England experienced from 1874 to 
1896 (a gold movement). During this period the 
average of wholesale commodity prices fell 40 per 
cent. It was a period of increase in production the 
world over, and of growing wealth, in which Eng- 
land, of course, shared. It was a period of grad- 
ual increase in wages, although the greatest benefit 
to the wage earner came from the reduction in 
prices. An English economist states : "Looking at 
this period as a whole, there seems to be no evi- 
dence that employment was any less regular than 
in preceding periods." 

A composite judgment based upon the thought 
of authoritative writers and speakers on the sub- 
ject of "What is necessary to bring about the or- 
derly decline in prices," may be stated as follows : 

1. That bank credit for legitimate business be not 
unduly restricted. 

2. That the public writings and speeches of influ- 
ential men be directed toward the upbuilding 
of business morale by spreading the gospel of 
confidence in our own economic strength, 
which must be supported, however, by normal 

3. That the maintenance of a fair volume of ex- 
port trade will tend to stabilize prices, and 
through the helpfulness it will give to the up- 
building of stricken nations, will react favor- 
ably on the United States. 

4. That as much stress as possible be laid on the 
argument that a small profit on a normal pro- 
duction is better than a large profit on a cur- 
tailed output. 

5. That manufacturers and merchants in a strong 
financial position should place reasonable or- 
ders to encourage trade during depressed pe- 

6. That a consistent advertising policy is neces- 
sary to stimulate the buying public. 

7. That at the present time a revision of our tax 
laws is necessary to normalize business and 
investment relations. 

After all, and in conclusion, an orderly decline 
in prices is largely dependent upon the attitude of 
the credit men and the credit grantors of the coun- 
try. An analysis of credit statements during the 
period of deflation will undoubtedly many times 
show a status of depreciated inventories and limited 
liquid assets. Forced liquidation, however, would 
tend to a disorderly decline and abnormally low 
prices. While a consistent reduction in prices is 
desirable, it is quite undesirable to have a greater 
reduction than is logical for a proper relation to 
the basic economic conditions. For stability, we 
must have full employment, continuity of spend- 



ing power, and reasonable prices. The credit man, 
therefore, must, when possible, permit the element 
of time and the principle of helpfulness to cure 
some of the business difficulties brought to his at- 

A knowledge of the principles of prices is most 
important in credit granting, as the movements of 
prices, as has been pointed out, directly affect 
credit conditions. The inventory is usually the 
most important factor in the commercial state- 
ment, and a radical change in value may mean 
much added wealth or ultimate insolvency. A most 
important factor to remember in a period of defla- 
tion is that while the value of the inventory may 
shrink and the surplus be reduced, the cause which 
brings this about the decline in prices is also 
increasing the value of each individual dollar. 
What is apparently a reduced surplus may and 
probably will indicate a greater wealth than the 
swollen surplus that previously floated on the froth 
of the tossing waves of inflation. 


(Any architect desiring this address in full, printed attractively in 
booklet form, may obtain it by writing the editor of this journal.) 

Next Week: "The Architect's Relation to Price Declines" 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. There was some slight unsettlement 
of the steel market during the week on the 
impression of jobbers that the steel corporation 
prices, especially in sheets, may show further 
declines. What these reductions will be if any 
will depend on how badly the outside mills need 
tonnage. This situation is just the reverse of what 
it was during the last two quarters of 1920. It 
would appear from the way jobbers feel that the 
independent mills are masters of the situation. 

Jobbers report ample warehouse stocks of roof- 
ing, sheets, cement, plaster and plaster wall board. 
The situation seems to radiate around March, which 
it is thought will more clearly disclose the construc- 
tion tendency of the Pacific Coast territory than 
any other month. There is a growing belief 
among both the metal and lumber interests that 
construction will start around the first week in 
March. It is thought that by that time builders will 
have concluded that materials are at their bedrock 
levels and that to wait longer would be to endanger 
the possibilities of prompt delivery. 

It is the feeling of jobbers that basic costs must 
be hurried forward if the building year is to be 
propitious and business is to settle to the point 
where building-up can begin. Jobbers in pipe, sheet 
metal, plumbing supplies and metal furnishings 
insist that as fast as their costs are dropped they 
pass the advantage on to the trade, but that the 
trade is not responding in kind. Unless some speed 

is shown in giving investors this advantage as it 
occurs it is predicted that retailers will suffer 
in finance. Small losses can be taken now more 
readily than large ones in March or April, and few 
communications pass that do not contain some 
reminder to retailers to speed up recessions in order 
that building projects may be pushed beyond the 
pencil sketch stage. 

Doyle & Merriam, architects and engineers of 
Seattle, have opened bids for demolishing the 
Boston block, four stories in height, to make space 
for the new exclusive banking quarters of the Seat- 
tle National Bank. Work is to begin March 1. 
This is the first of three exclusive banking struc- 
ture? to be erected in the permanent financial dis- 
trict on Second avenue south of Spring street with- 
in the next two years. The Union National will 
involve an outlay of $1,000,000. 

Approximately 46 per cent, of the fir lumber 
mills in what is known as the West Coast Forest 
products territory have resumed operations since 
the holidays. Log and labor overhead have 
decreased 15 to 25 per cent., and logging contractors 
seem to have run afoul of each other as to what 
constitutes the actual market. The result is bene- 
ficial to the mills that have no timber of their own 
but must buy on the open log market from time to 
time according to their needs. 

Eastern building is quiet, according to lumber 
orders received from east of the Missouri river. 
Retail yards, who represent the wishes of builders 
in their respective communities are inclined to 
believe there will be further price recession. This 
position may be well taken, but the mills expect a 
rush of orders with early spring and buyers will 
be taking their own chances in delay. It is not 
believed that prices could fall any appreciable 
extent, as the mills will not sell on the market as it 
stands today. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. Chicago's building boom which 
'oomed so brightly on the immediate horizon a few 
weeks ago is beginning to assume some of the char- 
acteristics of a desert mirage and is growing less tan- 
gible as it is more closely approached. With mild 
February weather giving hint of early spring condi- 
tions, when building might be starting somewhat 
ahead of the usual frost-out-of-the-ground period, 
there is a tendency on the part of those connected 
with the building industry to complain at the appar- 
ent lack of building activity. 

Architects say that there is comparatively little 
work on the boards just now, although there is 
considerable inquiry and a great deal of tentative 
figuring. Contractors report the same state of 



public mind and even the lumber and materials 
men indicate that spring business has thus far 
failed to transcend the inquiry stage. 

The reason back of it all is manifold, but mainl) 
it is due to the state of uncertainty and expectancy 
which a falling market has built up in the public 
mind. With the daily newspapers giving prom- 
inence to every downward slant, a mass psychology 
has been created, which expects a much deeper 
plunge of the toboggan back toward economic 
readjustment. This watchful waiting is manifested 
by the disposition on the part of those whose minds 
are made up to building activity, to wait and see 
just what the situation will really come to 
in the end. 

Another complex in the situation is the failure 
of finance to come to the rescue except at high rates 
and unusual commissions. 

Just what the outcome of all this is to be is a 
problem that is puzzling a great many people in 
the Chicago building industries, architects, con- 
tractors, materials and lumber manufacturers and 
all the rest. 

Optimistic leaders believe that the situation can 
very well turn from bearish to bullish in the span 
of a week or so and that hectic activity can very 
easily relieve the present dullness almost over- 
night. The fact that the building shortage is so 
acute and the pay-me spirit of the average flat- 
owning landlord so apparent is looked upon as a 
goad that cannot fail to encourage building, partic- 
ularly in residential and apartment buildings, once 
the complicated conditions now prevalent are even 
slightly cleared up. 

Once building is fairly started it is felt by many 
that there will be a rush that will be reminiscent 
of boom days of the past. It is the initial impetus, 
however, that is now lacking. 

As far as Chicago is concerned there are signs 
here and there that the tie-up is beginning to 

One of the signs of better times ahead is a recent 
building permit for a million dollar apartment 
building. This is to be a nine-story structure to 
be erected in the Rogers Park district by G. M. 
Posner, of G. M. Posner & Co., builders. Work is 
to be started on the building at once. 

There were twelve other permits for apartment 
buildings in the January list, a significant fact inas- 
much as apartment buildings have been conspicu- 
ously absent from the building permit lists during 
recent months. 

Although apartment permits show an increase 
for January, the general building situation is not 
improved, according to the building permit report. 
At a date well toward the close of January only 

60 permits had been issued as compared with 171 
in December of 1920 and 328 as compared with 
January of last year. 

The growing number of apartment permits is 
viewed with satisfaction by Charles E. Bostrom, 
building commissioner, who in his recent annual 
report pointed out that Chicago needs from 75,000 
to 90,000 more apartments. 

In his report were figures covering building 
in Chicago for a period of seven years, which is 
interesting enough, perhaps, to be reproduced. The 
report follows : 

Year Building Permits. 

1913 10,792 

1914 9,938 

1915 10,340 

1916 10,277 

1917 4,938 

1918 2,529 

1919 6,589 







Lack of money for building is getting more and 
more to be the focus of the building apathy in 
Chicago and public attention is being more centrally 
directed to the solution of this stringency. The past 
week has seen some three or four possible plans for 
the relief of the condition. 

One interesting plan has been evolved by the 
Corn Exchange National Bank, which hopes to 
encourage definite savings toward home building. 
Briefly, the bank's plan is this : 

The man who desires to own a home contracts 
with himself to deposit with the bank a certain 
sum each month toward a first payment. At the 
very beginning of the savings and throughout the 
period of home-owning thrift, the bank supplies 
advice and information on building, plans, real 
estate and other things that the prospective home- 
owner ought to know. By the time the depositor 
is ready to buy or build he is well posted on the 
details of the transaction. 

What is of more interest than the plan itself, 
is the fact that three thousand inquiries and three 
hundred new accounts were developed by the plan 
within a week. 

The Building Trades Council which is made up 
of thirty-eight unions in the building industry is 
fostering a plan to raise a bond fund of $5,000,000 
to spur building. This fund is being predicated 
upon a bond issue on an important business sky- 
scraper which has lately been taken over by an 
important co-operative investment society. Funds 
from this plan are not yet available, but hope is 
held out that something may be forthcoming from 
this source. 

Still another plan which is not lacking for pro- 
ponents is a scheme to secure special legislation 



which will permit the state to issue building bonds 
at a low interest rate, untaxable and to be sold 
without commission as a means of financing home 
building and home owning. 

Out of all this planning, something is expected 
to evolve and those in closest touch with the build- 
ing situation are hopeful that advancing weeks may 
change the whole face of the situation which 
admittedly does not seem as bright now as it did 
two or three months ago. 

The demand for lumber and building materials 
continues to be without spirit or feature and prices 
which have prevailed for some time are continuing 
unchanged, because the price really plays very little 
part in the lumber and materials business just 

The prices are about as follows: 

Yellow Pine: B. & B. 1-in., $95 to $130, depend- 
ing on thickness; 2x4, No. 1, 10 to 16 ft. length, 
$51 to $53; 2 x 6, $48; 2 x 8, $50; 2 x 10, $53; 
2 x 12, $55 ; 13-16 x 3% z & b flat flooring, $85 to 
$90; 1 x 6, No. 2 common, $48 to $90. Douglas 
Fir: 2 4 S, in sizes up to 12 x 12, in length up to 
32 ft., $65 to $70; 14 x 14, $68 to $73; 16 x 16, 
$72 to $75; 18 x 18, $75 to $80. Hard Maple: 
Four, J4 No. 1 and 2, $135; select, $120; No. 1 
common, $100 ; No. 2 common, $65 ; No. 3 common, 
$32. Birch: Four % No. 1 and 2, $160; select, $133 
to $138 ; No. 1 common, $95 to $100 ; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3 common, $40. Red Gum: Four 
J4 No. 1 and 2, $150; No. 1 common, $90 to $92; 
No. 2 common, $45. 

Face Brick Standard, vitrified red, $32@ 
34.00; Smooth, Indiana red, $38.00@40; Smooth 
Ohio red, $38.00@40.00 ; Smooth, Pennsylvania red, 
$46.00@48.00; Smooth, buff, $45.00@47.00; 
Smooth, gray, $47@49.00; Rough, buff, $44.00 
@46.00; Rough, gray, $47.00@49.00 ; Variegated, 
rough texture, $34.00@49.00. 

Common brick, $16.00 per M. Portland cement, 
$3.00 per bbl. Torpedo Lake and bank sand, 
$3.50 per yd. Crushed stone, gravel screenings, 
$3.50 per yd. Hydrated lime, Ohio, paper, $22.00 
per ton. Hydrated lime, Ohio, cloth, $29.00 per ton. 
(Includes sacks at 30c. each.) Hydrated lime, 
Wis. paper, $20.00 per ton. Bulk lime, $1.75 
per ton. 

(.Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON The outstanding feature here this 
week was the opening of all the textile mills, large 
and small, in New England. After several months 
during which mills were either completely closed or 
running but one or two days a week, at the present 
time all are open, with some operating on a full time 
basis and others on four or five days a week sched- 
ule, with indications that full time may soon be 

This is important to architects in that the indus- 
trial situation as a whole in New England (and there- 
fore any component part of that situation) depends 
almost wholly on the textile business. Once the gen- 
eral industrial situation is cleared up, there will be a 
marked improvement in the building industry. A 
most significant fact is that, almost without excep- 
tion, the mills are renewing with wage cuts of 22]/2 
per cent, in effect, the American Woolen Company 
being the last large concern to announce the reduc- 
tion. In practically every case, the workers returned 
to their looms without marked protest. This is most 
certainly an encouraging factor. 

Leading textile mill owners are on record as de- 
claring that more goods have been sold in the last 
three or four weeks than during the entire six months 
preceding. There is every confidence that the revival 
is not a flurry, but a healthy renewal of life in the 
textile industry. 

More than 80 per cent, of the workers are back in 
Fall River and from 70 to 80 per cent, are again at 
work in other important textile centers in this sec- 
tion, including the more important centers of New 
Hampshire and Rhode Island, also in Maine. About 
50 per cent, are reported as working in Lowell, 
Lawrence and New Bedford. 

Andrew Adie, president of the United States 
Worsted Company, declares the industry is now on 
the "front edge" of a healthy revival. 

All reports agree that there is little merchandise 
in the mills' warehouses and that practically all new 
business must be met by a resumption of mill 

Architects here find these symptoms most encour- 
aging. The uncertainty of the textile situation has 
been a decided drawback to any comprehensive or 
even partial building program. Owners were not 
willing to put money into any new project where the 
inhabitants of the communities were either out of 
work or in a state of uncertainty concerning their 
next day's meals. The importance of the textile in- 
dustry here is comparable somewhat to New York's 
commerce. Imagine New York's harbor bottled up 
for weeks and you have a fair idea of what the situa- 
tion has been here for some time. 

Your correspondent finds that a number of archi- 
tects are looking forward to such a distinctly bettered 
industrial situation that a number of building proj- 
ects will now very probably go forward without 
further delay. Architects generally in the New Eng- 
land region are looking forward to a distinct im- 
provement in the building industry, as a result of the 
improved textile situation. It is even possible that 
the workers in the building industry may agree to 
certain wage cuts in order to speed the revival of 
building, precisely as the textile operators have ac- 
cepted their wage cuts in the same spirit. 








Reconstruction in Northern France V 

The Future 


STANDING in the doorway of a tiny wooden 
barrack, talking with the owner of this poor 
though much appreciated substitute for his 
once pretentious dwelling and gazing out across the 
broad fields still bearing the marks of a cruel devas- 
tation, as one listens to one's garrulous host telling 
of the beauty of the various spots, of the adjacent 
village and neighboring fields "avant la guerre," one 
tries to visualize the future of the massacred regions 
of Northern France. Having traversed the devas- 
tated regions of the old battle lines, and having been 
deeply impressed or perhaps depressed by the breadth 
and magnitude of material destruction, the like of 
which had probably never been witnessed before the 
Great War, and with the compelling force of vivid 

contrasts, having recalled the peace and prosperity 
of these regions in their pre-war days, one wonders 
what the future will bring forth. Even with the 
plucky attempts made by the returning refugees to 
begin life over under the most trying of living con- 
ditions, what will Time, galloping over the next ten 
or twenty years, do for the stricken areas of North- 
ern France? In what form and in what style will 
be the buildings that are to take the place of the 
600,000 destroyed homes ? What shape and plan will 
be that of the new villages that supplant the pic- 
turesque old ones as the waste areas again come 
under the constructive rule of Peace? 

Prophets are not without honor except when 
making their forecasts on the devastated fields them- 

Cofyright, 1921, The Architectural <t Building Press (Inc.) 


selves where, surrounded by all the chaotic destruc- 
tion, it is often difficult for the most optimistic to 
predict any very rapid reclamation. Especially is 
the prophet apt to command no great credit among 
those who have not learned to appreciate the many 
sterling qualities of the French peasant makeup. 
There has been much criticism of the way that the 
French have undertaken their gigantic tasks of re- 
construction with unfavorable comparisons with the 
work in Belgium. It cannot be denied by anyone 
who has had to unsnarl a way through the entangled 
meshes of French official red tape, and has seen the 
suffering and discouragement that delay and appar- 
ently useless politics inflicted, that there have not 
been times when one was apt to say most uncom- 


plimentary things about Gaelic business methods and 
political systems. 

When immediately after the armistice, the govern- 
ment refused British and American aid for per- 
manent reconstruction, France hoped to 'promote her 
home industries, although it seems that she could not 
have realized her exhausted state nor foreseen the 

rapid depreciation in the value of her currency. She 
expected the Germans to supply the necessary labor. 
The days of the Pharaohs are past and slave labor 
has long since been proved to be non-productive. 
To date the Germans have done practically nothing 
although it must be stated in justice to the groups 
of German prisoners allowed for the building work 
in the Meuse, that more capable, willing and indus- 
trious workers would have been hard to obtain, once 


sustaining rations and some degree of humanity were 
granted them. It now seems that if there is to be 
any very rapid reconstruction, it must come through 
foreign assistance. Nor is this any disparagement to 
the French people at large when one considers what 
the nation has been through during these years of 
stru ggle. One must needs turn from censure to ad- 
miration when thoroughly considering what ihey 
have withstood and of what they have given many 
proofs of being able to accomplish. No country in- 
volved in the war, not even Belgium, had to with- 
stand the magnitude of suffering that was inflicted 
upon France. Many a French village of the devas- 
tated regions had hardly a male citizen of military 



age returning to take up the fight of peace times. 
Consider the miles of occupied and contested terri- 
tory through the valleys of the Somme and Oise, 
the Ainse and the Marne. Think of the railroads 
alone of which eight hundred miles were still to be 
reconstructed on the first of last May. Without 
means of transportation, any reconstruction work 
could progress but slowly. Not dwelling further 
upon the vastness of the problem, one may look for 
hope for the future and find it in the toiling figures 
of the fields, that, reminiscent of Millets' paintings, 


are everywhere seen trying to gather something from 
the thorny aftermath of war. Forgetting the un- 
pleasant experiences with cumbersome officialdom 
and profiteering "entrepreneurs." one may take hope 
in the remembrance of the acquaintance with cul- 
tured and refined old men and women, accustomed 
to pre-war culture, wealth and leisure, coming back 
to their old homes with only their pluck and gentility 
left, there to undertake with their own hands the 
sordid tasks of cleaning and repairing their demol- 
ished homes. 

From an architectural viewpoint, some hope for 

the future may be gleaned by a visit to the drafting 
rooms of the department of "Regions Liberees" at 
Bar le Due, Chalons or other "prefectures" where 
draftsmen are busy on village plans and property 
lines. More hope for the three dimensional progress 
may be obtained by a visit to bustling Rheims or to 
secluded Grand Pre, to cite two specific instances 
of very different places where the work of perma- 
nent reconstruction has already begun. Rheims be- 
fore the war had a population of more than 125,000 
souls, living in some 17,000 houses. By the latter 
part of the summer of 1918, the city was supposedly 
evacuated of all civilian population and, of the 
homes, but few were undamaged beyond much hope 
of repair. By the beginning of 1920, little more 
than a year after the cessation of hostilities, twenty- 
five thousand people were reported back within the 
mutilated city and organized rebuilding was well 
under way. While retaining the essential project of 


the old city plan with its admirable squares, plans 
are being executed to unite the railroad stations for 
more efficient communication than the old plan 
afforded ; to improve the location of the market- 




places; to open up the vistas toward the cathedral 
whose towering grandeur, shut off since mediaeval 
days by the encroaching buildings, was, in a way, 
more thoroughly appreciated after the leveling of 
the entourage. The city will for generations to come 
retain the ugly scars of battle, but a few years are 
pretty certain to see Rheims intact and prospering. 
With its crowds of tourists on their pilgrimage to 
the heroic cathedral and its location in the midst of 
rich though sadly uprooted vineyards, it is bound to 
recuperate, although its buildings must necessarily 
show the effects of inartistic haste and dearth of the 
substantial building materials of old, while the 
quaint old historic houses can never be reproduced. 
Compared with such a famed and easily accessible 
town as Rheims, the fate of the smaller secluded 
village is not likely to be as happy. Yet, Grand Pre 
in the Ardennes may be cited as an example of one 
from many of the more remote villages that are 
taking on new life. Here a new village has been laid 
out with straight streets and open places to substi- 
tute for the compact dwellings that bordered the 
curved streets of the old town. A model school- 

house with ample play-ground to take the place of 
the former cramped ecole, and fresh air and cleanli- 
ness are items to be considered as never before, 
thanks to the new institutions of district nursing 
and public welfare. These are but two very different 
examples cited from the many places where the work 
of rebuilding is progressing. 

The story may be heard if one talks with some 
old patriarch about the Marne Town of Vitry-le- 
Francois of how the place won its name in the 
XVIth century, as well as how it was saved from 
destruction by the integrity and diplomacy of the 
mayor and cure when they were taken as hostages 
by the late enemy. Whether the story of the name 
be authentic or not, it is illustrative of the typical 
home devotion of the inhabitants of Northern, and 
perhaps as justly stated, all of France. It seems 
that Francis I, "Pere des Lettres," who has come 
down in history as a most energetic and progressive 
builder, had pet schemes of town planning that 
would rival in beauty and order many of our gar- 
denesque plans of today. By his orders and under 


his directions, was laid out the new town of Vitry 
with model symmetry and harmony to replace the 
older Vitry that had incurred his majestic dislike. 



In spite of the great public square, covered market 
and imposing facades offered them by the royal 
builder of the new Vitry, the people of the older 
town were loath to forsake their accustomed homes 
and tried manner of living. So stubborn were they 
in their resistance that in order to compel them to 
move, Francis had the homes of the old village 
burned one by one, thus forcing the villagers to 
move over to the new. Still they would not be con- 
tent with the new village in name, but called it 
Vitry-le-Francois to differentiate it from the old 
Vitry-le-Brule, (Vitry the Burnt). The hundreds 
of French towns which have been forced to seek 
new character by even more drastic methods than 
those employed by the Valois king, have not the 
newly modeled quarters awaiting their reception, yet 
it is to be wondered at how great an extent they 
will be enabled to cling to their old styles and tra- 
dition of building. 

Architectural design, if it be virile and vital, must 
ever mirror the conditions of time and place and 
masters and means that make for its creation. As 
a natural development, perhaps it is not safe to hope 
for a much different style of building than is to be 
seen in the other recent architectural developments 
in France. Perhaps it is unreasonable to expect 
other than machine made goods from factory system 
of production. Greek curves could hardly be the 
expected output of a concrete mixer, nor is it more 
logical to expect the subtle curves of village streets, 
the natural picturesqueness of uneven rows of 
houses with lines and tones mellowed by centuries, 
to be obtained by an emergency housing program 
put through in minimum time under present labor 
conditions. Even if the old lines were retained, the 
newer, lighter and more machine-made construction 
would not have the same charm as the old, but 


would be apt to suggest the artificial and theatrical. 
So to a degree, the housing problem of Northern 
France as far as design goes is much the same as 
' the housing problems the world over ; especially in 
all the countries where the more natural course of 

events has been interrupted by the World War, is 
there a demand for new and better homes. 

The devastated areas of France have the advant- 
age of offering artistic prototypes and charming 
architectural traditions to the future builder if he is 
capable of adapting the old style to a logical con- 
struction in new material and with modern labor. 
It is to be hoped that the people themselves will 
appreciate the wealth of their artistic inheritance and 
cling to it as their ancestors have clung to their old 
homes and family traditions. May the examples 
of the old style, relics of which remain in nearly 
every community, furnish keynotes for the remod- 
eled scenes which are gradually to take the place of 
the old. May the new villages grow up in conforma- 
tion to all the new teachings, co-operation, sanita- 
tion, and advantageous public and private institu- 
tions that the years of war occasionally forced upon 
the people in exile, but as they develop, with all 
these, may there still be retained that individuality 
and naivete, characteristic of older days. 

With families again united, French homes are 
sure to revive: with church and school again filled, 
something of the old order will be continued : with 
farms and industries re-established, the old trades 
and manners of work are quite certain to reappear. 
With the soft limestone and red tiles, sapin lath and 
rough plaster again on hand, the painstaking French 
craftsman will no doubt again be able to erect simple 
homes of beautiful proportions, the gardeners to 
train their pear trees into many branched candela- 
brum effects and clip their planes and box into 
shapely geometrical forms. It is hoped that money 
will not be sufficient if poverty will tend toward an 
avoidance of the display of jig-saw skill, fancy 
dressed stone and distasteful combinations of the 
materials such as modern French building taste 
seems apt to favor. If only they can content them- 
selves with relying upon their native charms and 
simplicity of honest construction, not mimicing the 
fads of the metropolis, but relying on the merits of 
their native costumes for the grace that is their birth- 
right, even though trade may inflict a change of 
materials and hygiene suggest a more ample cut. 

Such vast destruction and economic waste as have 
had the fields of Northern France for their theatre 
of action cannot be obliterated in one or perhaps 
many years. Many generations of future inhabitants 
and travellers in these areas are to be reminded by 
broken walls and crumbling stone of the years of 
savage strife. Diligent work on the part of man and 
friendly aid and co-operation from other nations is 
the pressing need. Backed by this the unceasing 
labor from the callous hands of the French peasant 
is going to be the potency which will re-create their 
land and make the world richer for "La belle 
France, encore." 


The American Specification Institute 

AS heretofore produced specifications have been 
largely the product of individual effort and as 
such have varied in many features that can 
be conventionalized so as to be common to all. Owing 
to a present lack of means for collecting and dis- 
tributing information concerning specifications and 
the writing thereof, there is a needless duplication 
of study, research and labor on the part of specifica- 
tion writers. Practically all other professions are 
so organized that the interchange of knowledge is 
effected with resulting improvement in the quality 
of production and professional standing. It is to 
improve the conditions affecting the writing of speci- 
fications and to benefit by organized effort that THE 
This organization is intended to be national in scope 
and invites co-operation of all those interested in 
specifications. The plan and scope of this organiza- 
tion follows : 


1. To increase knowledge concerning and im- 
prove the methods of writing specifica- 
tions. The kinds of specifications included 
are those for buildings, engineering struc- 
tures and all works whatsoever in which 
materials of construction and labor are 
used; for the installation and use of me- 
chanical and sanitary apparatus and equip- 
ment ; for the fabrication and installation of 
all furnishings and furniture ; for all orna- 
ments and ornamentation, both interior and 
exterior ; for paving, planting, embellishing 
and improving of grounds and waterways ; 
and for such other things as are produced 
or sold on specifications. 

2. The Institute will not interfere with any 
of the present organizations such as 

a The American Society For Testing 


b Kindred national and local architec- 
tural and engineering societies 
c Manufacturers' and trade associations, 
but will endeavor to carry forward the ac- 
tivities of such and give additional assist- 
ance to specification writers. 


The architectural and engineering professions 
will gain through 

a The development of specification 

b The development of specifications that 

will eliminate cause for argument and 

guesswork and lower the cost of 
building construction by eliminating 
waste of labor and materials 
c Professional recognition of specifica- 
tion writers 

Will be composed of 


a Persons who devote their entire time 
or a part thereof to the writing of 


a Persons who employ specification 


a Testing and laboratory engineers 
b Instructors in specification writing in 
architectural and engineering schools 


a Will be governed by a constitution and 
set of by-laws 

b The secretary will direct the activities 
of all researches, co-operation with 
other societies, etc., and will secure 
and provide answers to all inquiries 
of the members. 


1. Study of materials 

a The production and physical proper- 
ties of raw materials 

b Methods of manufacturing, fabrica- 
tion and finishing 

c Relative value based on appearance, 
initial cost and maintenance, effect of 
combinations with other materials and 
proper materials for various types of 
buildings of varying grades. 

2. Methods of writing specifications 
A study will be made of : 

a The means of accomplishing complete 
co-operation between the drawings and 
specifications and determining 
What methods of construction and in- 
stallation should be used 
What the drawings should show or indi- 

What should be omitted for inclusion in 
the specifications 
b -The development of an outline or 

checking list 

c The general contract conditions 
d Specific requirements governed by lo- 
cal conditions 



e Use of Standard Specifications of ma- 
terials as prepared by societies and 

f The arrangement of specifications so 
as to conform to the sequence of con- 
struction and installation of the work 

g The writing of specifications that are 
clear, concise, coherent and that can be 
understood by the courts 

h The principles of contract law as it af- 
fects the writing of specifications 

i Possible standardization of building 

3. The securing of the adoption of recom- 
mended practices by the professions and 
others concerned 

4. The deliberations of the Institute discus- 
sions, treatises by members or invited con- 
tributors and other matters will be pub- 

For further information, applications for mem- 
bership, etc., address Organization Committee, THE 
Coughlen, Sec'y Pro Tern, Room 1144, American 
Bond & Mortgage Building, Chicago, Illinois. 





The Billop House, Staten Island 

(See Reproduction of Original Drawing by O. R. Eggers on Opposite Pane) 

rHE Billop House here presented by Mr. Eggers is one 
of the earliest examples of American architecture. 
From its first beginnings it has been linked with events 
in American history that have endeared it as the background 
for many legends. 

At a time back in the 1660'j the Duke of York claimed 
Staten Island as part of the colony of New York. New Jer- 
sey also wanted possession. In order to give his decision the 
semblance of fairness the Duke ruled that all islands lying in 
or near the harbor which could be circumnavigated in 
twenty-four hours were to belong to New York and the others 
to New Jersey. In those slow old days this was a tedious proc- 
ess and the Duke was put to it to find a competent sailor. It 
was Captain Christopher Billop, in command of a small 
vessel, who succeeded, and this act won from the Duke of 
York a tract of land containing 1,163 acres. 

The house here illustrated, located at Tottenville, is the 
oldest structure in Staten Island and was built b\ Billop soon 
after the land was presented to him in 1668. It stands a little 
way beyond a group of farmhouses under the shade of huge 
trees generations old, such as one rarely sees in this part of 
the world, where axes and forest fires have wrought havoc. 

During the Revolution, Generals Howe, Cornwallis, Clin- 
ton, Burgoyne and others were entertained there. Under the 
roof of the Billop House was held the only peace conference 
of the Revolution, which took place on September 6, 1776 
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge had 
been appointed by the Continental Congress to confer with 
the English on the issues of the war. The house was used as 
a barracks during the Revolution and in the cellar there is a 
brick vault and dungeon, large and finely arched, which is 
said to have been put to stern use. It is believed that an 
underground passage was made at that time, leading down 
to the river, a distance of two hundred yards. 

The gloomy tales of the dungeon, the suffering prisoners, 
the underground passage, are only one side of the old house's 
history. Gay and sparkling scenes took place above. Many 
a banquet did the old manor see; many a daintily brocaded 
lady, many a gallant, ruffled and powdered gentleman. Its 
rise and fall encompass perhaps every human emotion and it 
is one of the honored landmarks of a rich country. 



TBE AMERICAN ARCHITECT Siriet of Earlt Amtriian Archtlttturi 

mm m mmmmm mmm mm 

The American Specification Institute 

IT is a distinct satisfaction to be able to present 
on another page of this issue a complete pros- 
pectus of the organization now forming to place spe- 
cification writing on a plane somewhat in. keeping 
with its importance. That comparatively few archi- 
tectural offices have heretofore given this subject the 
attention it deserved has been readily apparent from 
a study of the specifications issued by them. A care- 
ful reading of the Specification Institute's prospectus 
leads to the belief that if the plan set forth is car- 
ried out the net result will be not only better build- 
ings for less money, but also a definite enhancement 
of the architect's reputation. 

THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT cheerfully pledges its 
support to this movement and also bespeaks the active 
co-operation of the profession with the group of men 
who have undertaken this work with no thought or 
possibility of personal gain. In fact it is perfectly 
apparent that the profession as a whole, rather than 
any individuals, will profit by the betterment of any 
of the processes by which architects procure a final 

Greenwich Village, Los Angeles 

A GROUP of men in Los Angeles, it is learned, 
have bought certain ground in that city where 
they propose to build an amusement center. There 
are to be one and two story reinforced concrete and 
brick amusement buildings, theatre, studios, art 
building, cafes and residences, and shopping district. 
This section of Los Angeles is to be called Green- 
wich Village. 

To a New Yorker, to anyone pledged to historical 
accuracy, this seems a misleading and in a sense 
desecrating thing to do. The real Greenwich Village 
stands for certain traditions. One cannot success- 
fully imitate a thing that has grown through long- 
years, whose very history is the reason for its exist- 

Yet Los Angeles is satisfied to build a series of 
more or less standardized reinforced concrete, mod- 
ern buildings, and by usurping a time-honored name, 

let it appear that there is presented an honest replica 
of the ancient, weather-worn, picturesque structures 
which have been converted and reconverted to serve 
purposes dictated by an ever-changing populace. 

There is a mental twist, a certain looseness that 
sanctions a misrepresentation like this. Nomencla- 
ture is useless if it is not accurate. The many dwell- 
ers on the coast who have never seen the Greenwich 
Village of Manhattan will be given false impres- 
sions as to what it stands for; and indeed today, 
it is the admixture of foreign folk with the native 
residents that gives Greenwich Village in New York 
an atmosphere which not even an honest physical 
duplication of surroundings can produce outside of 
the metropolis. Its very cosmopolitan quality is its 
distinguishing trait. This is felt as one saunters 
through New York's Greenwich Village. A subtle 
something that is not apparent to the eye, but that 
causes it to reveal a different and novel aspect with 
each variety of type that one happens to encounter. 
An Italian peasant woman transplanted, it would 
seem, from the sunny fields of Italy, but really living 
two streets away. Some little Chinese boys who had 
strayed from winding Doyers Street with its dilapi- 
date'd yet tidy houses, and are unconcernedly wash- 
ing a cat in the public drinking fountain. A short- 
haired girl in a painter's smock, heavy Indian beads 
around her neck, gazing abstractedly at a man who 
carries a brief case and studies the erotic captions 
of erotic books in an erotic shop window. A limou- 
sine which pauses before an Italian restaurant to 
discharge two fat women in seal coats and a gray- 
haired man with a silver-topped cane. A feeble, 
bearded Jew, bent under a huge jute bag of waste 
paper. All this, in Greenwich Village. 

And the quaint old gabled houses, reminiscent of 
Dutch occupation. The stables of old Washington 
Square mansions now used for studios. The occa- 
sional, amusingly discordant public garage. The 
crooked streets laid before there was thought of a 
city plan. The fine doorways of private dwellings 
where once lived the aristocracy of a peaceful town. 

An Indian Village, a large Dutch farm, a small 
English colony and one of the earliest American 
settlements all have left their marks on Greenwich 



Village in New York. Today it is the habitat of the 
artist, the writer, the dreamer, both the genuine and 
the poseur. Here come those students in art who 
hope to develop under the influence of metropolitan, 
or cosmopolitan life, the faddist and the would-be 
great, as well as the tried and proven artists. It is 
of happiness to those who cannot afford the luxury 
the home of happy, care-free indigence and ambi- 
tion. It gives music and conversation and touches 
of more formal places. It gives color to many a 
life that would otherwise be drab. 

Picture it in brand-new modern white reinforced 
concrete buildings, regularly laid out in cold uni- 
formity in Los Angeles ! 

The Personal Equation 


WHAT is the matter with the individual ? 
AT a time when we should hear the thun- 
derous voice of the multitude demanding to know the 
facts there is silence. At a time when every per- 
son should be giving his thought to the problems of 
reconstruction, we find instead the expression of the 
vast public to be indefinite, waiting for someone else 
to do its thinking for it. Instead of a lively interest 
which would seem to arise inevitably from the indi- 
vidual's need, we have the unlovely spectacle of leg- 
islative committees investigating conditions while the 
Press and the Public satisfy their appetite for sen- 
sation and scandal. 

While this is the general situation there are small 
groups pathetically small of forward looking citi- 
zens, committees for research and study and a few 
scattered individuals with views and understanding, 
occasionally suggesting constructive programs, which, 
however, fall upon deaf ears and closed minds. 

On the other hand, there, is no lack of complaint 
and condemnation. The average individual seems 
to have lost his sense of responsibility for things 
as they are and has joined the herd in its quest for 
victims upon which to vent its wrath. 

Individually and collectively, by both omission 
and commission, we are responsible for things as 
they are. Particularly is this true of the present 
paralysis affecting the building industry. 

This vacuum, where there should be an impelling 
feeling of responsibility, this mental lethargy and 
lack of forethought on the part of a large number of 
individuals has let the building industry in New 
York City slip gradually into the condition of com- 

plete demoralization revealed by the investigations 
of the Lockwood Committee. 

Similar investigations in other large cities would 
probably reveal the same loathsome conditions. Who 
is responsible? There is only one answer. The in- 
dustry the individuals composing the industry. 

NO nation, no industry, can endure in which the 
individual does no thinking, in which he does 
not contribute his thought to the mass thought, his 
will to the mass will, his opinion to the mass opinion. 
There are always groups of thinkers always piti- 
fully small who can and do lead the unthinking 
crowd. But such leadership lasts only so long as 
there is a crowd to follow, and a crowd that will 
translate ideas and ideals into action. Knowledge 
is power only when applied. Upon the truth of that 
assertion rests our whole concept of education. 

How many individuals realize that the rent legis- 
lation adopted by the special session of the New 
York State Legislature completely stifled any will 
there was to build on the part of those who were 
able to help in satisfying the public's need for hous- 
ing? The problem was one of getting houses. The 
legislature closed the door on any possibility of . a 

We cry out against the railway embargoes, the 
shortage of cars and the high rates. Does the in- 
dividual ever ask why these conditions prevail or 
what the underlying causes really are? No. He 
"leaves it to George" to get the facts and do his 
thinking for him. 

The building will never be better than it has been, 
and is, if we do not, all of us, apply ourselves to the 
improvement of conditions. To do that, we must 
individually do some straight thinking on the basis 
of facts. What do you, as an individual, think the 
trouble is. What do you, again as an individual, 
suggest as a corrective measure? 

Do some thinking, and then write your thoughts 
to the Editor of this journal, to be used in forward- 
ing the movement for convening the Congress of the 
Building and Construction Industry. 

And if you did not read about that Congress and 
what it proposes to do, or if you did read of it and 
gave it little thought, get hold of last week's issue 
of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT and turn to page 137, 
read carefully what is written there, and let the 
Editor know just what you think of the idea and 
its possibilities. 

Do your share as an intelligent individual in a 
great profession ! 








H- 1 






VOL. CXIX, No. 2356 


FEBRUARY 16. 1921 














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Modern Practice in Reinforced Concrete 


Beam and Girder Construction Exemplified in the Loose-Wiles Building 

WHILE the use of concrete in building con- 
struction and by concrete is meant an arti- 
ficial stone produced by processes far more 
rapid than those employed by nature in the normal 
formation of rock dates back to almost ancient 
times, yet only during comparatively recent years 
has any attempt been made to supplement this rather 
brittle substance with steel that it might be enabled 
to withstand tensile as well as compressive strains- 

By forming a combination of steel and concrete an 
all around structural material has been produced, 
now termed "reinforced concrete." 

A surve y of modern structures built of reinforced 
concrete must force the admission that a high degree 
of development has already taken place since the 
introduction of this material as a real factor in 
building construction. Engineers of an inventive 
turn of mind have here found an excellent field in 



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which to work, and the new systems already pro- 
duced lead one to believe that a yet more efficient 
use will be made of reinforced concrete in the not 
distant future. Today we have the results of ex- 
tensive tests on various systems to guide us in mak- 
ing additional steps in advance. 

It is not the purpose of these articles to describe 
the many special systems of construction which have 
made use of reinforced concrete, but rather to point 
out the essential features in the several general lines 

Space? in back of terra coffot 
' filled solid with mortar 

710 Gal. wire U placed over rod and 
'.: info anchor hole in flange of terra coffer 

7" ,// 

z /=, offer ra cotta Joint" 

.-#IO Gal. wire ties -IZ "/ong,, 
spaced S "ff. C. ben f over- rod. 

T ^ ffcd pa'in ted with red lead 


along which reinforced concrete construction has 
been developed to date. 

Precedent has played its part in such work, and 
\ve find the first reinforced concrete buildings fol- 
lowed closely steel design, in so far as the arrange- 
ment of the structural members is concerned. 
Spacing o f 
beams and 
girders d i f- 
f e r e d little 
from standard 
practice i n 
steel design, 
except that 
where floor 
loads were 
heavy it fre- 
quently b e - 
came neces- 
sary to resort 
to closer col- 
umn spacing 

to avoid either excessively deep or wide girders. 
This type is known as beam and girder construction. 
A building in which such construction was employed, 
and which possesses certain features of interest is 
here illustrated. 

A later development brought about the girderless 
floor or "flat slab" type of construction, as it is now 
more generally termed. This form of construction 
will be described and illustrated in a later article. 

In the consideration of this type of reinforced 



concrete building, reference will be made to the 
building of the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company at 
Long Island City, N- Y., of which William Higgin- 
son was the architect. This structure was erected 
by the Turner Construction Company. It is the 
largest bakery building in the world, occupying a 

ground area 
430 x 200 ft, 
and is nine 
stories and 
basement i n 
height. A 
wood pile 
found ation 
was used, 
there being 
15,000 piles 
s u p p o rting 
the structure. 
In general the 
floor live 
loads vary 




Showing erection of steel columns 

from 150 Ibs. to 400 Ibs. per sq. ft., but in the 
upper stories, where the English and American bake 
ovens are located, the live load runs as high as 2000 
Ibs. per sq. ft. 

In this building 360 different kinds of biscuits and 
crackers are made, one machine alone turning out 
7,3000,000 crackers of one kind daily. Some 2600 
persons are employed when the plant is operating to 
full capacity. 

A framing plan typical of the lower stories is re- 
produced on page 178. It will be noted that the 
columns are in general spaced 21 ft. 2 in. in one 
direction and 16 ft. 4 in. in the other. Each bay is 
divided into three panels by beams spanning in the 
long direction. By arranging the girders on the 
short span the depths of beams and girders are kept 

more nearly equal- In this case the typical girder 
GI has a theoretical span of 16 ft. 4 in. and is 21^ 
in. wide by 26^ in. total depth. The reinforcement 
consists of four lj^-in. square bars and fourteen 
y&-m. square stirrups. Two of these bars are run 
straight in the bottom and two are run in the bot- 
tom for about one-quarter of the span either side 
of the center line and bent up so as to be at the 
top over the support and run far enough beyond 
the edge of the support to develop the full strength 
in bond of the3e bars in order to resist the negative 
moment at this point. This girder is designed to 
resist the positive bending moment at the center 
caused by the concentrated loads from the beams 
at the third points and the uniform dead load of the 
girder itself. This moment is reduced to two-thirds 


Illustrating method of carrying up terra cotta facing 



to allow for the continuous monolithic construction 
and the section and reinforcement at the support is 
designed to resist s. negative moment equal to the 
reduced positive moment. It should be noted that 
the width of this girder is greater than that required 
to resist the allowable shearing stress of 150 Ibs- 
per sq. in. This is done so as to permit the rein- 
forcing bars to run by on either side of the steel 

part of the beam provided its effective width shall not 
exceed on either side of the beam one-sixth of the span 
length of the beam nor be greater than six times the 
thickness of the slab on either side of the beam, the 
measurements being taken from edge of web." 

This provision is generally taken advantage of in 
the design when beam and girder construction is 

In the Loose-Wiles building the floor arches in 

"t i - 

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, '/- v ,'-.'. 






Showing location of English and American bake ovens 

column cores. The typical beam B3 is 7"x20j4" 
reinforced with %-in. square bars and fourteen 
5/16-in. square stirrups. These bars are placed in 
a way similar to the girder reinforcing bars above. 


In the calculation of the beams the formula ^~- 

was used to obtain both the positive and negative 
bending moments to be resisted. The floor illus- 
trated was designed for a live load of 200 Ibs. per 
sq. ft- 

The New York Building Code provides that, 

"Where adequate bond between slab and web of beam 
is provided, the slab may be considered as an integral 

the majority of the floors are 4 in. thick, reinforced 
with Y^-m. square bars 9 l /2 in. on centers. A 
^2 -in. square distributing bar is placed in the center 
in each case and a 1" x l"x %" T-bar is carried 
by cast iron bridges over each beam, this bar serv- 
ing to raise the slab reinforcement to the top at these 
points, as shown in the drawing, as well as in one 
of the photographs. 

By many it may bethought that beam and girder 
construction was now but seldom used, being almost 
entirely superseded by flat slab construction. This, 
however, is not the case. Where the floor panels 
can be arranged approximately in squares, it will 




often be found that a flat slab design will prove the 
most economical. There are many buildings in 
which such an arrangement of columns is not pos- 
sible- Remembering that primarily the building is 
erected to house a business, often of an industrial 
nature, the first condition to be met is the harmo- 
nizing of the constructional features with the sys- 
tem of operation to be employed. It will often oc- 
cur that a certain number of machines of a certain 
size must be placed in a bay and this will determine 
the column spacing in that direction. Other features 
may fix the spacing in the other direction, with the 
result that rectangular bays are formed. In such 
cases, the beam and girder type will often prove both 

the most satisfactory and economical. In cases 
where heavy concentrated loads or heavy vibrating 
machinery are to be supported this type of con- 
struction may also prove best. 

One of the factors which to some extent at least 
has tended to limit the height of reinforced con- 
crete structures is the large proportions the columns 
assume in the lower stories. For industrial build- 
ings up to six stories with nominal floor loading the 
column sizes will not usually prove objectionable. 
However, in buildings over this height or those in 
which heavy floor loadings occur, and also in build- 
ings occupied for office purposes, hotels, etc., it be- 
comes necessary to keep the column sections to min- 
imum size. This can be accomplished in reinforced 
concrete construction by the use of steel cores, 
usually fabricated the same as for a structural steel 
building. In some cases cast iron cores have been 

By fixing a limit to the size of column, it is pos- 
sible to make use of reinforced concrete columns 
until the loads bring the column to the maximum 
size permissible, and below this level structural steel 
cores can be used- This was done in the Loose- 




Wiles building, the steel 
cores extending from foot- 
ing to seventh floor level. 
By resorting to this com- 
bination the columns in 
the first story do not ex- 
ceed 21 y 2 " x 25" in sec- 
tion. These steel columns 
can be clearly seen in two 
of the photographs. This 
is by no means an unusual 
feature, and seems a log- 
ical design under the cir- 
cumstances, since these 
columns each carry in the 
neighborhood of 1000 tons 
in the lowest story, which 
load would require a rein- 
forced concrete column of 
from 3j^ to 4 ft. in diam- 
eter. Where possible, 
however, it is more eco- 
nomical to use reinforced 
concrete throughout. 

When steel cores are 
used it is safe to use a 
higher unit stress in the 
steel than would be per- 
missible were the steel not 
encased in concrete. Most 
building codes make al- 
lowance for this. The 
New York code, for in- 
stance, provides as fol- 

"In columns of structural 
steel, thoroughly encased 
in concrete not less than 
four inches thick and rein- 
forced with not less than 
one per cent, of steel, the 
allowable load shall be six- 
teen thousand pounds per 
square inch on the struc- 
tural steel, the percentage 
of reinforcement being the 
volume of the reinforcing 
steel divided by the volume 
of the concrete enclosed by 
the reinforcing steel. Not 
more than one-half of the 
reinforcing steel shall be 
placed vertically. The rein- 
forcing steel shall not be 
placed nearer than one inch 
to the structural steel or 
to the outer surface of the 
concrete. The ratio of 
length to least radius of 
gyration of structural steel 
section shall not exceed 
one hundred and twenty." 

Such steel columns, if 
not so encased would 



probably have a limiting 
unit stress of about 12,000 
Ibs. per sq. in. on the cross 
sectional area of the steel 
instead of 16,000 Ibs. 

The choice of materials 
for wall construction is 
largely a matter of indi- 
vidual selection or taste, 
governed, of course, by lo- 
cal conditions. The wall 
columns and girders will 
naturally be of reinforced 
concrete, and concrete 
walls, with perhaps some 
simple decoration, seem 
the logical selection. How- 
ever, brick or brick faced 
with ornamental terra cot- 
ta are not uncommon ma- 
terials. Where a brick or 
terra cotta facing is used 
over the concrete wall col- 
umns and girders, the de- 
tail of anchoring is im- 

The walls of the build- 
ing here illustrated are 
faced with white glazed 
terra cotta. The spandrel 
walls are of brick faced 
with terra cotta. The 
method of anchoring the 
facing is clearly illustrated 
in two of the drawings 
showing different wall sec- 
tions. Sections AA and 
BB give a general idea of 
the wall construction while 
the partial sections to 
larger scale show the de- 
tails. The terra cotta fac- 
ing for the brick spandrel 
walls is anchored by or- 
dinary galvanized iron 
strap anchors, while wire 
ties embedded in the con- 
crete and an angle iron an- 
chored to the concrete hold 
the tile facing to the con- 
crete wall girders. An in- 
spection of the section 
taken through a portion of 
the concrete wall columns 
will show that here the an- 
choring of the terra cotta 
became more complicated. 



Horizontal chases Ji"xl^" spaced approximately 
12 in. apart vertically were formed on the face of 
the wall columns when they were poured. These 
recesses are clearly defined on some of the wall col- 
umns in the photograph showing the lower stories 
already faced and the concrete exposed above. Here 
wire anchors 12 in. long and 8 in. on centers, placed 
prior to the pouring of the concrete, were embedded 
6 in. in the concrete. These wire ties were used to 

This building was one of those visited by members 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers who at- 
tended the 1921 annual meeting, and the writer care- 
fully inspected the present condition of the facing, 
and so far as could be seen, it has "stayed put." 

In the majority of reinforced concrete buildings, a 
troweled finish cement floor is used. However, in 
some buildings, due to the very nature of the pro- 
cesses of manufacture to be carried on, a wood floor- 


hook over a horizontal l /4-m. anchor rod. When the 
tile facing was laid, a wire U was placed through the 
anchor holes in the terra cotta and this horizontal 
rod. As the placement of the facing progressed, the 
space between it and the face of the concrete was 
slushed in solid with mortar. It will thus be seen 
that after this mortar had set the facing became se- 
curely tied to the concrete structure. As the build- 
ing has been up some years, ample opportunity has 
been afforded to show the efficiency of this method- 

ing is desired. In the Loose-Wiles buildings most 
of the floors of which are devoted to the baking and 
packing of various brands of crackers, a concrete 
floor was objectionable, and so in these stories wood 
flooring was used. One of the photographs shows 
this flooring in process of being laid. On top of the 
concrete floor arches a thin sand cushion was spread, 
and splined wood under flooring, 2 in. thick, laid 
directly on top of this cushion. The planks are 
fastened together by diagonal nailing. Over this 



under flooring the finished maple flooring was laid. 
It is, of course, important when using this method 
that the sand be thoroughly dry prior to laying the 

Solid steel sash windows are at present largely 
used in reinforced concrete structures, and in a later 
article details of placing this type of window will 
be described and illustrated. 

In the Loose-Wiles building wooden windows 
were used and the details of construction are shown 
in one of the drawings. In the second and eighth 
stories the openings have curved arches, but the 
window frames have square heads- 

A study of the details will prove instructive. Wood 
nailing strips were embedded in the concrete for 
fastening both window and head and jambs, and to 
these the frames were nailed. It will be noted that 
all frames are caulked. This is an essential feature 
where wood frames used in reinforced concrete 
buildings, to insure against excessive air and water 

A reinforced concrete moulded cornice was made 
use of, a detail of which is shown. This provides 
permanent construction and is vastly superior to 
galvanized iron cornice construction. 

Due to the special use of this building, extensive 
ovens had to be installed. These extend from the 
seventh floor to the roof. One of the illustrations 



Showing special construction in floors below 

shows the manner in which sections of the floor slabs 
were omitted above the seventh floor to permit the 
proper construction of the ovens. Attention is 
directed to the fact that one row of columns just 
in front of the ovens has been entirely omitted 
above the eighth floor, making necessary the con- 
struction of special long span girders at the ninth 
floor and roof, shown in part at the left of the illus- 
tration above referred to. The peculiar construction 
necessary to support the ovens is indicated in the 
plan of the seventh floor. As the loads to be sup- 
ported under the American or revolving ovens are 
very much in excess of those usually met with in 
common practice, the use of reinforced concrete 
construction under these ovens would have required 
girders of very considerable dimensions. There- 
fore, steel girders were substituted for this section 
of the seventh floor- 

In order to permit the greatest degree of flexibility 
in the operation of this plant, insofar as the baking 
operations were concerned, the seventh floor con- 
struction is so designed that at any time the English 
or endless conveyor type of oven, numbered from 
1 to 8 at the left of the seventh floor plan, may be 
extended to the right, replacing some of the Ameri- 
can ovens, should this seem desirable. On the other 
hand, the steel construction under the American 
ovens, numbered from 1 to 22 at the right of the 
plan, was continued so as to permit the extension of 
this type of oven so as to replace entirely the Eng- 
lish oven, should experience warrant such a change. 
The floor construction under the English ovens is of 
heavy reinforced concrete designed to carry in the- 
neighborhood of 1700 Ibs. per sq. ft. 

These points are brought out to show the possi- 
bilities of taking care of exceptional conditions, 
which often occur in industrial buildings. 


Preventing Cracks in Plaster WallsPart 1 

Results of Investigation by the Associated Metal Lath Manufacturers 

THE appearance of cracks in plaster walls, 
particularly in corners where two walls or a 
wall and ceiling join, has attracted consider- 
able study and investigation in the past for the pur- 
pose of determining correct methods of applying 
lath and plaster so that such cracks might be avoided. 

Recent tests have been conducted to show the 
effect that different arrangements of metal lath have 
upon the cracking tendency of plaster walls and 
to determine the best method of application of the 
lath to prevent cracks. These investigations have 
been divided into several parts, and what is known 
as Series A deals with cracks where ceiling and side 
walls join. 

Six different forms of construction were used, 
namely : 

1. Wood lath side walls; metal lath ceiling; metal lath 
extending 6 in. down side wall; metal lath attachments 6 in. 
from corner. 

2. Wood lath wall; metal lath ceiling; no bend. 

3. Metal lath wall; metal lath ceiling; metal lath corner; 
attachments 6 in. from corner. 

4. Same as 3 except attachments are right up to corner. 

5. Metal lath wall; metal lath ceiling; joint at corner, not 
bent over. No. 18 gauge iron ties were once between each 
pair studs. 

6. Wood lath side wall; wood lath ceiling. 


The samples used in these tests consisted in each 
case of a full sized section of wall and ceiling. They 
were made up of three 2" x 4" hemlock studs, spaced 
16 in. center to center. The height of the wall was 
36 in. and the width of the ceiling portion was 18 
in. The sample was 34 in. deep. The plaster was 
used in the proportion of 2 : 1 of sand and gypsum 
plaster. Two coats were applied on the wood lath 
and three on the metal. 

A brief summary of the results follows and shows 
that metal lath on wall, corner and ceiling with at- 
tachments right up to the corner is the strongest 
construction and permitted the greatest distortion 
before cracks first appeared. 











6 .. 

-Appearance of First Crack v 
Load Deflection 

.10 . 


Current News 

Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

Paris Prize of the Society of Beaux- 
Arts Architects 

The first preliminary competition of the 14th 
Paris Prize, open to all citizens of the United States 
under thirty (30) years of age on July 1st, 1921, 
will be held on February 26th, 1921. 

For particulars apply to chairman, 126 East 75th 
street. New York City. 

Architectural Water Colors 

The Department of Architecture of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology has placed on view 
in the Rogers Building, Boylston street, Boston, a 
loan collection of architectural water colors by art- 
ists of distinction. Guardi, Turner and Ruskin are 
among the greater names. There are several Wins- 
low Homers and Sargents and there is a little Vene- 
tian subject painted by Sargent's mother. Ross 
Turner, Ralph W. Gray, E. H. Rankin, W. T. Aid- 
rich, Denman W. Ross, F. L. W. Richardson and 
Charles F. McKim are others of note. The original 
idea in forming the exhibition was to offer instruct- 
ive and inspiring material to the students in the 
school, and it is an example that well might be fol- 
lowed wherever young architects are in training. 

Oswald Speir 

Oswald Speir, Executive Secretary of National 
Terra Cotta Society, died suddenly on the Twentieth 
Century Limited en route to Chicago on business at 
6 o'clock Wednesday morning, February 2. The 
cause of death was acute indigestion. He was in 
the best of health at the time of taking the train. 

A New Yorker, he had spent ten years of his 
life on the Pacific Coast. 

Few men had a wider acquaintance among the 
architectural profession the country over than Mr. 
Speir. He was a pioneer of the Terra Cotta indus- 
try in this country. As a representative and sales 
manager of the old Perth Amboy company it is not 
too much to say that without the manufacturer's 
co-operation he supplied to his friend, Stanford 
White, the eminent architect, such architectural 
masterpieces as Madison Square Garden, Judson 
Memorial Church, the Herald Building and Park- 

hurst Church and others might not have been pos- 
sible. These buildings, endeared to New Yorkers 
and famous over the world, mark the renaissance of 
American architecture, in bringing about which Mr. 
Speir contributed directly. 

Oswald Speir was born in New Orleans, La., 
August 18, 1864. After studying architecture for 
a year he entered the employ of the Perth Amboy 
Terra Cotta Company, with whom he continued 
until 1908, when he moved to Los Angeles to become 
local manager for the Pacific Coast Terra Cotta 
Manufacturers, Gladding, McBean & Co. While 
on the coast in 1918-19, as Vice-President of Pacific 
Marine and Construction Company, he took a lead- 
ing part in the construction of concrete ships for 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation. He came back 
last June to serve the terra cotta industry with 
enlarged powers as secretary of the National Terra 
Cotta Society. Under his administration note- 
worthy progress has been made in the short time 

Mr. Speir resided in New York at 26 Gramercy 
Park. He leaves a wife and four children. He was 
a member of American Institute of Architects, 
New York Academy of Sciences, American Ceramic 
Society. His clubs were : Faculty, University 
of California ; Jonathan, Los Angeles ; Cuyamaca, 
San Diego; National Arts, New York. 

Southern California Chapter's 

Edwin Bergstrom was unanimously re-elected 
president of the Southern California Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects at the Decem- 
ber meeting at the City Club. The other officers 
elected were: Henry F. Withey, vice-president; R. 
Germain Hubby, secretary ; Robert H. Orr, treas- 
urer ; and D. C. Allison, director. 

Georgia Architects Organize 

The Georgia Chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects has elected the following officers for 
the ensuing year : President, Warren C. Powell ; 
first vice-president, P. Thornton Marye; second 
vice-president, G. Lloyd Preacher ; secretary, Ar- 
thur Neal Robinson; treasurer, Ernest D. Ivey: 



chairman executive committee, Wm. A. Edwards. 
Mr. Preacher resides in Augusta, and all the other 
officers live in Atlanta. 

Alabama Architects 

The annual meeting of the Alabama Chapter was 
held in Montgomery on January 27. New officers 
were chosen as follows : George B. Rogers, Mobile, 
president; Bern Price, Birmingham, vice-president; 
Eugene H. Knight, Birmingham, secretary-treas- 
urer ; Frederick Ausfeld, Montgomery ; D. O. Whil- 
din, Birmingham, and Prof. Fred C. Biggin, Au- 
burn, board of directors. 

It was decided to have an Alabama Chapter ex- 
hibit at the May convention of the American Insti- 
tute in Washington. 

The Chapter will also undertake the collection of 
a series of slides on Alabama architectural subjects 
which will be exhibited nationally as well as in 

The annual prize was renewed to the class in de- 
sign of the department of architecture at Auburn. 
Steps are also to be taken looking to a better under- 
standing between those representing architectural 
art and the general public. 

Washington State Society Elects 

The Washington State Society of Architects held 
its annual election in Seattle on December 7 and re- 
elected the old board of officers as follows : Messrs. 
Harry H. James, American Bank Building, Seattle, 
president; Clayton D. Wilson, Mutual Life Build- 
ing, Seattle, first vice-president ; Julius Zittel, Spo- 
kane, second vice-president ; Watson Vernon, Aber- 
deen, third vice-president; Richard V- Gough, 
Okanogan, fourth vice-president ; Edgar Blair, Ep- 
ler Building, Seattle, secretary, and L. L. Mendel, 
Empire Building, Seattle, treasurer. The new board 
of trustees consists of Harry H. James, chairman; 
Frank H. Fowler, A. Warren Gould, Wm. J. Jones 
and R. H. Rowe. 

Kansas Architects Hold Annual 

The annual meeting of the Kansas Society of 
Architects was held January 21 at Topeka, Kans. 
The morning session was devoted to the reports of 
committees and the election of officers. During the 
afternoon John H. Kitchen, Kansas City, Mo., 
talked on "Co-operation Between Architects and 
Heating Engineers." A general discussion was. 
held on "Should the Basis of Charging for Archi- 

tectural Services Be Changed?" The speakers at 
the banquet in the evening included Tom McNeal, 
Topeka; Frank A. Slack, Beloit; Lorentz Schmidt, 
Wichita, retiring president; Bishop James Wise, 
Topeka. W. E. Glover of Topeka was the toast- 

The following officers were elected : President, 
W. E. Glover, Topeka ; vice-president, Ed. Fors- 
blom ; secretary and treasurer, J. S. Stookey, Ot- 
tawa. Two new directors are C. W. Squires of 
Emporia and Cecil F. Baker of the faculty of the 
Department of Architecture of the State Agricul- 
tural College at Manhattan. 

Wichita Architects Hold Election 

The annual meeting of the Wichita (Kans.) As- 
sociation of Architects was held January 20, when 
the following officers were elected : President, Ed. 
Forsblom (re-elected) ; vice-president, Godfrey 
Hartwell ; secretary-treasurer, Glen H. Thomas. 
Plans were advanced and discussed for the estab- 
lishment of a series of talks and discussion pertain- 
ing to architecture, to be given at the society's reg- 
ular meetings. Various outside concerns or their 
representatives will be invited to talk before the 
meetings as well as the members. 

Virginia Chapter, A. I. A., Names 

The Virginia Chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects held its annual meeting January 18 at 
the Jefferson Hotel, Richmond, Va. The following 
officers were elected : President, Fiske Kimball, 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. ; vice- 
president, John Kevan Peebles, Peebles & Fergu- 
son, Norfolk, Va. ; secretary and treasurer, Charles 
J. Calrow, Calrow, Wrenn & Tazewell, Norfolk, 

Sargent Returns to Boston 

John S. Sargent has returned from England and 
will continue his work on the decorations for the 
rotunda of the Museum of Fine Arts. 

For a National Arboretum 

A resolution for the establishment of a botanical 
garden and arboretum of not less than 1,000 acres 
near Washington, D. C., for the purpose of grow- 
ing and classifying all varieties of trees and plants 
available to American horticulturists, was passed 
unanimously at the annual convention of the New 
England Nurserymen's Association at the American 
House, Boston. E. F. Coe is secretary. 



The Ricker Library of Architecture 

There has come to us an illustrated booklet of 
some seventy pages published by the Department of 
Architecture of the University of Illinois. 

This is replete with interesting information on 
the early literature of architecture and modern ar- 
chitectural books. One chapter gives a compre- 
hensive list of works on architecture recommended 
to students of architecture and available in the 
Ricker Library of the University of Illinois. 

For a Omaha Art School 

Introduction of a bill providing for incorporation 
of a board of trustees for an institute of teaching 
and learning, to be devoted chiefly to art, revealed 
plans for the construction of a magnificent fine art 
school by Mrs. George A. Joslyn. Property from 
Twenty-second to Twenty-fourth and Dodge streets 
probably will be used for the site of the school, 
which is expected to represent an expenditure of 
from $1,000.000 to $3,000,000. 

Plan Permanent Buildings for 1926 
World's Fair 

Permanent buildings rather than gaudy temporary 
structures are advocated by members of the art jury 
of Philadelphia for the world's fair contemplated in 
1926 on the 150th anniversary of the signing of the 
Declaration of Independence. Already ambitious 
plans have been proposed for an exposition un- 
equaled by any heretofore held anywhere. 

Our Imports of Art Works 

In the eleven months ending with November the 
United States imported paintings, statuary and 
other works of art to the aggregate value of $25,- 
782,842, as against $17,579,291 in the same eleven 
months of 1919 and $6,730,650 in 1918. The im- 
portation, contrary to general belief, was not as 
great as in the year or two before the war. During 
the same eleven months of 1913 our imports of 
such articles amounted to $29,273,341, and in 1912 
to $53,286,218. 

Philadelphia Architects Co-operate 
with Labor 

Mr. D. Knickerbocker Boyd, former Secretary of 
the Institute, conferred with the council of the 
Associated Building Trades for Philadelphia and 
vicinity (composed of all branches of the industry 

except carpenters) and requested opportunity to 
address that body on the subject of bettering con- 
ditions in the building industry, which request was 
granted. He urged the need of closer co-operation 
between the various elements in the industry, that 
the mechanics might know better the aims of the 
architect, and that the architect might help to cre- 
ate in the mechanic a keener interest in his work 
and in the results sought for in the architect's de- 
signs, to the end that they might all help to de- 
velop themselves as instruments of service for the 
good of the industry. 

He suggested that the Council provide oppor- 
tunities for lectures on the crafts, plan reading, etc., 
and assured them of the co-operation of architects 
in such an undertaking. 

The bricklayers promptly responded to the sug- 
gestion and under Mr. Boyd's active leadership a 
meeting was held at which a number of architects 
addressed the men, and offered their assistance and, 
as a first definite step in the program, a plan read- 
ing class was started. This was conducted by Mr. 
Victor D. Abel, architect, every Thursday night, 
starting with an attendance of about 100 men, which 
gradually increased to the capacity of the hall. 

Instruction was given in the reading of plans, 
the meanings of indications of materials on draw- 
ings, dimension lines, the placing of windows, parti- 
tions, the working out of stairways and the relation 
between the drawings and the specifications. 

In addition to this class Mr. Boyd arranged for 
speakers at as nearly as possible every regular 
weekly meeting of the union, with subjects of in- 
terest to the journeymen who were present to the 
extent of three or four hundred at each meeting, 
these talks being followed frequently by interesting 
open discussion. 

Hotel Entrances 

The big hotels of New York can no longer ap- 
parently afford to devote their fronts to displaying 
their purpose. One of the largest on Broadway is 
about to rip out its first floor and convert the space 
into fine shops. Thus the ambitious hostelries of 
Gotham promise to imitate a fashion long prevalent 
in the West, which has the virtue of preventing the 
interruption of the continuity of a shopping district. 
Hereafter, regretfully, the monumental character 
of buildings in those parts of the metropolis devoted 
to the retail trade of the city is not likely to be re- 
garded. The architects will perhaps have to devote 
their skill to other parts of the city, where the ten- 
dency to lift the eyes above the level of a shop win- 
dow is more pronounced than on Broadway or Fifth 



Art Appreciation Lacking 

A lack of appreciation by Bostonians of the Mu- 
seum of the Fine Arts and its treasures in statuary, 
ceramics and paintings was a subject of comment 
in the annual report of Morris Gray, president of 
the trustees of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

In that city of 748,000 persons, with a reputation 
as a center of culture, he pointed out that the visitors 
to the art galleries last year were only about one- 
third of the number of inhabitants. 

Historic French Village Has Ameri- 
can Aid in Memorial 

The municipality of Barbizon, deep in the Fon- 
tainbleau forest and famous for its association with 
artists of the past and present, has, it is learned in 
special press dispatches, joined efforts with a com- 
mittee of Americans for the construction of a mon- 
ument to the French and American soldiers fallen 
in the war. 

The French sculptor Revillion has been commis- 
sioned to execute the memorial which he has of- 
fered gratuitously. The townsfolk have contributed 
8,000 francs and the American committee has or- 
ganized to raise 15,000 francs needed to complete 
the work. The monument will be placed in the 
center of the village on ground formerly owned by 
the painter, Theodore Rousseau, and near the 

The artist proposes to mount a bronze bust of the 
"Gaulois" on a rustic shaft formed of rocks from 
the forest. It will bear a plaque inscribing the 
. names of Barbizon's sons killed in the war and a 
palm leaf and ribbon with the names of the French 
victories, Marne, Verdun, Rheims, Alsace and Lor- 
raine. The general aspect will be in harmony with 
the quaint charm of the village so intimately linked 
with the lives of Millet, the painter, and Barye, the 

The American committee is composed of Ridg- 
way Knight, president; Sidney B. Veit, secretary 
and treasurer; Alexander Harrison, Paul W. Bart- 
let, George Rowland and Dr. A. L. Hipwell The 
proposed dedication will be: "This monument was 
erected by subscription donated by the citizens of 
Barbizon and our American friends." 

rid of the law, and that in itself is likely to take 
considerable time. 

Architects say that the houses as they stand can 
easily support several more stories, and the inten- 
tion is, if a law giving the necessary powers is 
passed, to make the buildings of the whole street 
for a distance of more than a mile of uniform 
height. As it is now, the buildings are only four 
stories high. As the street faces the Tuileries Gar- 
dens, with houses only on the north side, the pro- 
posal, it is argued, might very easily be carried out 
without injuring the appearance of the famous 

In view of the constantly increasing population of 
Paris and the limitation of possibilities of spreading 
outward, the need for buildings is beginning to be 
pressing. The authorities are likely, however, to 
prevent any building which would injure the beauty 
of the city. 


J. A. Pitzinger has opened an office for architec- 
tural practice in Dallas, Texas, 607 Insurance 
Building. He has discontinued his connection with 
the architectural department of the General Motors 

Joseph Hudnut has moved his office from 41 
Union Square to 51 West 10th street, New York 

Rue de Rivoli Wants Skyscrapers 

To make the Rue de Rivoli into a street of sky- 
scraper apartment houses is the latest proposal of- 
fered as a remedy for the housing shortage in Paris 
according to a recent press despatch. The street was' 
built one hundred years ago, and the law which then 
compelled builders not to exceed a uniform height 
is still m force. The first step, then, will be to get 

Louis D. Grubb has moved from New York to 
Register Building, Room 20, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Manufacturers' information is desired. 

G. Lloyd Preacher has admitted to partnership 
George Harwell Bond, J. F. Wilhoit and Nicholas 
Mitchell to practice under the name of G Lloyd 
Preacher & Co., Healey Building, Atlanta, Ga., and 
Masonic Building, Augusta, Ga. 

Clarence T. Myers, architect, and Kenneth D 
Coffin, architectural engineer, have organized for 
the practice of their profession at 412 Traction Ter- 
minal Building, Indianapolis. 

The architectural practice formerly carried on 
under the firm name of Bollard & Webster, 520 
Paxton Bldg., Omaha, will be conducted in the 
future by James R. Webster at the same address. 

Stiles S. Dixon has opened an office for the prac- 
tice of architecture in the Home & Ray Building 
Fayetteville, N. C. Catalogues and samples desired.' 

C v Desmond Co - have removed to new offices 
Beaver street, New York. 




Health Commissioner Invokes 

Dr. Royal S. Copeland, speaking recently before 
the Educational Alliance Forum, New York, said 
there is no city in the world where housing condi- 
tions are as bad as here. He said there are 100,000 
more families than houses in this city which means 
that 100,000 families are living with other families. 

Dr. Copeland told of having had a conference with 
fifty millionaires bankers, trust company directors 
and financiers generally and said that as a result a 
committee had been appointed by these men to look 
into the housing question with a view to furnishing 
more homes. 

He stated further, that there are two classes who 
do not want to see more houses built the real estate 
men and the savings banks. 

He said there are $2,000,000,000 in the savings 
banks of this city, and one quarter of that sum would 
be sufficient to relieve the housing conditions. 

School Building Program for 
New York 

A school building program of $65,000,000 has 
been adopted at a meeting of the Board of Education 
and will be submitted to the Board of Estimate of 
New York with the request that action be taken as 
soon as possible. The lack of schools is creating 
an acute situation. 

LeBrun Scholarship Award 

The jury in the LeBrun Scholarship Competition 
for 1920-21, conducted by the New York Chapter 
A. I. A., has made the following awards: 

Traveling Scholar Oliver Reagan, New York 

First Honorable Mention Robbins L. Conn, New 
York City. 

Second Honorable Mention Edward S. Lacosta. 
New York City. 

Third Honorable Mention Charles J. Irwin, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The following men, whose names are given alpha- 
betically, were mentioned by the jury for the excel- 
lence of their work : 

Howard Stanley Atkinson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John S. Burrell, New York City. 

Louis Fentnor, New York City. 

J. Harold Geisel, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owen L. Gowman, New York City. 

Carl W. Lason, Boston, Mass. 

Benjamin Moscowitz, New York City. 

John G. Schuhmann, New York City. 

Edgar F. Stoeckel, New York City. 

The interest in the competition was very gratify- 
ing, forty-one sets of drawings being presented, rep- 
resenting thirteen states, widely distributed through- 
out the country. 

Publicity by Contractors 

Instead of plastering a building job with a lot of 
signs advertising various sub-contractors, the general 
contractors in a number of cities are displaying one 
big sign containing the names of all the sub-con- 
tractors on the project. This new departure not 
only makes for neatness, but it gives all the con- 
cerns connected with the job an equal amount of 

Hudson River to be Bridged 

Papers of incorporation have been filed in Albany 
for the Hudson River Corporation. That is an im- 
portant step toward the realization of the cherished 
dream of many years the spanning of the Hudson 
and the connecting of Manhattan and New Jersey 
by a great bridge, the river span of which will be 
more than double the length of the river section of 
the old Brooklyn Bridge. 

The entire plan is estimated to require seven to 
eight years' time and a total investment of about 
$200,000,000, of which approximately one-half will 
be represented by the bridge itself. 

The colossal structure will hang suspended from 
towers higher than the apex of the Woolworth Build- 
ing. The centre of its central or river span will 
be 165 feet clear above the surface of the water, 
as compared with 135 feet between the river and 
the middle span of the older structure. The new 
bridge is expected to accommodate fourteen rail- 
road tracks in all, four on its upper deck and ten 
on its lower, and to have a traffic capacity of 600,000 
persons an hour, as compared with 700,000 for all 
four of the East River bridges combined, which carry 
twenty-four tracks in all. The Hudson River 
bridge is to accommodate 12,000 vehicles, which is 
equal to the combined vehicular capacity of the 
Brooklyn, Manhattan, Williamsburg and Queens- 
borough bridges combined, and on its upper deck 
will sustain 40,000 tons of vehicular freight by rail 
and truck. 

Gustav Lindenthal, the well known bridge builder, 
is author of the present plan and will continue to 
be identified with it as engineer-in-chief. 


Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 

World Situation 

RUSSIA continues to show stability, though no 
one speaks encouragingly of Russian trade. The 
Bolsheviki apparently have the situation well in 


Austria and the Balkans show little improvement. 
Conditions in Austria are desperately bad, due funda- 
mentally to the political severance of Vienna from 
the territory of which it has been the industrial as 
well as political center.. The immediate problem 
is to get the population of Vienna through the win- 
ter. Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria and Jugo-Slavia 
are largely agricultural territory. Treasuries and 
food stocks are low, but there are fortunately no 
great cities to be provided with supplies. 

Italy has quieted her most alarming disorders. 
Her treasury is in improved condition as a result of 
new taxation; the revenues of January, 1921, are 
reported as three times those of January, 1920. The 
note circulation of the Bank of Italy on October 
10, 1920, was 15,238,000,000 lire, against 14,445,- 
000,000 a year before, and 1,556,000,000 in 1914. 
With the increased revenues, this inflation should 

Poland has been prostrated by the struggle with 
Russia. The industrial and financial situation is very 
bad, with the currency depreciated almost to the van- 
ishing point by the enormous issues of the past year. 
Ordinarily almost self-supporting in food production, 
Poland required importations in 1920, and socialistic 
experiments in state management of industries have 
added enormous confusion, the state railways hav- 
ing five times as many employees per kilometer as 
the roads of western Europe. No figures are avail- 
able regarding commercial activity. 

GERMANY is still unsettled and agitated. The 
1920 crops were not good. The printed money 
has demoralized the currency and foreign exchanges. 
The railroads are a severe burden on the public treas- 
ury. Coal is lacking, but some improvement has re- 
cently bee nshown the most hopeful sign of 1920. 

The overshadowing problem is naturally that of 
indemnities. No sane man would think of predict- 
ing anything with regard to this matter. 

Belgium and France show substantial progress in 
industrial recovery. Belgium, before the present de- 
pression, was back, on the whole, on a pre-war pro- 
duction basis. In France remarkable progress has 
been made. The first ten months of 1920 showed 
the value of imports to be 29,784,000 francs, as 

against 27,397,000,000 in 1919, and exports for the 
same period were 18,890,000,000, against 7,733,000,- 
000 in 1919. Production of coal is increasing. A 
new internal loan has recently been successfully 
floated, aggregating 50,000,000,000 francs. By the 
aid of this the government has been able to reduce its 
indebtedness to the Bank of France to such an ex- 
tent that the note circulation of this institution is 
lower than it was a year ago. 

Great Britain has passed through several grave 
disorders, notably the coal strike, the settlement of 
which was the most reassuring sign in the British 
industrial situation. At the close of 1919, the gov- 
ernment announced that the outstanding issue of 
exchequer currency notes, above cash reserves, would 
not be permitted to exceed 320,600,000 in the year 
1920, and that pledge was observed. The gold stock 
of the Bank of England on December 1, 1920, was 
124,991,291, against 91,790,369 on that date of 
1919. On December 1, 1920, the adverse balance 
in foreign trade had been reduced about $600,- 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. Chicago's building apathy continues 
here but there is a sign of improvement. The most 
encouraging harbinger of better days is the constant 
discussion of the great need for building. In this 
discussion, newspapers, bankers, contractors, home- 
owners, flatclwellers everybody, seems to be taking 
part. It seems logical to expect, out of all this fo- 
ment and discussion, a revival of building on an im- 
portant scale. 

Point is given to the need for homes and apart- 
ments by the battling back and forth between apart- 
ment owners and apartment dwellers. With the ap- 
proach of May 1 Chicago's chief moving day, the 
battle becomes more acute. Renters say that the cus- 
tomary rule which permits sixty days in which to 
decide whether the occupants desire to retain an 
apartment or give it up is no longer allowed, but that 
spot judgment and next to instant decision is now 
insisted upon and that apartments which go under 
new lease beginning May 1 are to be rented at even 
higher rates than now prevailing, although flat- 
dwellers have hoped that the peak had been reached 
and that moving day might witness some decline in 
rental values. 

To offset rent raising, the number of panaceas that 
are being offered is large. There has been the sug- 
gestion to make apartment buildings public utilities 



by special legislation and thus place them under the 
domain of the public utilities commission. Another 
plan, just now earning important headlines in the 
newspapers, is a plan to reassess apartment property 
valuations on the basis of revenue and thus increase 
the taxes of the landlords who are increasing their 

This plan meets with high favor with the apart- 
ment dwellers who having believed themselves 
gouged are anxious to see the gouge applied else- 
where, but the sophistry of the idea is being pointed 
out by less heated economists who explain that the 
suggestion really invites higher rents because it pro- 
vides a method for a profiteering landlord to find ab- 
solution for his greed and thus relieve his conscience 
of any load that might otherwise accrue. 

VERY naturally the landlords have their griev- 
ances, too, what with higher janitor services and 
more expensive upkeep, expensive decoration and all 
the et ceteras that go to cut the revenue of the apart- 
ment owner. Back and forth like a vehement con- 
test of battledore and shuttlecock the argument goes, 
with more buildings the only possible way out of 
the situation, as far as the best industrial thought 
in Chicago is concerned. 

Building permits continue to show no great 
preparation for apartment buildings, however, and 
the time is now getting so near the building season 
that if a building boom comes it will come with such 
a spurt as to unsteady conditions once more, just as 
they seem to have reached a fairly stable state. 

A permit of interest, however, is that issued this 
week for the new Federal Reserve Bank Building, 
already in course of construction at La Salle street 
and Jackson Boulevard. The permit explains that 
the building will have four underground floors, the 
largest number of sub-basement floors in any of Chi- 
cago's buildings. 

The building is to be 250 feet high. Because of 
the height of the main banking floor, the building 
will have only eighteen stories, but it will be almost 
as high as its next door neighbor, the Continental & 
Commercial Bank Building, which has twenty-one 

Among other building items of interest just now 
is the announcement that the Wrigley Building, Chi- 
cago's most conspicuous skyscraper will be finished 
ahead of schedule in spite of the delay incident to 
present day construction. The building was 
scheduled to have been completed by May 1, but the 
indications are that April 1 will see the structure 
finished, at least to a point where occupancy will be 
possible. As a matter of fact a board of directors of 
the Wrigley organization met in formal session in the 
building last week. The Wrigley Building was be- 

gun in March, 1920, and will cost when completed in 
the neighborhood of $3,000,000, which is a million 
dollars in excess of original estimates. 

THE labor situation in Chicago and the middle 
west is showing some improvement. Wage 
schedules have not been lowered, but a greater in- 
dividual efficiency is now noticeable in practically 
all building lines. Officials of a millwork cost bu- 
reau announce that 100 per cent, efficiency is now 
oeing received in the millwork industry and this tes- 
timony of better working morale has its echo in 
many other building lines. 

The lumber and materials situation is but slightly 
changed from a week ago. Lumber is in very slight 
demand as far as spot purchase is concerned, though 
inquiry is showing a gradual gain. Wholesalers and 
manufacturers take this added inquiry to mean that 
there are better days ahead in the industry and that 
spring building may cause an improvement in prices. 
Manufacturers now claim that lumber is the cheapest 
of all building materials and is the one factor in 
the building complex which has satisfactorily read- 
justed itself to normal prices and conditions. 

In materials, other than lumber, there have been 
some recent revisions. Wallboard, cement, plaster, 
sewer pipe, lime and hollow tile are items that have 
felt the shading of the readjustment period, reduc- 
tions having been made without particular regard 
to manufacturing costs with an idea of stimulating 

Some of these materials which enter into road 
construction as well as home building are expected 
to be favorably influenced by good roads building 
which is being discussed now with the idea of early 
activity. Illinois alone has sixty millions in bonds 
to be devoted to better roads as soon as construc- 
tions costs are slightly lower. 

Prices in lumber and materials are about as fol- 
lows in the Chicago market : 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. With eastern middlemen quoting off 
sheets with stock that is believed to have been placed 
in their hands by outside mills and weakness in the 
fir lumber market, building conditions suffered a 
slight setback on the week as a whole. 

While the quotations on sheet metal such as is 
used in building equipment was more in spots than 
of a general nature, the general market is of so 
peculiar a temperament that buying orders were 
checked down. It seems to be one of the weak- 
nesses of the present attempt to steady prices that 
as soon as confidence is restored in the rock-bottom 
price tendency of a certain commodity, immediately 
thereafter some minor agency hurls a value-trimming 



grenade and the situation is once more precipitated. 
This has been so repeatedly in fir lumber, and now 
it is happening in steel. 

Jobbers are directing that no more sheets be 
shipped by water owing to the moisture difficulty. 
The all-rail rate from Pittsburg is $1.66^ per hun- 
dred pounds, against $1.13 by rail to the seaboard 
and water to Puget Sound, to which is added insur- 
ance and wharfage which brings the total to $1.25. 
The conditioning required on arrival practically off- 
sets the difference, and jobbers are less inclined to 
take advantage of the theoretical rate by water. 
The Corporation price holds in all sales of pipe. 
Stocks are as near to normal as desired under the 
uncertain spring building commitments. Three- 
fourths and halves are now about normal at ware- 

Jobbers report collections fair both under die trade 
acceptance plan and open accounts, which is taken 
to forecast a brisk demand for building essentials. 

There is plenty of cement, roofing, plaster wall 
board and brick. So far as the Pacific coast sec- 
tion is concerned, the cement shortage of the past 
year is over. The four plants of the state are op- 
erating full time. 

Red cedar shingles have declined to the point 
where they are admittedly in direct competition with 
patent roofing, and jobbers in roofing report a de- 
crease in the demand. Shingles beginning with re- 
sumption of cutting on Feb. 1 are being packed 
on the "square" basis, twenty shingles deep on both 
ends, four bundles to the square. Quotations to the 
trade today are $2.15 for clears and $1.95 for stars. 

Conferences between officers of the Associated In- 
dustries, or the "American" or open-shop organiza- 
tion which comprises 95 per cent, of all employers 
in this territory and labor leaders during the week 
resulted in the announcement that building in this 
city can be done this season at 30 per cent less than 
last year. 

Master Builders announce that with the new low- 
er wage scale in the building trades effective this 
week that many building projects for Seattle, ap- 
proximating $35,000,000, can now be undertaken. 
Architects in summarizing the needs of Seattle point 
to several Class A business, office and apartment 
buildings, factory buildings, warehouses and cold 
storage properties. It is felt certain that with a sea- 
son's minimum wage established investments in the 
city will reach a total not approached since before 

1914. The Master Builders' Association includes 
66 leaders in this work in the city. On the new 
scale carpenters will get $6.40, building laborers 
$4.80, common labor $4, cement finishers $6.40. 
mortar mixers $5.60, hoisting engineers $6.40 to 
$7.20 and structural iron workers $7.20. These 
trades are the leading ones with which Master Build- 
ers have to deal. 

Fir lumber declined slightly, with common dimen- 
sion selling to the trade at $11. There are propor- 
tionate weak spots in vertical grain flooring, but 
other building sizes are steady. There is little east- 
ern enquiry. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON. Although there is still considerable 
irregularity in the general business situation in New 
England, the improved textile and general industrial 
situation here promotes the growth of confidence 
mentioned in recent reports. 

When you look around for signs that the business 
tide is beginning to rise, numerous bright spots come 
to your attention, especially in the textile and shoe 
and leather trades. These were the first to feel the 
lack of public interest last Fall and are the first to 
recover under a stimulated demand for new goods. 
In textiles, it required only belief that liquidation 
in prices of goods and raw materials had run its 
course to bring in new orders. The best opinion 
in the trade is that liquidation in cotton goods is 
nearing the end of the run. The revival, therefore, 
is believed to be genuine and not artificial or transi- 
tory. Although every branch of the cotton goods in- 
dustry is not yet involved, mills making ginghams, 
sheetings and the like are very active. For instance, 
one large distributing house states that its volume 
of bookings on spring business is the largest in its 
history. Reports that several mills are to begin a 
night shift to take care of incoming orders is a 
straw indicating the direction of the winds. 

Statistics of building and engineering operations 
in New England show that contracts awarded dur- 
ing the week ending Feb. 1st, 1921, amounted to 
$1,189,500 as compared with $2,144,000 for the cor- 
responding period in 1920; $233,000 in 1919; $2,- 
049,000 in 1918; $1,793,000 in 1917; $1,479,000 
in 1916 and $947,000 in 1915. 

The strike of the 30,000 building mechanics still 
holds up every building operation of note in Boston 
and vicinity. It is expected that a settlement will 
come before the end of next week. 


/ f 






NUMBER 2357 



The Noyes-Buick Building, Boston, Mass, 


THIS building is situated on Commonwealth 
Avenue, Boston, in the heart of the auto- 
mobile district. The basement and first floor 
cover an area of approximately 50,000 square feet 
each, and the floors above 25,000 square feet each. 

It is absolutely fireproof construction throughout 
of steel and reinforced concrete, with the exterior 
finish in Indiana Limestone. In the rear of the 
building are the tracks of the Boston & Albany 
Commonwealth Avenue on the front and streets on 
either side ; this arrangement, giving unobstructed 
light and ventilation on all sides of the building. 

The basement is entered through a large cov- 
ered court opening on to the rear street giving access 
not only to the basement itself, but to the two (2) 

30-foot automobile elevators that serve all floors of 
the building. This entire floor is used for the stor- 
age of machines, the receiving and delivery of new 
cars, the transformer room and the heating plant 
which is a duplicate system, burning oil. 

On the first floor, extending for a distance of 200 
feet along Commonwealth Avenue are two show 
rooms, one for cars and one for trucks with the 
main entrance and passenger elevator centered be- 
tween them. Directly back of the car show room 
is a room of 25,000 square feet utilized exclusively 
for the storage and distribution of parts. This room 
is completely equipped with steel shelving with re- 
ceiving and delivery rooms opening directly on the 
side street facilities for selling to the public who 

Copyright, 1921, The Architectural & Building Press (Inc.) 


enter the room from independent entrance, and also 
manager's office, cashier, etc. In the rear of the 
truck room is the general repair shop. This is an 
unusual department covering some 30,000 square 
feet directly serving not only from the outside, but 
by the two elevators that connect with the receiv- 
ing court below. It is directly lighted on two sides 
and is equipped with skylights overhead for at least 
50 per cent, of its area. Connected with the main 

readied through a large lobby that will be utilized 
for a general waiting room. In addition to the or- 
dinary arrangement of exterior telephones, all of 
these offices have an intercommunicating system 
with each other and with all parts of the building, 
and from the president's office, the entire organiza- 
tion can be reached and controlled. In addition to 
these offices, there is a large conference or dealer's 
room that is utilized for general meetings of the 



repair shop is a large machine shop and forge room 
besides the Superintendent's office, emergency room 
chauffeur's waiting room, and locker and toilet room 
for the mechanics. 

'TMlE second floor of the building is used for the 
offices and clerical work of the company This 
floor is reached not only by the central passenger 
elevator, but also by a large monumental marble 
staircase from the car show room below. Extend- 
ing along the entire front of the building are the 
executive offices of the company. These offices are 

different departments, and also can lie made the 
> headquarters for the different representatives that 
come to the building. There is also on this floor a 
special show room for the individual display of any 
particular machine or body when it is placed on pri 
vate exhibition for the dealers before going to the 
general public. On the rear of this floor, and lighted 
by northerly light are the general accounting room, 
order department, stenographers, chief accountant 
and comptroller. There is also a specially designed 
fireproof room with steel fittings throughout for 
general filing apparatus, and the balance of the floor 



is occupied by rest rooms for the men and women in 
the various departments throughout the building. 

The third, fourth and fifth floors are used ex- 
clusively for the storage of automobiles and trucks. 

The finish of the principal parts of the build- 
ing is elaborate. The two show rooms are finished 
in Travertine Stone from floor to ceiling with black 
marble base and mosaic floor. The ceilings are 
covered with ornamented and moulded members 
springing from central circular columns with orna- 

taken to establish the depth required and the na- 
ture of the foundations, that travelling through the 
center of the land was an old river bed and the 
borings showed in some instances that the bottom 
was from 40 to 50 feet below the street. In order 
to reach this level, two forms of construction were 
used to suit the varying condition. One, a concrete 
pile that could be driven where the condition of 
the ground permitted and where this proved imprac- 
tical, owing to the presence of rocks and boulders, 



mented caps ; all of this work in imitation Traver- 
tine. The staircases are of Tennessee marble. The 
rails and the large fireplaces in these rooms are of 
Indiana limestone. 

On the second floor, the main lobby and the presi- 
dent's office are paneled to the ceiling in American 
Walnut and the various executive offices are finished 
in mahogany, oak and chestnut. 

THE general construction of the building pre- 
sented many novel and interesting engineering 
features. It was found, when the borings were 

a system of concrete caissons were used. 1 hese cais- 
sons were circular in form and were gradually low- 
ered to the required depth, the earth and rocks 
being removed by hand from the interior as they 
slowly sank by gravity. As all of this work and 
the conditions surrounding it were unusually ex- 
pensive, it was most desirable that everything 
should be done that was possible to lighten the load 
on these foundations. After a thorough study of all 
the possibilities, it was finally decided to use a flat 
slab construction, and in order to decrease the 

(.Continued on page 219) 






The Legal Regulation of Standards of 
Architectural Practice 

By EMERY STANFORD HALL, Secretary and Treasurer of National Council of Architectural 

Registration Boards.* 

IT may be safely asserted that a majority of the 
members of the architectural profession stand 
to-day as a unit in favor of some form of pro- 
fessional regulation. At least a majority believe 
in the establishing of a minimum educational, ex- 
perience and character standard as a condition 
precedent to the use of the professional title of 
architect. But whether this standardization shall 
be promulgated and enforced under the police 
power of the State as a measure of protection of 
the life, health and safety of the public in the form 
of a license, or under the power of the state to 
establish educational measures of fitness in the 
form of a titular standard, there is much difference 
of opinion. 

The fundamental theory of the license form of 
police regulation is that protection of the public 
welfare can best be secured by the State, first as- 
suring itself of the expert knowledge of a certain 
designated class of its citizens and then depending 
on that class to act for the public's good. 

Titular registration is nothing more nor less than 
the establishment of an educational standard. It 
does not say to the public, "You must employ thus 
and such persons," but it does say to the public 
that if they elect to employ thus and such persons 
with the right to bear certain titles they will find 
these persons reasonably skilled in the fundamental 
principles of their special line of endeavor. 

RECAPITULATION. License standards are limited 
legally to mere knowledge of safety. Titular stand- 
ards have no legal limitation and may be made as 
high as the profession desires. License regulation 
prescribes that certain work must be done by a 
certain class. Titular registration lets any class do 
the work, but proves how much better and more 
efficiently work may be done by certain especially 
well qualified classes. License regulation affords a 
limited protection to the ignorant portion of the 
public Titular registration affords no such pro- 

*Extracts from paper read before the Illinois Society 
of Architects, January 18, 1921. 

tection. Therefore, titular registration should not be 
adopted in any State until that State has first pro- 
vided a comprehensive State building code to safe- 
guard the life, health and property of its citizens 
the unwise as well as the wise. Then every reason 
in favor of the license system of regulation will 
have been eliminated by providing for the benefits 
accruing out of this system in another way. With 
a comprehensive building code, which in the very 
nature of things will have to be more or less com- 
plicated and technical in interpretation, the public 
will find it necessary to retain competent profes- 
sional advice in the interests of expedition and 
economy, and for this purpose the competent archi- 
tect will be the most practical adviser. 

At the St. Louis meeting representatives of the 
various architectural registration boards, legislative 
committees of architectural societies in States hav- 
ing no registration laws, members of the board of 
directors of the American Institute of Architects, 
and guests, met and compared experiences in the 
enforcement of registration and license laws, and, 
in the matter of endeavor to secure legislation, 
seemed to be, from sentiments expressed from time 
to time, unanimous in favor of the titular form of 
architectural regulation in preference to the license 
form. Yet they took no definite action, due to the. 
fact that they believed that any pronunciamento on 
this subject should come officially from the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects. 

Facing the foregoing facts, the St. Louis meet- 
ing did the obvious thing organized the National 
Council of Architectural Registration Boards, and 
stated its purpose to be as follows : 

"Its object is to foster the enactment of uniform 
architectural laws, equality of standard in exam- 
inations of applicants for State registration or 
licensure, and the establishment and maintenance 
of reciprocal registration between States having 
registration laws." 
(National Council of Architectural Registration 

Boards, 3230 W. Monroe Street, Chicago, 111.) 


Standardization of Parts in House 



STANDARDIZATION as applied to building 
construction eliminates duplication of effort 
and saves valuable time and much money all 
along the line. 

Standardization permits manufacture on a quanti- 
ty basis and reduces machine costs, both at the fac- 
tory and at the site of erection thus freeing labor 
for more essential productivity. 

Standardization makes it possible to produce dur- 
ing the slack season thereby tending to prevent sea- 
sonal unemployment, decreasing labor turnover and 
facilitating prompt delivery of materials when 

Standardization reduces maintenance costs and 
makes repair easier. 

Standardization makes possible closer cooperation 
between architects and engineers and the men who 
produce, distribute, and install material and equip- 

Standardization assures a more uniform degree of 
safety during and after construction. 

Standardization increases efficiency and produc- 
tivity and makes for conservation of our human and 
natural resources. 

I wish to direct attention particularly to stand- 
ardization of parts in relation to the elevations of 
American standards of living and American stand- 
ards of building construction, and also as applied to 
the increased productivity of American industry. We 
have already heard about some of these factors, par- 
ticularly in the lumber industry in which through 
long established standardized sizes of parts, produc- 
tion proceeds all winter for work which will go on 
during the most active construction months of the 
year. Thus the working men in that industry are 
able to labor all the year round. 

The same thing applies in the production of mill- 
work. In this industry progressive manufacturers 
have so standardized their product that they can be 
preparing all winter for the construction season 
ahead. Thus we also have the materials when we 
need them. 

In the clay working industries a uniform national 
standard of size for brick has recently been adopted. 
When brick manufacturers, like the manufacturers 
of wall and floor tiles, burn their product in what 
are known as continuous kilns, the process may go 

"Extract from an address before the recent National Housing 
Conference in Bridgeport. 

on all winter with great conservation of fuel; and 
bricks of practically the same size will be available 

In the slate industry, for which I have been do- 
ing standardization work, we have recently so stand- 
ardized all the slabs and parts which go to make up 
enclosures, shower baths, stairways and other fea- 
tures for which structural slate is used, that on two 
small sheets of paper can now be shown the vari- 
ous but comparatively few parts which are required 
to make up over 130 fixtures of any size or com- 
bination likely to be desired. The workingmen in 
that industry who until now have had to go 2 and 3 
days a week, sometimes whole weeks, in the winter 
without employment, will hereafter be employed all 

Through standardization in size and thickness of 
roofing slate, vast quantities may now be produced 
in advance and stored on the "banks" ready for 
shipment as required. These are mentioned to show 
some of the effects of standardization on produc- 
tivity in the American building materials industry. 

When we consider standardization as applied to 
the structures themselves, we think of it either in 
connection with the construction of large develop- 
ments or of individual buildings, and it is the latter 
that will be briefly referred to without going into 
the more obvious economies of quantity production. 
In discussing the individual unit, we must take up the 
standardization of plan as parts, and the standardiza- 
tion of materials as parts. In considering materials 
we should draw upon the experience of architects and 
engineers and of technical experts in all of the indus- 
tries, and we should cooperate with them and with 
fire prevention experts and other authorities in de- 
termining acceptable standards to be followed with 
respect to each material. We should take advantage 
of every economy that we can while making the most 
appropriate use of every known good building ma- 

In doing this we, fortunately, can call upon some 
of the great organizations in this country, such as 
the National Fire Protection Association, The Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials, The Underwriters 
Laboratories, the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, The National Safety Council, and the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards. The U. S. Bureau of Stand- 
ards in performing a wonderful investigational serv- 
ice all the time. It is collaborating with all the 



others in research work that cannot fail to be of the 
greatest help. It has, however, limitations, chiefly 
financial, through lack of appreciative understand- 
ing of the great value of its work. Other fine or- 
ganizations have important work under way. One is 
the Society of Illuminating Engineers, another is the 
Bureau of Research of the American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineers at the Bureau of 
Mines at Pittsburgh. They are jointly conducting 
investigations on thermal conductivity, on insulation, 
on condensation, on air leakage and on almost every 
other factor which will assist in deciding upon the 
materials and methods for enclosure of our build- 
ings from the elements. 

But in all of the work referred to there is never 
enough emphasis laid upon the real economic prob- 
lems of the small house owner. 

Now it seems to me regarding this matter that 
we ought to take into consideration all these facts 
and assist in co-ordinating and humanizing this work. 
The National Housing Association itself would have 
a very distinct function to perform if it could, in 
doing this, formulate a set of standards for buildings 
for the working men of this country. Let this asso- 
ciation, if it will, appoint a committee on Standards 
of Construction for small houses for the American 
people and promulgate a standard section of a build- 
ing code with respect to these houses, separating 
them from all other kinds of building construction. 
Instead of the best technical thought of the country 
being devoted so exclusively to making good con- 
struction better, let more time be devoted to making 
poor construction good. The worker's house is the 
place to begin ; for, it certainly is in need of 
consideration throughout this country. 

One of the defects in building codes is that in 
some ways, we have been extravagant in the use of 
our good building materials, thus promoting poor 
construction where choice is permissible. Therefore, 
if we base all materials on safe practice and per- 
formance and formulate standards accordingly, we 
ought to be able to make very effective economies 
along the line of good construction and yet elimin- 
ate sub-standard construction almost everywhere. 

We must not, however, allow ourselves to border 
on an unsafe minimum of structural requirements, 
an unsafe minimum of thickness of materials to keep 
out the weather, and an unsafe minimum of pro- 
tection to the owners of homes against loss of life and 
property by fire. 

Now in regard to standards in plan, arrangement, 
light, sanitation and other factors affecting the ameni- 
ties of life; under the guidance of the Secretary of 
the National Housing Association, a committee of 
architects, engineers, housing specialists and others 

worked out an excellent set of skeleton standards 
with the Department of Labor for War Housing 
Construction. Later the U. S. Housing Corporation 
developed a valuable series of standard specifications 
and details for the construction of workingmen's 
homes. That was in the early stages of the war, and 
later all of these standards were referred to the War 
Industries Board. This body, with which it was 
my privilege to serve as chief of the Materials In- 
formation Section of the U. S. Housing Corpora- 
tion, took up the standardization of one factor and 
one material after another and issued various stand- 
ards as Government war measure. 

It was still engaged on that work when the Armis- 
tice was signed ; but in spite of that fact it completed 
stime of its unfinished standards, which some clay will 
become available in a publication for very limited dis- 
tribution. Among these are standard specifications 
and details for carpentery and millwork, lighting fix- 
tures, hardware and other material. They were used 
in ordering materials required by the Government in 
its housing and war construction. With these in 
the hands of the industries of the country we could 
order by telegraph anywhere and get exactly what 
we wanted. It was a very simple procedure. 

My idea is that the National Housing Association 
might take up these standards and, through the new 
committee proposed, promulgate them and formulate 
the other standards which I have suggested. This 
should be undertaken as a separate small house prob- 
lem distinct from all usual building construction as 
embodied in the building codes of our cities, and in 
new codes which are being prepared by many of our 
states. The National Housing Association should, 
it seems to me, do these things; namely, work on 
standardization of parts, and on the development 
of types for workingmen's houses and should father 
a movement to co-ordinate all investigational activi- 
ties affecting the construction of small houses, to in- 
sure permanency, lessen the cost of upkeep and 
make for the safety, health and comfort of all oc- 

Let us take the lead in reducing upkeep, insur- 
ance and other preventable charges. If we can stop 
the everlasting annual drain on the occupant's pocket 
book caused by improper construction of his build- 
ing in the beginning, we will in the end bring about 
a real elevation of American standards of living. 

By improving the standards of building construc- 
tion in general, and through standardization of parts 
helping to make for greater productivity in American 
industry, we will enable the workingmen of the coun- 
try to have contentment and better health, to put in 
more hours and get more money. 


Color in Architecture 

ONLY of late years has it been conceded that 
the duty of architects is to give the best pos- 
sible combination of form and color, and 
that the completes! form of architecture is that 
which affords examples of such a combination. 
For the last three centuries architects have shown 
an increasing disregard of, and almost a contempt 
for, color to such a degree that people till recently 
were taught to believe that purity of style and ab- 
sence of color always went together, and that it 
was only a vulgar and uneducated eye which saw 
the greatest evidence of good design and matured 
thought in the harmonious combination of color 
and form. Sculptors encouraged this feeling by 
deprecating the application of color to their work 
even when it was purely architectural. Both archi- 
tects and sculptors found it convenient, apparently, 
to disencumber themselves of one-half of the re- 
sponsibilities of their calling, and so escaped all 
obligation of studying the laws of color. Painters 
ceased to regard wall-painting as their legitimate 
work, and have completely sunk into the habit of 
treating only small subjects in a small way. 

Those who argue against the application of color 
to architecture do so without the authority their 
ancestors would have given them. Though there 
has been much difference of opinion as to the ex- 
tent to which color was applied by the Egyptians, 
the Greeks, and the Romans, there has been none 
as to the fact that some introduction of color was 
- well-nigh invariable in their work. Owen Jones' 
"Apology for the Coloring of the Greek Court" at 
the Crystal Palace contains in a small compass suf- 
ficient evidence to show how strong is the ground 
of those who maintain the necessity of color in 
classic buildings ; the report drawn up by the Com- 
mittee of the Institute of British Architects on the 
coloring of the Elgin marbles, with Professor Far- 
aday's analysis of portions of the coatings of 
marbles brought from several ancient buildings in 
Athens, all make it perfectly clear that color was 
extensively and generally applied. Professor 
Semper of Berlin proves that the Syrians, Per- 
sians, Egyptians, Chinese, Indians, Jews, Phoeni- 
cians, and Greeks employed color in their archi- 
tecture and sculpture. There is no country which 
has been in any way remarkable for its architec- 
tural monuments in which the necessity of the com- 
bination has been ignored or forgotten. 

Color was used in all the early buildings of 

'From a lecture delivered at the Caxton Hall, Westminster, under 
the auspices of the International College of Chromatics, by Mr. W. G. 
Raffe, A.R.C.A. (London). F.R.S.A. (Art Director of the Northern 
Polytechnic Institute, London). 

nearly all the races of mankind with some plan or 
system depending on the actual knowledge or in- 
herited symbolism possessed by the priests and 
craftsmen who planned and made the temples and 
palaces. Sometimes the use of color was based 
on the esoteric mysteries of the time, and skilfully 
utilized in the ceremonial magic of the temple rites, 
or again blazoned with deep significance on walls 
and on the figures of the gods themselves. There 
is consequently much of interest in the study of 
the ancient employment of color, even if we do 
not always fully appreciate the real meaning of the 
colors, or if, on the other hand, we attribute knowl- 
edge of color where there was in reality no more 
real understanding than many modern users of 
color possess. 

In Egypt the introduction of colors bright and 
brilliant was everywhere, at almost all times, alike 
for general and religious use. In the temples, in 
which the understanding of color by any race will 
be shown if it is shown anywhere at all, the Egyp- 
tian artificer covered all manner of surfaces with 
pigments. The palaces of Babylon and of Chaldea 
were literally dependent for their beauty on applied 
color, whether of metal or textile, enamel or pig- 
ment painted on a plaster surface. It is doubtful 
whether the art of color decoration began in Egypt 
or in Babylonia, but certainly there is no question 
as to where we find the greatest merit. Egypt has 
the most wonderful color in the world, the under- 
standing of which came from a high culture allied 
with a magnificent conception of religion and of 
the universe. This is marked even in the earliest 
dynasties of which we have any knowledge, and 
the decadence of their art follows a slow decline in 
this respect from any other phase of art in the 
world. The one essential and intransient difference 
between Egyptian and Greek art was tha: the pan- 
theism of the Egyptians, being highly esoteric and 
taught by symbolism to the masses, war, largely 
rendered by means of a mixed animal ani human 
pictograph, whereas the Greek rendering of their 
understanding of the same truth was rendered 
solely by human types idealized to the summit of 
their power. All these nations used color as the 
most powerful aid their art could obtain, no 
thought of naturalism or realism such as ;s current 
today ever entering their heads. They were mas- 
ters of their art, not victims of technique. 

Egyptian architecture was developed under the 
stress of a great building epoch, just as later the 
mediaeval churches were built in such a high- 
strung period, and in our own day American archi- 
tecture, in which we can see the architecture of the 



future already forming, is being produced under 
such another period of activity. 

There were two great and distinct orders of 
architectural colorists the constructional and deco- 
rative. The first are those who built their walls 
partially or altogether with colored materials, the 
second, those who so built them that color might 
afterwards be added, and with a special view to its 
introduction. The work of the constructional 
school is divided into classes: (1) Those in which 
the colored materials were part of the substance of 
the walls and necessary for the stability of the 
whole fabric; and (2) those in which the walls 
were covered with decoration, such as mosaic, or 
tiles or thin veneers of marble, which had nothing 
whatever to do with their structional requirements. 
The first class was that which was, on the whole, 
both the best and the most frequently adopted. The 
few examples which we see in this country, and, in- 
deed, generally throughout the north of Europe, 
belong to it. The poverty of England in colored 
stones or marbles will account sufficiently for the 
comparative rarity of the examples we can adduce. 
Among them are many of the Northamptonshire 
churches, which are built with horizontal bands or 
courses of dark-red and light stones used alter- 
nately, in other districts we find courses of stone and 
flint alternately. In others flint and stone are used, 
but with inferior effect, in regular chequer-work 
over the whole surface of the wall. Our red-brick 
buildings are constantly diapered with patterns in 
black. The interior of our churches, when not 
painted, were usually left with the natural color of 
all the stone work whether wrought or not vis- 
ible on the interior, an arrangement which, though 
rough and rugged in character, certainly gives a 
great amount of natural color in a low key, but in- 
finitely more agreeable to the eye than the cold ex- 
panse of plaster generally visible in new public 
buildings. Finally, throughout the thirteenth cen- 
tury the introduction of polished marble columns, 
of a color much darker than that of the materials 
of the walls, is one of the most marked features in 
all the best English work. Every one of these ar- 
rangements is noticeable as having been introduced 
intentionally and with a sole view to variety of 

Decorative painting was almost universally 
adopted at the same time. In this application of 
color all countries agree, and there is hardly room 
to doubt the beauty and expediency of the practice. 

In discussing the all-important question of the 
materials to be used, there are two principal means 
of decoration which can be achieved by utilizing our 
materials. One is the method of equalizing the 
tones and the distribution of color so carefully that 
the whole building, whether exterior or interior, is 

full of color rather than of colors ; that they are so 
adjusted that none can assert itself beyond any 
other. This kind of decoration is desirable in all 
places where no particular function of state or wor- 
ship and so forth are to be exercised. In a ball- 
room it is not desirable to emphasize any part of the 
room chromatically above any other part, except 
as regards the importance of the various features 
as architectural members. The other type of 
chromatic arrangement is the principle often found 
in a close approach to any natural object, and one 
which was largely favored by the Greeks. It is the 
principle of subordination of the many to the few 
parts or places. The Romans often fell over them- 
selves in trying to combine these two principles. 
They wanted to emphasize the majesty of the em- 
peror and at the same time desired an unsurpassable 
magnificence in their surroundings from floor to 
roof. In despair they commenced to emphasize 
form in the proportion and features of buildings 
and color only in relatively minor accesssories, often 
the movable furniture of palaces. Unable to handle 
successfully architectural polychromy, like so many 
moderns, they took refuge in whiteness. 

There seems to be a curious analogy in the as- 
cending scale of architectural color. The lowest 
are those of the earth, the natural colors of the com- 
mon building materials. When water is brought to 
the aid of the colorist, he selects from these and 
obtains more vivid and pure color. When later he 
takes them to the test of fire, color becomes more 
subtle, translucent, and mysterious, while the air 
has always been regarded by artists as an improv- 
ing hand at work on the crudities of man, blending 
and softening. To venture a prophecy, it is likely 
that the color of architecture in future will be arti- 
ficially obtained by fire, even as the colors of the 
most beautiful marble were obtained by fire, even 
as the colors of the most beautiful marble were ob- 
tained by the natural fires in bygone ages. The 
finest color that we have in architecture of an 
artistic character, apart from the natural colors, are 
those in mosaics, stained glass, and colored terra 
cotta, all of which are subjected to fire and have 
thus attained more permanence. 

The discoveries of Schliemann at Hissarlik 
showed that among other remarkable methods of 
ancient building was the practice of vitrifying the 
walls after erection. And he put forward the idea 
that the walls had been built of unburned clay and 
then vitrified by the subsequent lighting of huge 
fires on both sides at once. The interest for us lies 
in the transformation of a singularly perishable 
material into an almost imperishable one. We have 
today newer and different modes of obtaining great 
local heat without resorting to such daring methods 
as lighting huge fires not under our control. If we 



can weld a ship or an aeroplane together with in- 
tense local heat, why cannot we weld the exterior of 
a building together, and thus produce at once a 
magnificent ornamentation and a practically im- 
perishable structure? There seems no reason why 
iron and glass should not be used structurally to- 
gether, to the exclusion of all other material. Glass 
has not hitherto been used structurally, why should 
not scientific research again reveal the secret of 
malleable glass which the ancients possessed, and 
so to give us a larger coefficient of expansion to suit 
with the iron and steel the varying temperatures of 
climate. Enamel can be persuaded to remain on 
iron plates for advertising; there is no reason it 
should not be used for architecture, either on iron 
or the more traditional brick. Electric and acety- 
lene welding have reached such a pitch of perfection 

that temperatures beyond imagination can be 
reached, under which not only glass, but the bricks 
themselves would run like water. It is possible now 
to bind the joints together with a vitreous cement 
instead of one made of lime, and if the bricks are 
individually enameled the entire surface can be 
made of shining glass. Even over concrete, if suit- 
ably mixed and well cured, some such process as 
this should be possible. Color over another material 
would be almost necesarily opaque, but again if a 
tempered glass were used in place of concrete and 
in a similar mode of construction, over a webbing 
of finely reticulated steel, a translucent effect could 
be got that would make the city built of such struc- 
tures a veritable wonder of color in glowing form 
at night. 



Organized Labor Enters the Field 
of General Contracting 

ORGANIZED labor has entered the field of gen- 
eral contracting in Boston. The Building 
Trades Unions' Construction and Housing Council 
was recently equipped with a charter, has under- 
taken and completed several jobs, and is going ahead 
on more of them. 

The Council is incorporated and assumes the le- 
gal responsibilities of a corporation. Since unions 
generally are not incorporated, no paid union offi- 
cial can hold office in the council, which is made up 
of the men in the construction industry who earn 
their living with their hands and tools. 

The corporation is capitalized at 100.000, divided 
into shares of $10 each. No shareholder can buy 
more than ten shares. There are nearly 1,000 sub- 
scribers already. More money can be raised easily, 
the leaders say, because there are 42,000 union men 
in the building trades whose thirty-three locals are 
represented in the Council. Besides these, there are 
50.000 other union men affiliated with labor 
organizations in greater Boston. 

A co-operative bank, the leaders say, will be or- 
ganized. This institution will finance the building 
of homes for members or outsiders. Since a state 
bank may lend about 80 per cent, of the value of 
real estate, and the co-operative scheme of building 
makes it possible to build much cheaper than under 
the old methods, this 80 per cent, loan will go quite 
a ways toward covering the total cost of the job. 
The bank takes the first mortgage. The owner puts 
money into the house. The Council will then take 
a second mortgage for the difference between the 
cost and the loan obtained from the bank. This is 
plus the owner's cash on hand. This will ease fi- 
nancing to such an extent that a stimulation of the 
building of homes among workmen is confidently 

MATERIALS will be bought on the co-operative 
basis. The brick yard, gravel pit, lumber 
yards, and all other sources of materials which can 
be successfully financed by the Council will be run 

Since no paid union officials are connected in any 
way with the Council, there will be no possibility 
of a strike on the job, nor any lockout. Injunction 

proceedings brought against a labor unior, or unions, 
will not involve the Council's workmen. 

A prospective job is handled rather simply and 
quite logically. The Council discusses the job, and 
at this discussion there is a mason, a carpenter, a 
bricklayer, a plumber and the other laborers and 
craftsmen of the bulding trades. There is also an 
architect present. He works for the Council. Each 
craftsman is asked to estimate his part of the work, 
this is summed up, passed upon by a final authority, 
and a bid submitted. If the Council gets the job, 
one of the members takes general charge of the 
work until it is finished. During the work, the 
general foreman is in constant touch with the owner, 
and any changes he may desire to make are per- 

The first house was undertaken and built be- 
fore the Council had actually been wholly or ef- 
fectively organized, yet that house was finished in 
about three weeks, and at a cost decidedly below 
what the owner would have had to pay otherwise. 

This achievement on the part of organized labor 
in Boston is a most encouraging sign of what the 
word co-operation really means when it is put to 
actual practice. There has been a great deal of 
talk recently regarding co-operation conferences, 
conventions but here is a group of men who have 
actually put the word to work, and who are build- 
ing houses and are steadily putting up more of them, 
at costs lower than could otherwise be achieved. 

THE interesting part of it, of course, is that the 
movement is entirely backed, and promoted, 
and managed by working men. Few, if any of 
them, were so much as familiar with accounting, 
finance, and the great mass of office routine which 
is necessary in the administration of such an or- 
ganization. A number of the leaders associated with 
the movement are going to the Trade Union College 
in Boston, where they are taking courses in the va- 
rious matters which enter into the administration 
of the Council. They have received help, and are 
receiving it, from Harvard University and from 
Boston lawyers. They gratefully acknowledge the 
generous help accorded them by these lawyers at 
the beginning of the Council's life. Members of 
the Council are also taking courses in banking, 
architecture, and accounting at the Trade Union 



St. Andrew's Church, Staten Island 

I See Reproduction of Original Drawing by O. E. Bggcrs on Opposite Page) 

rHE sketch shown, done by Mr. Eygers, represents a 
structure in its two hundred and fourteenth year of 
existence. In 1908, upon the completion of its two- 
hundredth anniversary, a tablet was placed upon its wall to 
commemorate the fact that it has held its own since the days 
when Queen Anne gave it the royal charter under which it 
was established. 

Romance has surrounded this quaint parish since long be- 
fore Revolutionary days and it has done its share in making 
the history of the East. Today St. Andrew's is one of the 
show places of Staten Island. It is a modest structure of old 
gray stone and lies off the beaten path. Yet visitors are pos- 
sessed with a feeling of awe as they look upon the dimmed 
legends of stones that have marked graves for two centuries 
and picture to themselves the fierce fight between the Ameri- 
cans and British when this church gave protection to each 
army in turn. 

From its quiet graveyard one may look across the swampy 
fields almost to Fresh Kills, from which the American sol- 
diers advanced when they charged against the British and 
made them seek shelter inside St. Andrew's. 

In October, 1776, so the story goes, the Americans under 
Gen. Hugh Mercer crossed from Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 
to attack the British troops, stationed in Richmond, and pur- 
sued them to the church to which they retreated. The Ameri- 
cans stormed the building, shooting until every window pane 
was shattered and then threw stones to conserve ammunition. 
At this, a soldier came to the door and stated that the troops 
within were ready to surrender, offering the explanation that 
the church was being used as a British hospital, and that 
wounded and suffering men lay within. 

During the Revolution, when the British were in posses- 
sion of the island, services were suspended in all its churches 
except this. St. Andrew's was twice partly destroyed by fire, 
but portions have withstood the ravages of two centuries. In 
the Metropolitan Museum, New York, there is treasured a 
silver communion service which Queen Anne gave the 
church when the charter was granted. 


THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT Serlti of Early Amiruan Architittar, 







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VOL. CX1X, No. 2357 


FEBRUARY 23, 1921 





FKBRUARY 23, 1921 




allc^" fr--^^ 


The Noyes-Buick Building 

Gow Piers and Cellular Flat Slab Floors Selected as Best and Most 

Economical Design 

By HENRY F. BRYANT, Engineer 

THE Noyes-Buick building on Commonwealth 
Avenue, Boston, is a reinforced concrete, five- 
story structure, with stone exterior trim and 
non-burnable interior finish. This building pre- 
sents two unusual structural features of special in- 
terest, namely, the foundations and the floor de- 

The area cov- 
ered by the 
structure was 
originally a tidal 
peat bog bor- 
dering on the 
Charles River 
and having _ ir- 
regular depths 
of from 2 to 45 
ft. The street 
front had been 
filled to nearly 
20 ft. above the 
surface of the 
bog and the 
earth slopes, both 
above and below 
the bog, had en- 
troached on the 
land about 30 ft. 

This condition required the use of several types 
of foundations for the 120 columns which carry 
the building. Foundation loads per column range 
from 100 to 500 tons per sq. ft. unit load on the 
underlying sand and gravel. A portion of the front 

columns on coarse gravel was permitted a load of 
6 tons per sq. ft. Column loadings were materially 
reduced by adopting a cellular type of flat slab 
floors which reduced the dead load below that of 
the usual solid flat slab by about 15 per cent. This 
was an important factor in the economical design of 

the foundations. 
The majority 
of the founda- 
tion piers were 
of the type 
largely i n t r o - 
duced and exe- 
cuted by Lt.-Col. 
Charles R. Gow 
and generally 
known as Gow 
piers. They were 
put down in 
open excavation 
by using tele- 
scoping steel cyl- 
inders about 60 
in. long, differ- 
ing 2 in. in dia- 
meter. These 
were pushed or 
hammered down 
along with the hand excavation. Near the bot- 
tom, in peat or other favorable soil, the last 
two feet was chambered out to the full size of foot- 
ing and the entire tube filled with concrete, the 
cylinders being withdrawn during filling. The re- 




suit is a cylindrical pier on a concrete bell, the for- 
mer tapering from minimum size at the bo.ttom to 
a diameter about 12 in. larger at the top of a 
30 ft. pier. 

For economical reasons, it was decided to use 
16 in. concrete cast-in-place piles for the three front 
column rows and these were put down by the New 
England Foundation Company in the form of Sim- 
plex piles. The piles 
were figured to carry 25 
to 30 tons each. In or- 
der to carry that load, 
they were driven from 
12 to 15 ft. into the sand 
and gravel bearing soil 
on the principle that one 
square foot of friction 
surface will safely sup- 
port 1,000 Ibs. The Man- 
nesman steel tube forty 
feet long was too short 
for many of the piles and 


required removable ex- 
tensions in order to meet 
the requirements. 

Driving was done with a 3600 Ib. hammer, giv- 
ing a total penetration of from 1 to 3 in. for the 
last eight blows under a constant drop of 10 ft. 
Pile No. 11, having a penetration of 1J^ in. for 
the last eight blows and driven approximately 10 ft. 
into bottom, was tested. This test showed a per- 

N07ES '. Foundation Piers Proportioned for rnax Stress, 
in Shaft 5OO *p.s f. 

Hax.iopdon$c>il STpns, Concrete f'ers 
wax cap. 30 Tons. each. 

manent settlement of 0.03 ft. under a three-day ap- 
plication of 55 tons. A load of 60 tons increased 
the settlement to a permanent set of 0.053 ft. As 
a factor of safety of 2 was sought, the test was 
satisfactory and appeared to be in accord with the 
principle previously mentioned. 

In attempting to drive the steel casing for the 
piles under the street piers, great difficulty was 

found in getting them 
down through the gravel 
fill and shallow com- 
pressed peat remaining 

It became impossible 
to penetrate into bearing 
soil to any depth regard- 
less of ruined tubes and 
apparatus and recourse 
'was again had to open- 
top caissons. These were 
made of concrete 8 in. 
thick cast in place and 
sunk by gravity or by 


Q' V ' IZ' 24' 36' 43' 



jacking down. These 

caissons were eight feet or more in diameter and 
were chambered out but very little at the 
bottom because of the shallow depth of peat. 
They were generally of sufficient carrying capacity 
to permit filling with earth instead of concrete, and 
were floored over at basement 'evel to secure a plat- 
form on which to start the concrete columns. 

Examination of the foundation plan will show that 
under small portions of the external walls and boiler 
room continuous longitudinal footings at shallow 
depths were used. In doing this, considerable care 
was exercised in making the transition from 
one type of construction to the next. To 
carry the basement floor loads, a dug pier 
or concrete pile was placed in the center of 
each bay since the underlying earth proved 
too soft to be of use. 

In this unusual combination of deep and 
shallow foundations the results obtained 
show the usual economy of using lower 
priced soft land at the expense of additional 
construction costs which, if properly han- 
dled, should be much less than the discount 
ordinarily received on the land because of its 
foundation difficulties. 

The building covers about 52,000 sq. ft. of 
ground area. The front section consists of 
five stories and basement with an area of 
25,000 sq. ft. per floor. 

Except where the outside ramp with its 
heavy loads is carried by beams and girders 
as at C, or a one-way ribbed section suspend- 
ed from overhead trusses as at B, the entire 
first floor is a cellular flat slab design. 




-M-40/o i 


The roof of the two-story rear section is entirely 
a one-way ribbed type which, under actual roof load 
conditions, shows an economy over flat slab. 

Each floor of the multiple story section, as well as 
the roof, was cellular flat slab construction with the 
exception of the ceiling of show room' and office 
vestibule. In these cases flaring column heads were 
eliminated for architectural reasons. 

A typical interior panel was 22 ft. square with a 
5-ft. capital and a * 

column head 9 ft. 4 
in. square. The 
floor thickness was 

10 in. without drop 
panels, and includ- 
ing 2 in. over the 
tops of the cells. 
In the work shop, 
an additional thick- 
ness of one inch 
was used, making 

11 in. in all. This 
extra thickness was 
intended as insur- 
ance against punc- 
ture by heavy 
blows, or from sim- 
ilar unusual condi- 

The cellular slabs 
were obtained by 
the use of steel 
dome forms 

ff' 12' 



r o *VT 




in. square and 8 in. high placed on 26% in. centers 
both ways. When forms were withdrawn, beams 5^4 
in. wide and running both ways were left, giving a 
checkerboard or wafflle-like appearance to the ceiling. 
Reinforcement, as shown in the accompanying 
drawing of typical floor slabs, consisted of rods in 
the bottom of the beams in both directions, bent up 
over supports and supplemented by extra bars in the 
column heads. 

One of the drawings gives the moments as figured 
for a typical interior bay under the provisions of the 
Boston law. Under this building law, the strength 
requirements were for 150 Ibs. per sq. ft. less a re- 
duction of 25 per cent, for slabs exceeding 300 sq. ft. 
or a net live load of 112^ Ibs. per sq. ft. The law 
permits a depth of fire protection below the steel of 
% in. in the solid slab and \ l / 2 in. in the ribs. This 
gives a value of d as 7.88 in. in computing values. 
Steel dome forms were purchased from The Trus- 

con Steel Com- 
pany, Youngstown, 
Ohio, under a 
guarantee against 
patent infringe- 
ments. They are 
made of No. 16 
gauge metal, hot 
pressed to shape 
and sheared to give 
a one inch marginal 
flange. Although 
they were used 
from 5 to 10 times 
each on completion 
they were substan- 
tially as good as 
when new and were 
ready for resale. 

As required by the 
code the weight of 
a 9}4-in. solid floor 
would have been 
115 Ibs. per sq. ft, 


pin iiii iMiiiHii 


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n N. nrinrinfirinn 
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, I i ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii i i ii ii ii n n u u it n i f I 
-~i i n n n n n ii M H n it i i u ii n mi u ii ic ii i r- 





whereas the weight of this cellular type was used in 
the computations as 20 Ibs., or over 30 per cent. less. 




ledgers % in. below the top, nailed on both sides 
with double headed removable nails were used, and 
received % in. x 8 in. cross pieces on 26)4 m - cen- 
ters. In case the metal stuck from being left in 
place too long, it was removed by a lever or cant 
hook engaging y^ in. holes midway of the sides. 

The best information indicates that after the first 
set of forms was put up, the cost of erection fell to 
a figure not exceeding that of the usual flat slab, 
whereas the use of the domes did not exceed one 
cent per sq. ft. This is less than the cost of the 
corresponding lumber in wood forms. 

In this design as worked out on Joint Committee 
or Boston methods, the limiting feature appears to 
be the negative compression in the rib of the mid- 

On the columns and footings the figured load was 
over 15 per cent. less. The steel saving was directly 
proportional to the total floor loads or about 15 
per cent, and the concrete saving was the same as 
the saving in weight. 

Naturally the adoption of this design depended on 
the cost of the forms as compared with those for 
ordinary slabs. The savings in concrete and steel 
ran into large figures and, if the form costs were 
not much greater, the plan must be used. Consider- 
able study was, therefore, given to details of the 
form work with the results shown on the accompany- 
ing cuts. 

To permit of rapid removal and re-use of the 
domes, it was arranged to withdraw them within 
30 hours after they were poured, leaving the posts 
and stringers under the beams for the usual time. 
Joists, 4 in. x 4 in., planed on top with 2 in. x % in. 



section with possible excessive shear at the plinth. 
Both these matters can be met by using tapered dome 
forms, but they were not required in this case. 

(Continued on page 214) 


Forms have been removed 


Creosoted Wood-Block Factory Floors 

Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of 

Mechanical Engineers 


THE use of creosoted wood blocks for factory 
floors has been so extensive during the past 
few years that it is hardly necessary to go 
into details in regard to the advantages of this type 
of flooring. The splendid way in which this mate- 
rial withstood the extreme service to which it was 
subjected in countless munition and shell plants dur- 
ing the war helped to elevate it to its true rank. 
Most engineers and architects have come in contact 
with this material at first hand, so that this paper 
will be confined to a discussion of : 

(a) The material used 

(b) The problems encountered 

(c) The field covered. 
Wood floors have 

many advantages over 
all other kinds they 
are comfortable under 
foot, resilient and do 
not radiate heat or con- 
duct cold. Wood in the 
form of planks or 
matched flooring is 
not, however, adaptable 
for heavy shop pur- 
poses as it disintegrates 
under heavy traffic and 
the abuse incidental to 
shop practice. It is also 
unsanitary and adds to 
the fire risk after dis- 
integration commences. 
Creosoted wood blocks, 
on the other hand, if 

properly installed, have all of the advantages cited 
above, without the disadvantages, as they are practi- 
cally wear-proof and are very fire-resistant when 
placed upon concrete. 

Southern yellow pine has been used almost entirely 
for. this work, except on the West Coast, where 
Douglas fir and tamarack is used. Long-leaf pine 
is usually specified, but short-leaf pine is also adapt- 
able for the work. The lumber shtmld be thoroughly 
air-seasoned before being cut into blocks, and then 
should be given a preservative treatment with coal- 
tar creosote oil to preserve the wood from decay. 
Hard woods, such as gum, beech, and maple, can 

Chief Engineer, The Jennison-Wright Company. 


be used, but they are not favored on account of the 
difficulty in properly seasoning the lumber and the 
tendency for the blocks to warp and check after they 
are cut. The coniferous woods are more homo- 
geneous in grain and texture and are consequently 
more adaptable. Soft wood compacts under service 
and consequently it is just as serviceable as hard 
wood, and has the advantage of not becoming slip- 
pery under traffic. 

Creosoted wood-block factory flooring is a logical 
development from street paving, but in this develop- 
ment a great many mistakes have been made due to 
misunderstanding of the problems involved. As a 
general rule the problems are just the reverse of 

those in street paving. 
A great many failures 
in creosoted wood- 
block flooring in the 
past have been due en- 
tirely to improper 
methods of treatment 
and installation of the 
blocks. Occasional fail- 
ures still occur, due to 
lack of understanding, 
by those in charge of 
the work, of the prob- 
lems involved. 

It should be under- 
stood in the beginning 
that factory flooring 
with creosoted wood 
blocks cannot be group- 
ed under one general 

heading and specification. The conditions under 
which the floor is to 

be studied and the specifications made to 
suit. Creosoted wood blocks can be laid to 

be used must first 
specifications made 
blocks can be laid 
meet practically all factory conditions if the con- 
ditions are first properly analyzed. The real reason 
for the most of the trouble encountered with this 
type of flooring is the fact that wood expands and 
contracts with various conditions of the atmosphere 
and the moisture content of the blocks. It is there- 
fore necessary to lay the individual blocks in such 
a way as to allow for this change in volume, which 
in extreme cases may be as much as 5 per cent. The 
individual units in the floor must be bound tightly 



in place with a binder which will allow this expan- 
sion and contraction and which will exclude water 
from the underside of the floor. As long as the 
blocks are held tightly and firmly in place and a 
smooth surface is maintained the floor will wear 
almost indefinitely, but as soon as the blocks become 
loose and the surface becomes rough they will break 
up into sticks very quickly. 

The three most essential requisites for success are : 


(a) Thoroughly air-seasoned lumber 

(b) A smooth, solid foundation base 

(c) A waterproof and elastic binder to hold the 
units in place. 

In the majority of cases factory floors are dry most 
of the time ; consequently, the lumber should be 
thoroughly seasoned, in order to keep the shrinkage 
to the minimum. Blocks cut from green or semi- 
dry lumber will 
shrink in volume 
to such an ex- 
tent that they 
will often have 
to be taken up 
and relaid. If it 
is possible to do 
so, it is advisable 
to use a concrete 
base for the 
installation o f 

Note how the grooves permit the bitu- 
minous filler to penetrate the full depth 
of the joints on all sides when the blocks 
are laid up tightly together, thus binding 
the individual units into a compact 
monolithic surface. 

If plain rectangular blocks are used and 
laid up closely together, it Is almost im- 
possible to get the filler between the 
blocks in sufficient quantity to be of any 
real value. 

The success of any wood block floor 
depends upon the rigidity of the indi- 
vidual blocks. If the blocks remain tight 
and firm they will wear indefinitely. If 
they become loose under wear and tear 
they will disintegrate rapidly. Hence 
the necessity of getting the filler between 
the blocks. 

these floors. The 

base should be strong enough to carry the entire 
load and should be finished smooth and level so that 
it will not be necessary to use a cushion between 
the concrete and the blocks in order to secure a level 
floor and uniform bearing for the individual units. 
The use of a sand cushion between the blocks and 
the concrete, which was almost universally used a 
few years ago, was largely accountable for a great 
many of the failures. Sand shifts easily under traf- 
fic and heavy loading and also affords pockets for 
the collection of moisture under the floor. Wherever 
a cushion is necessary between the concrete and the 
blocks, it is advisable either to use a mixture of port- 
land cement and sand or a bituminous mastic. The 

latter is preferable in a great many cases on account 
of being both waterproof and elastic. The sole 
functions of a cushion should be to level up the 
inequalities of the base and, in the case of the bitu- 
minous cushion, to furnish a waterproofing mem- 
brane on the underside of the floor. It is standard 
practice today to lay the blocks directly upon a 
smoothly finished concrete base without any cushion 
whatsoever. It is also customary to give the base a 

thin, even coat- 
ing of coal-tar 
pitch before i n - 
stalling the 
blocks, so that 
the underside of 
the blocks may 
b e thoroughly 
sealed and made 

The elimina- 
tion of cushions 
and the use of a 

successful waterproof binder in the joints of the 
blocks, thereby eliminating the possibility of shifting 
of the base and a loosening of the units, has permit- 
ted a reduction in the depth of the blocks use.d. 
Factory floors are now being very successfully in- 
stalled throughout entire manufacturing plants with 
blocks as shallow as 2 in. in depth. Furthermore, 
the service obtained is superior to that obtained in 

Note how the lugs provide a spacing 
around each block. This spacing allows 
the pitch filler to penetrate the full depth 
01 the blocks, binding them firmly to- 
gether, and making a thoroughly water- 
proof construction. This spacing also 
gives horses a chance to get a footing 
and provides a grip for automobile 

The lugs prevent bulging or buckling 
of the pavement as they compress when 
the blocks expand and relieve the 
pressure. Because the pressure is re- 
lieved, the creosote oil will not be forced 
from the pores of the wood. 

Slipperiness, buckling, bleeding elimi- 

The lug makes a good block better. 


past years with blocks two or more times as deep 
where the weight of the blocks was depended upon 
to keep them down and in surface. 

Successful installations may be made on timber 
and plank foundations in mill-type buildings, but 
care must be taken to see that the timber in the 
foundation is sound and that the blocks are afforded 
a firm and even footing. A bituminous-mastic 
cushion between the planks and the blocks is now 
being extensively used and is proving very successful. 

For dry locations the blocks should be driven up- 
tightly together when installed ; there is a tendency,, 
however, for a slight further contraction in the vol- 
ume of air-seasoned blocks when placed in the floor 



of a steam-heated room and therefore it is neces- 
sary to provide a binder in the joints to hold the 
blocks in place after this contraction has occurred 
and to exclude moisture and foreign matter from 
seeping under them. 

Creosoted wood-block floors are being installed in 
machine shops, forge shops, foundry molding and 
core rooms, casting cleaning and chipping rooms, 
warehouses, leather and paper mills, automobile as- 
sembly plants, garages, loading platforms, etc. The 
conditions in the above work vary from extremely 
dry to a saturated moisture state. They also vary 
from low to high temperatures, and in some cases 
the blocks are submitted to the action of molten metal. 
The extreme variation in the demands covered by the 
above list of industries gives a fair idea why it is 
necessary to study the individual job at hand and 
draw a specification to meet the particular work. 

In machine shops the floor is often subjected to 
oils, gasoline, and various acids ; in forge shops it is 


subjected to vibration, to abrasion, and to contact 
with hot metal ; in foundries the heat is often ex- 
treme and the blocks are frequently sprayed with 
sparks from molten metal at one part of the opera- 
tion and with water a little later. In leather and 
paper mills portions of the floor are constantly 
flooded with water and acid solutions. In loading 
platforms the problems are similar to those in street 
paving that is, the conditions are alternately wet 
and dry. In upper floors of rein forced-concrete 
buildings, and also in mill-type buildings, the blocks 
are usually submitted to extremely dry conditions 
which cau':e them to contract to their minimum 
dimensions. All of the.-:e conditions must be taken 
into account when designing the floor. 

For ordinary factory purposes the proper treat- 
ment for the blocks is 6 Ib. of creosote oil per cubic 
foot of timber. This is injected by the Rueping 
process and is sufficient to preserve them from de- 
cay. When they are to be subjected to consider- 
able moisture or to the weather, they should he 

treated with 12 Ib. of oil per cubic foot of timber 
by a combination of the empty- and full-cell proc- 
esses. This extra amount of oil insures better 
waterproofing of the blocks. 

Floors which are to be subjected to considerable 
moisture, or to weather conditions, should be laid 
with ample provision for expansion. It is good 
practice to provide ample space between the indi- 
vidual units to take care of this expansion. These 
joints should be flushed full of a waterproof, elas- 
tic binder, which should preferably be coal-tar pitch 
of a consistency which will not soften up under 
atmospheric or room temperatures. Coal-tar pitch 
has proven the most successful binder and filler for 
creosoted wood blocks, as it is a derivative of the 
same base as creosote oil, and thus readily unites 
with the oil in the blocks. 

It is universally conceded that wood-block floors 
are ideal when properly constructed. In view of the 
fact that a great deal of the success depends upon 
the design and construction of the floor, it has be- 
come standard practice for the block manufacturers 
to not only furnish blocks, but to take charge of 
their installation as well. 

The Noyes-Buick Building 

(Continued from page 211) 

Pans have been used for many years in con- 
crete floor construction, but they have not been used 
until recently in flat slabs, which are computed as 
such. Their use is apparently in accord with build- 
ing laws everywhere and with .the generally accepted 
theories of flat slabs except in one particular. This 
exception is in the removal of tension concrete from 
the mid-sections which the Boston building depart- 
ment has recognized as reducing the allowance of 
18,000 Ibs. per sq. in. on the tensile steel to 16,000 
per sq. in. This is certainly conservative, as the 
Joint Committee are suspected of increasing the 
allowable steel stress for flat slabs, partly because of 
their particularly safe stand in other and less definite 

This form of cellular flat slab was proposed by 
Nils F. Ambursen in 1917, in connection with the 
Uniform System now made by the Blaw-Knox Com- 
pany. It was patented in June, 1919, by Edwin F. 
Albright. Whatever the merits of the controversy 
which has arisen regarding this patent, Mr. Albright 
has done some very good pioneer work in perfecting 
details and erecting typical structures. 

The general contractor for the Noyes-Buick build- 
ing was the F. T. Ley Company, of Springfield, 
Mass., the architect, A. H. Bowditch. of Boston, 
Mass., and the writer was the consulting engineer, 
responsible for structural design. 



Own Your Home Competition 

The Jury of Award Announces Its Decision in the 
Various Classes 

The nation-wide competition for designs of houses 
of low cost of four, five and six rooms, held by the 
managers of the Own Your Home Exposition, to be 
held in Chicago March 26-April 2, sponsored by lead- 
ing architectural societies and federated art clubs, is 
now closed and the Jury of Award has announced 
its decision. 

No important competition has in recent years been 
more widely participated in or more satisfactorily 
conducted. The general details of this competition 
have been published in earlier issues of THE AMERI- 
CAN ARCHITECT. The results, as announced by Mr. 
Henry R. Holsman, chairman, are as follows : 


1st Prize Louis Justement, Washington, D. C. 
2nd Prize J. Ivan Disc and E. J. Maier, Detroit. 
3rd Prize Edmund J. Jacques, Detroit. 
4th Prize Walter F. Bagnor, 

Carl A. Rehse, Ass., Milwaukee. 

Mention John Floyd Yewell, New York. 
Paul Hyde Harbach, Buffalo. 
James A. Parks, Washington, D. C. 
Robbins Louis Conn, New York. 


1st Prize Edgar and Vera Salomonsky, New York. 
2nd Prize John Barnard, Boston, Mass. 
3rd Prize Henry F. Stanton and Charles Crombie, 

4th Prize Ainslie M. Ballantyne, New York. 

Mention Johnson & Ford, Jamestown, N. Y. 
Chauncey Hudson, New York. 
Richard W. Powers, Boston. 
Isador Richmond, Beechmont, Mass. 


1st Prize Louis Justemont, Washington, D. C. 
2nd Prize Amedo Leone, Detroit. 
3rd Prize Montgomery & Nibecker, Los Angeles. 
4th Prize Theo. Vischer and James Burley, archts. 
New York. 

Mention Alfred Cookman Cass, New York. 

Edgar and Vera Salomonsky, New York. 
Richard W. Powers, Boston. 
Louis Justement, Washington, D. C. 


4-Room Richard W. Powers, Boston. 
5-Room John Floyd Yewell, New York. 
6-Room J. Ivan Disc and E. J. Maier, Detroit. 

Huge Parlor Stoves of Roumania 

Mysterious Structures Tower to Ceiling 

Visitors to Roumania who have occasion to enter 
some of the native homes are often impressed by 
a mysterious structure of enormous size, occupying 
a corner of the living room. This huge device, tow- 
ering to the ceiling of the room, and quite ornamen- 
tal in a dignified way, is a parlor stove. The fire 
door, and the amount of coal or wood fuel fed into 
it, are absurdly small in comparison with the total 
spread of radiating surface visible, and for that very 
reason the heaters are remarkably economical in 
everything but space. 

Germany Wants Skyscrapers 

Agitation for Them Strongest in Berlin and Munich 

Agitation for the construction of skyscrapers 
has started in virtually every city in Germany, 
where for many months the housing problem has 
taxed the ingenuity of city officials, relief workers 
and flat-dwellers. Architects have drawn specifica- 
tions for buildings to rival the tallest "Wolken- 
kratzer" in New York and sanitary and hygienic 
authorities are lecturing on the probable effect of 
the high buildings, darkened streets and congested 
business and residence centres. 

Berlin and Munich have displayed much interest 
in the proposals. 

Buildings in German cities were limited under 
the old regime to a uniform height. Few are more 
than four stories high. The tallest business build- 
ing in Berlin is only five stories. 

Dutch Dry the Zuyder Zee 

Will Cost About $250 Per Acre 500,000 Acres Will 
Be Reclaimed 

After years of deliberation, the people of Hol- 
land, it is learned, have decided that they need more 
land. With characteristic energy they are proceed- 
ing to acquire it. The program contemplates the 
construction of a thirty-mile dike across the outlet 
of the Zuyder Zee and the gradual reclamation of 
parts of that body by means of smaller dikes and 
a filling-in and pumping process. 

The damming of the north end of the Zuyder Zee 
presents difficulties not alone on account of the 
length of the dam but also because of the fact that 
the water depth varies from about thirty-five to ten 
feet. The foundation of the great dam will be, 
literally, billions of all sizes of tree branches, lashed 
together into great bundles. These will be sunk, 
forming a supporting mat of enormous area. Upon 
this will be placed a thick layer of coarse, crushed 



stone, and on this powerful foundation will be 
reared the masonry of the dike. The structure will 
have a height, above water level, of from 16 to 17 
ft., and will be wide enough across the top to ac- 
commodate a double-track railway line. It is ex- 
pected that the completion of the entire project will 
require 35 years. 

The expense, based on pre-war figures, would 
have been abcut $88,000,000. However, later esti- 
mates place the figure nearer to $125,000,000. As 
it is expected that productive land to an extent of 
approximately 500,000 acres will be reclaimed, it 
will be seen that the cost will be about $250 per 
acre. Besides reclamation, an effect of the under- 
taking will be to convert the present salt-water 
Zuyder Zee into a fresh-water lake of an area of 
600,000 square miles. Although of such great size, 
it will really be a controlled reservoir, impounding 
the flood waters of the River Yssel and connecting 
canals during the periods of the northwest storms, 
when they do not flow into the North Sea but over- 
flow their banks, and releasing them through sluice- 
ways in the great dike during calm weather. 

a square board marked with the character for well 
ido. This was to show where people could obtain 
water in case of fire in the neighborhood. The 
regulation may still be in force in country places, 
but, owing to water's now being laid in pipes, it is 
no longer enforced in the cities. 

Signs on Japanese Houses 

Proof of Fire Insurance, Telephone, and "Great 
Cleaning" Proudly Displayed 

In Japan one man learns a good many things 
about the resident of a house merely by looking at 
his door. According to police regulations the en- 
trance to every residence must have a small wooden 
tablet affixed to it. This tablet has the name and 
number of the house on it, and on another tablet 
is the name of the responsible householder. 

Sometimes, though rarely, the names of other 
inmates are placed over the door, but there is no 
police regulation that requires it, except in the case 
of boarding houses, which have to place their 
boarders' names outside for all to see. A person 
fortunate enough to possess a telephone always has 
the number proudly displayed over his entrance. 
Near it one will often see a quaint enameled or tin 
disk. That is the fire insurance mark. Every fire 
insurance company has its own special metal plate, 
which it nails to the lintel when it insures a house. 

There are always several small pieces of paper 
pasted over the door, placed there by the police. 
One is to certify that the periodical oshoji, or great 
cleaning, has taken place. Another paper tells per- 
haps that the sanitary conditions are satisfactory. 
What others stand for is known only to the police 
themselves ; that they give secret information about 
the inmates is certain. 

Formerly it was the rule that if there was a well 
upon the premises the fact had to be proclaimed by 

Spanish Missions to be Restored 

California Mission Restoration Association Will Do 

the Work Father Mestres, Spanish Diocesan 

Padre, in Full Charge Motor Trucks 

Dash Along El Camino Real 

The Missions of California, famed in the history 
of civilization in the great West, and which sprang 
into existence nearly three centuries ago when zeal- 
ous missionaries toiled northward over El Camimo 
Real the King's Highway are to be revived. 

The twenty-one missions, now decaying and in 
ruins, which lie along the highway from San Diego 
to Sonoma will be brought back to life through the 
activities of the California. Mission Restoration As- 
sociation, which is now instituting a movement to 
culminate only when the last mission has been re- 
stored in its ancient picturesque splendor. 

Father Raymond M. Mestres, Spanish diocesan 
padre, who has devoted twenty-nine years of study 
to the Spanish missions of California and to actual 
work in these historic places, is in full charge of the 
restorative work under way. 

Thus are the distinguishing marks in the beginning 
of civilization in the western half of the continent to 
be made permanent for posterity. Each of the 
twenty-one missions in the long, but unwavering 
chain is to be reconstructed and rebuilt as it was 
when first completed by the tireless Franciscan 
fathers and the Indians whom they civilized. 

For years the missions of California have been the 
topic of historical discussion, and the food for the 
decaying ravages of time. At different periods at- 
tempts have been made to restore some of them, but 
these have been more or less desultory and there have 
been no permanent results. 

The twenty-one missions were built between the 
years 1769 and 1823, along a trail over four hundred 
miles long. That trail, or El Camino Real, as it was 
known, is still existent it is the highway from San 
Francisco to San Diego. But in the eighteenth cen- 
tury it was a burro path, a rude almost unrecogniz- 
able tracing on the ground. Today it is surfaced with 
asphalt and where the jogging burros plodded with 
their sacks of supplies to distant laboring mission- 
aries, now powerful automobiles and trucks dash 
along on rubbered wheels. El Camino Real is still 
the highway. 

Civilization dawned for California and for the 



great West on July 1, 1769, when the four forces of 
the pioneering Spaniards met at San Diego and cele- 
brated their successful undertaking. No sooner, 
states E. J. Crosby in his account in the San Fran- 
cisco press, were the congratulations completed than 
the work of constructing a mission started. From 
that day forth California has been civilized. 

The work of re-establishing these missions is now 
under way. From the archives of Madrid and from 
the Church records left by Father Junipero Serra 
the data has been secured by Father Mestres. All 
of his knowledge as mission historian, archaeologist 
and builder is to go into the completion of the great 
task before him, a task which, when completed, will 
find the landmarks of California the same as they 
were when first built along El Camino Real. 

House Managers for the Dutch 

Women Manage Octavia Hill System Tenants 

Instructed in Use of Modern Home Fittings 

Special Blocks for "Less Desirable" 


The city of Amsterdam, Holland, found itself 
forced, several years prior to the war, to start ex- 
tensive re-housing plans for inhabitants of the oldest 
and most congested sections of the city. In spite 
of the war, it has completed some four thousand 
dwellings and has some six thousand more under 
construction. Built in part on purpose to house the 
poorest and most neglected members of the com- 
munity, these properties presented an unusual prob- 
lem of management. 

After a study of the matter and a visit to England. 
Mr. Keppler, the chairman of the city's housing de- 
partment, decided to adopt the Octavia Hill system 
of management and put this entirely into the hands 
of women. He was fortunate in finding two Dutch 
women who had been trained for such work in 
London ; and there is now a staff of thirteen mana- 
gers under a woman chief superintendent. In the 
assignment of tenements, care is taken, first, to pro- 
vide adequate accommodation for families with sev- 
eral children. Some blocks are, in fact, reserved 
for families with five or more children ; and families 
with a member suffering from tuberculosis are spe- 
cially provided for in dwellings with a sleeping porch 
or garden. 

Instruction of tenants in the use of modern home 
fittings, to which many of them have not been ac- 
customed, is one of the managers' duties. The 
managers also co-operate with other voluntary agen- 
cies in further methods of home education and in 
rendering social service in various forms. Under 

the city's scheme, which is expressly for the poorest, 
no "undeserving" families are excluded from these 
new houses; but if families are destructive, noisy, 
drunken, or do not pay their rents regularly, they 
may be removed into blocks specially set aside for 
the less desirable group. Here they are under strict 
supervision and subject to special educational efforts. 
While elsewhere a manager looks after two hundred 
families, the managers here are resident and are 
given not more than twenty-five homes to superin- 
tend. As the profession of house manager is new 
for women in Amsterdam, new members of this 
staff must attend courses at the University School 
of Social Work. 


The American Architectural & Engineer Co. an- 
nounce the opening of offices at No. 1, Yurakucho 
Itchome, Kojimachiku, Tokyo, Japan. Mr. L. M. 
Slack, formerly with Wm. W. Slack & Sons, Archi- 
tects, Trenton, N. J., is managing director, and Mr. 
A. Raymond of New York City is the architect. 
Catalogues and samples are desired. 

Bernard Wiseltier, Landscape Architect, has 
opened offices at 15 East 40th Street, New York 
City, where he will engage in the practice of his pro- 
fession. Mr. Wiseltier, who is a Cornell University 
graduate, a member of the American Society of 
Landscape Architects, and a member of the Archi- 
tectural League, was for a long time with Vitale, 
Brinckerhoff and Geiffert. 

Noyes-Buick Building 

(Continued from page 195) 

weight as much as possible, the forms were steel 
domes about 2 feet square with concrete beams be- 
tween them, reinforced in two ways. By this ar- 
rangement, it was possible to use a very thin slab 
over the top of the domes in some instances this 
being reduced to 2 inches in thickness and in no 
case, even in the repair shop where a load of 250 
pounds to the square foot was carried, was this slab 
made over 3 inches in thickness. In this way, a 
saving of from 30 to 40 per cent, was effected in 
the amount of concrete used and the reduction in 
weight made it possible to materially reduce the 
size of the columns and the footings below which 
resulted not only in speeding up the construction, 
but greatly reducing the cost of the same. The en- 
tire enterprise represents an investment in round 
figures of $1,000,000. 











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Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Regional Centers 

Exemption From Taxation and Other 

Lawson Purdy, Former Chairman Board of Taxes and 

Assessments, Says Some Pertinent Things 

About Government Aid 

AT this time, when a great deal of discussion is 
running rampart regarding "Government 
supervision," "Government control" and 
"Government ownership" of parts or the whole of 
the building industry, it is both interesting and to the 
point to note what those have to say who have been 
associated in one way or another with Governmental 
bodies, city, state, or national. 

As former chairman of the New York City Board 
of Taxes and Assessments, Lawson Purdy spoke 
his mind rather freely at the National Housing As- 
sociation's conference at Bridgeport recently. 

After indicating that there are indeed times and 
periods when Government interference or regula- 
tion becomes necessary, Mr. Purdy said rather 
flatly : 

"I am personally, constitutionally I suppose, op- 
posed to interference by the State. I think the 
Government should mind its own business and keep 
out of private business that ordinary persons can 

The fields of zoning and the regulation of the 
use of land by cities and states, towns and villages, 
with the idea of protecting people in the proper use 
of that which they lawfully occupy he pointed out 
as legitimate fields for Government supervision or 

As against this, however, Mr. Purdy emphasized 
the fact that when the Government goes into any 
business, competition ceases. Public opinion ob- 
jects to the Government making a profit out of 

"Let Government build houses, if you please- 
how many private builders would compete with 
Government? Mighty few. Let Government start 
in the lending business, and we will have the same 
situation in that field. What private lender would 
compete with the United States, if the United 
States started to lend money ?" 

Speaking of exemption from taxation and other 
subsidies, Mr. Purdy pointed out that if, in New 
York, a 2^ per cent exemption existed, and one 
wished to put up a $10,000 house on which he could 
borrow $7,500, or 75 per cent., on which the 6 per 
cent, interest means $450 per year. Then the lender 

says : "I will let you have the money provided you 
will pay me annually 2^2 per cent, of the cost of the 
house, which would be no more than you will save 
in taxes." 

That would mean $700 a year. In ten years 45 
per cent of the loan would be paid, in 15 years 80 
per cent, and in \7y 2 years the entire loan would 
be paid by paying annually a sum equal to 7 per cent, 
of the cost of the house. 

"You will observe that it takes ten years to get 
rid of 45 per cent., and in the remaining five years 
of the 15-year period there would be 35 per cent, 
more paid off. It is the latter years that become 
so important under an amortization plan, because a 
large part of the principal has been paid, and that 
is one of the reasons why, personally, I regard it 
as a great advantage . . . that the exemption 
should be reasonably long. It is inconceivable to 
me that any lender who can afford to lend on an 
amortizing mortgage, would not prefer the contract 
of $7,500 on a $10,000 house with $700 a year paid 
on interest and principal, than to lend half the value 
of the house with doubt as to the payment of the 

Mr. Purdy pointed out that if, in ten years, build- 
ing costs should come down to what they were in 
1914, then a 50 per cent, loan today would be in 
ten years a 100 per cent. loan. He cited this, pre- 
sumably, to show why such caution is exercised by 
the loaning institutions are so "prudent about the 
money of others." 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. Investment and home builders of 
the North Pacific coast territory are inclined this 
week to await pending adjustments in the industrial 
field, there being some controversy between car- 
penters and sheet metal workers over the wage scale 
to be adopted for the 1921 building season. 

Architects have gleaned from conversation with 
these investors that it is believed that the cost of 
building materials have reached bottom for at least 
the first half of the year, but that wages for skilled 
labor are still hovering round the war-time base 
and must recede before actualities may be brought 
into play and closed contracts replace pencil sketches. 

Employing contractors believe carpenters will be 
working for less than $6.40 a day, the figure as- 
sented to in part, before early summer. As an in- 
dication, fir lumber mills that are resuming business 
after a closedown of 30 days or more, have put it 



squarely to the men that if they care to work at 
$2 to $2.50 per day the plants will start. Other- 
wise not, because of the fact that there is little 
present demand for lumber and there is a larger 
problem for the employer than the employee. In a 
few instances this wage has been accepted and the 
mills have started. 

The Corporation steel prices prevail this week 
in sheet metals and galvanized pipe, and the supply 
is ample in practically all sizes for the late winter 
needs. Jobbers have been cautious about overbuy- 
ing, but should a brisk demand exhaust stocks, it 
will be easy to get speedy delivery from the mill 
as prompt excution of orders is now reported all 
along the Pacific Coast. The supply of three-quar- 
ters and halves of galvanized pipe is complete, and 
this fact is pointed to as an indication of the con- 
dition of delivery. It is recalled that during the 
last two quarters of 1920 it was almost impossible 
to get these sizes. An occasional offer under the 
corporation price in sheets is received, but this is 
held to be brokerage operations supplied by out- 
side mills. 

The fir lumber market suffered slight recessions 
for the week, with common dimension 50 cents 
lower. Eastern buyers who have received these lists 
have taken it as an indication of a horizontal price 
reduction and are keeping aloof. The wage reduc- 
tion in the mills may permit of slight recessions, but 
fundamentally the market is steady. 

The supply of building material is normal for 
February. All the cement plants of the state are 
in operation, and all are holding storages of stock 
ahead. Building projects are being retarded by the 
attitude of the banks, who are slow about making 
loans and on renewals are asking that loans be 
taken up. 

The plant of the Superior Portland Cement Com- 
pany at Concrete, Wash., will resume operations 
next week with a completement of 200 men and a 
production of 4,000 barrels a day. A new crusher, 
with a capacity of 1,000 tons per hour, has been 

The Master Painters and Decorators have de- 
cided upon a wage reduction of \2 l /2 per cent, 
effective this week in Seattle. Wages of painters 
and decorators will be $7 in place of $8. As pre- 
viously announced by the AMERICAN ARCHITECT, 
wages of building trades workers were reduced 20 
per cent, on February 1. 

At their annual meeting here Saturday night the 
members of the Washington Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects elected officers as fol- 
lows : Charles Allen, president ; David J. Myers, 
first vice-president; A. J. Russell, of Tacoma, sec- 
ond vice-president; H. C. Whitehouse, of Spokane, 

third vice-president ; Harold G. Sexsmith, secretary ; 
Carl Siebrand, treasurer, and J. S. Cole, member 
of the board of trustees, all of Seattle excepting 
where otherwise stated. Wm. G. Purcell, president 
of the Oregon Chapter and R. M. Dyer of the As- 
sociation of Engineers, were honorary guests. Henry 
Kendall of Boston, president of the national or- 
ganization, and Robert D. Kohn, a director, of New 
York, were principal speakers of the evening. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. While the actual opening of the 
building boom seems to be late in getting started there 
is no denying the fact that Chicago is beingconstantly 
reminded of the need of building. Apartment own- 
ers and real estate agents have been passing around 
renewal notices for the apartment leases which ex- 
pire with the May 1 moving day and these notices 
have been very poignant reminders that Chicago 
needs more buildings. Increases are noted in every 
part of the city and the amount of the increase is 
by far the most sweeping yet reported. The situa- 
tion is so acute that tenants are binding themselves 
into organizations to find a way out, while real estate 
agents and owners are organizing to combat the men- 
ace of an uprising of the tenantry. The tenseness 
of the situation is providing columns of hot stuff 
for the daily newspapers and the subject is by way 
of becoming the most absorbing topic in the con- 
versation of this thriving metropolis. 

One of the aldermen of the city has gone so far 
as to advise tenants to resist unfair rent boosts and 
to remain in the apartments, tendering the old pay- 
ment of rent. When the sheriff comes to throw 
out the furniturue the alderman advises recourse to 
the courts and a demand for a jury trial which he 
insists will delay the matter so long that the owner 
will be forced to compromise. The apartment own- 
ers are resisting just such a step by sending out 
leases that are leak-proof. One of the rights which 
the landlords are asking the tenants to forego is the 
right of demanding a trial by jury in case of any 
legal unpleasantness. And so it goes, tit for tat all 
over the town. Everybody sees the need of building, 
almost everybody is feeling the pinch of the housing 
shortage and yet nothing seems to be assuming defi- 
nite shape for a lifting of the building ban. 

That the spring will bring some building is un- 
deniable, but here and there some of the experts in 
such matters are predicting that the big boom will 
not come until 1922. 

Architects and contractors are beginning to ad- 
vise their clients that there is nothing to be gained 
by the delay, however, because they feel that a build- 
ing can be erected now at as small a cost as will pre- 
vail for the next five or six years. The point out 



that lumber has been deflated as to price and that 
materials, while not as low as might be desired, are 
about as low as they can come under present freight 
rates. Labor is holding its old schedule in the build- 
ing trades, but the individual efficiency has jumped 
tremendously. Masons handling common brick were 
satisfied with laying 500 brick per day during the 
flush times, but they are now laying as high as 2,000 
a day without thinking anything about it. All of 
this cumulative advice is having its effect, particu- 
larly upon the prospective home builder, in which line 
of the work the chief activity this spring is likely to 
be noted. 

Building money is continuing to prove an obstacle, 
but there is a feeling, too, that the money situation 
is growing less stringent as the business condition 
adjusts itself and the hope is somewhat general that 
money will be available. 

One of the interesting suggestions for the relief 
of the building situation comes from an industrial 
writer on one of the daily newspapers. He suggests 
"building bees" with the idle building trades work- 
men assisting each other in the construction of 
homes. Following the suggestion, the Chicago Trust 
Company, a leading banking institution, made an 
offer to provide $5,000,000 to provide a fund for 
building homes under the co-operative plan. This 
makes available sufficient funds for 2,000 small 
homes if the workmen can get together on a working 
basis and arrange a plan for taking advantage of 
the offer. 

Investigation of an alleged building materials ring 
has been asked in the state legislature at Springfield 
in behalf of Chicago. The operations of the alleged 
ring have recently been made the subject of a federal 
investigation from which some forty indictments re- 
sulted. A fuller expose of the methods is now re- 
quested with the hope of permitting a greater influx 
of open shop materials from other manufacturing 
cities nearby and a consequent reduction in building 
costs. The matter is now pending. 

Aside from the special items previously outlined, 
there is nothing of great interest in the building situa- 
tion. Architects report a considerable inquiry on 
new work, for figures and tentative sketches, but the 
amount of work on the boards remains low. No 
projects of importance have been outlined of late, 
and while work goes ahead on some of the larger 
buildings in Chicago, there is nothing to indicate an 
immediate resumption of activity. 

In this market, lumber and materials hold at prac- 
tically the old levels. One of the larger western 
manufacturers of lumber has made an official an- 
nouncement of a shading of prices, but local dealers 
say that these reductions have been discounted by 
the fact that competing manufacturers have written 
down the prices without announcement. Inquiry for 

lumber continues to improve, but spot business is 
very slight in volume. 

In the minor building materials, much the same 
situation prevails, with a consequent stability of 

Quotations on lumber and materials in this market 
are as follows : 

Yellow Pine: B. & B. 1-in., $95 to $130, depend- 
ing on thickness; 2x4, No. 1, 10 to 16 ft. length, 
$51 to $53; 2 x 6, $48; 2x8, $50; 2 x 10, $53; 
2 x 12, $55 ; 13-16 x 3% z & b flat flooring, $85 to 
$90; 1x6, No. 2 common, $48 to $90. Douglas 
Fir: 2 4 S, in sizes up to 12 x 12, in length up to 
32 ft, $65 to $70; 14 x 14, $68 to $73; 16 x 16, 
$72 to $75; 18 x 18, $75 to $80. Hard Maple: 
Four, y 4 No. 1 and 2, $135; select, $120; No. 1 
common, $100 ; No. 2 common, $65 ; No. 3 common, 
$32, Birch: Four y 4 No. 1 and 2, $160; select, $133 
to $138; No. 1 common, $95 to $100; No. 2 common, 
$60 to $65 ; No. 3 common, $40. Red Gum: Four 
l /4 No. 1 and 2, $150; No. 1 common, $90 to $92; 
No. 2 common, $45. 

Face Brick Standard, vitrified red, $32.00@ 
34.00; Smooth, Indiana red, $38.00@40.00 ; Smooth, 
Ohio red, $38.00@40.00 ; Smooth, Pennsylvania red, 
$46.00@48.00; Smooth, buff, $45.00@47.00 
Smooth, gray, $47.00@49.00 ; Rough, buff, $44.00 
@46.00; Rough, gray, $47.00@49.00 ; Variegated, 
rough texture, $34.00@49.00. 

Common brick, $16.00 per M. Portland cement, 
$3.00 per bbl. Torpedo Lake and bank sand, $3.50 
per yd. Crushed stone, gravel screenings, $3.50 per 
yd. Hydrated lime, Ohio, paper, $22.00 per ton. 
Hydrated lime, Ohio, cloth, $29.00 per ton. (Includes 
sacks at 30c. each.) Hydrated lime, Wis. paper, 
$19.00 per ton. Bulk lime, $1.65 per ton. 

(Special Correspondence to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON. Contracts awarded in New England 
during January amounted to $8,196,000 or nearly 
double the number contracted for during a like 
period in 1919. 

Here in New England neither intense optimism 
nor intense pessimism is justified. It is a time of 
growing confidence, a time for courage. The shoe 
factories are comparatively busy after a period of 
idleness. The cotton goods industry is relatively 
busy and the woolen and worsted trade is picking up. 

There is still a lack of confidence in some centers 
which prevents buying going forward for supply- 
ing the needs of the future. Forecasting the future 
to them is risky. So they are buying on a hand- 
to-mouth basis. The shoe factories have orders on 
hand sufficient to keep them running a couple of 
months. But they have no spring business and 
whether the necessary orders to keep these plants 



busy will come in later is problematical. The manu- 
facturers will make shoes only against actual orders. 

There have been several meetings between repre- 
sentatives of the striking building mechanics and 
the employing contractors this past week but little 
or no progress was made toward a satisfactory set- 
tlement. Every building project of note in Boston 
and vicinity is completely tied up, due to the strike. 

Architects and engineers are progressing with 
plans and specifications so as to be in a favorable 
position to go ahead with work now in prospect as 
soon as the labor difficulties are settled. 

Saving Millions 

The most sweeping move toward economy yet 
taken by Congress was shown in the recent action of 
the Budget Committee in reporting the Legislative, 
Executive and Judicial Appropriation bill with 
Federal employes in the District of Columbia 
reduced by 10,683, effecting a proposed yearly 
saving of more than $30,000,000. 

The bill does not provide for salaries for the next 
fiscal year for 12,183 Federal employes here, but 
provides for 1,500 additional employes for the In- 
ternal Revenue Bureau, so that the net reduction 
amounts to 10,683. 

In addition to demanding the elimination of this 
army of war workers, the committee recommends 
that bonuses of $240 a year in the next fiscal year 
shall not apply to workers at the Washington Navy 
Yard, whose wages are determined by wage scale 
adjustments from time to time. 

Republican leaders say the total reductions in the 
employes in the District will reach fully 20,000 
before the middle of the next fiscal year. They are 
unwilling to make further cuts in the salary roll 
until the special committee recently appointed to 
consider the elimination of unnecessary Government 
bureaus reports. This report is expected to be pre- 
sented to Congress early in June, soon after which 

further reductions will be made in accordance with 
the expected recommendations. 

The bill carries appropriations amounting to 
$112,705,748.75 for the fiscal year 1922, which is a 
reduction of $5,751,461.36 from the amount carried 
last year and $23,746,866.22 less than the amount 
sought in the estimates submitted to Congress by the 
departments affected. 

Government Debt Steadily Shrinking 

The gradual reduction in the public debt of the 
United States since August, 1919, when the high 
point was reached, is shown in the following table : 

(Figures in Millions of Dollars) 

Total Gross 

Month Debt 

August 31, 1919 $26,597 

January 1, 1920 25,837 

June 30 24,299 

July 31 24.223 

August 31 24,325 

September 30 24,087 

October 31 24,063 

November 30 24,175 

December 31* 24,010 

Floating Debt 


Loan and Tax 












Figures are given on the basis of the daily state- 
ments of the Treasury Department, with an esti- 
mate of the debt as of the end of the year. The 
decline from maximum to December 31, 1920, was 
approximately $2,590,000,000 or 9.7 per cent. 

The greater part of the debt reduction has been 
effected in the floating debt which is composed of 
unmatured loan and tax certificates of indebtedness. 
The decline in the outstanding volume of these cer- 
tificates since August 31, 1919, was $1,621,000,000, 
a reduction of 41.2 per cent. During the calendar 
year 1920 the decline was $945,000,000, a reduction 
of 28.9 per cent. 



-v 7 






NUMBER 2358 




The Research and Educational Hospitals of 

the State of Illinois 

Richard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Architects 

THE conception and development of an idea 
which involves a building is the why of the 
.plan. Ideas generally follow well defined 
lines and can be segregated into groups, the indi- 
vidual members of which have but little variation 
thus precedents are formed. This stabilization of 
ideas is desirable and necessary to progress, as it 
gives a basis from which departures safely can be 
made. When a plan is developed which has unusual 
elements and arrangements, it becomes especially 
interesting to understand the why of the plan. In 
order to comprehend this, the conception and devel- 
opment of the underlying idea must be explained. 
The plans for the Research and Educational Hos- 

pitals of the State of Illinois are unusual in many 
respects. This is due largely to the combination of 
elements not usual to hospital designing. The exist- 
ing state hospitals for the insane were found by Mr. 
Charles H. Thome, director of the Department of 
Public Welfare, to be places where patients were 
housed and given only incidental treatment. Appar- 
ently no effort had been made along the lines of re- 
search and preventative treatment. The logical con- 
clusion is that, as the population of the state increases 
the capacity of these institutions must be enlarged in 
a like ratio and actually in an increasing ratio, thus 
adding to the burdens of the state to provide for 
its unfortunates. Mr. Thorne has stated that "it 

Copyright, 1921, The Architectural Building Press (Inc.) 




tfrut mm i K. miming tmumcT man t.tiscniiD'Tgtt.Pi-ia main USOCHTL fta-CHiTieis ~ 
jiLcnai ion oHDLE, cointociioii.'Ea </-1 '' r~rn n pi m r"-|' m> tt"''~ r^T't'. i ^i VT |r "" ir -" T '^ ? ^ 










seems obvious enough that any activity, whether 
state or private, which spends one-fifth of its reve- 
nue upon a single thing, should know something 
about that thing and should spend a considerable 
sum for the purpose of ascertaining causes, with the 
idea of reducing the cost. Why has not the state 
conducted research for humans with the same in- 
terest as it has for hogs? This has been a current 
question in Springfield for some time, and I think 
the answer is that research on hogs has been con- 
ducted by the University, whereas the research on 
humans has been attempted by an administrative de- 
partment which is not trained or equipped to do so." 

It became patent that research must first be under- 
taken by a competent agency, and that it was not 
the function of the Department of Public Welfare, 
an administrative organization. The College of 
Medicine of the University of Illinois is organized 
for the purpose required and it needed exactly the 
things the Department possessed namely, hospitals. 
A joint agreement was entered into between the 
University and the Department of Public Welfare, 
obligating the former to furnish the professional 
service and the latter to undertake the administra- 
tive functions of the hospital group. 

Prior to this, the rebuilding of the Illinois Chari- 
table Eye and Ear Infirmary and the locating of a 
Surgical Institute for Children was under considera- 
tion by the Department. This condition was the 
cause of planning other activities so as to ultimately 
build a complete medical center. This will serve 
the purpose of affording every facility for research 
to determine the cause of and the development of 
methods for the prevention of disease. It will also 
serve as a source of those trained specialists needed 
by the Department. The general plan contemplates 
the housing of a school of medicine and dentistry 
with the necessary lecture rooms, libraries and labo- 
ratories; a clinical hospital wherein research work 
can be conducted in all branches of general medicine 
and surgery, including orthopaedics and psychiatry. 

Governor Lowden was most fortunate in securing 
the services of Mr. Thorne as director of the De- 
partment of Public Welfare. Although he was with- 
out knowledge of the subject, he was an executive 
of one of America's greatest mercantile establish- 
ments, a man of liberal education and culture, and 
entered upon his work unhandicapped by the tradi- 
tions, precedents and bias of special training. Edgar 
Martin, supervising architect of the State of Illinois, 
and Richard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin, asso- 
ciate architects, prepared the plans. The planning 
was done in co-operation with Dr. Albert C. Eycle- 
shymer, dean pf the College of Medicine, University 
of Illinois. The results so far achieved have more 
than justified their connection with the project and 

guarantees the successful completion of the under- 

The hospitals are being constructed on the site of 
the old West Side (Cubs) Ball Park, which has a 
frontage of 556 feet on West Polk street and extends 
880 feet south to West Taylor street, and contains 
about ten acres. The hospitals will be erected in 
units, four of which are now under construction. 
The general layout is shown on the block plan. The 
research institute, library, class rooms and research 
laboratories and the dental institute will face West 
Polk street, with three wings extending south about 
200 feet to the group of buildings now under con- 
struction. These are the clinical institute, the eye 
and ear infirmary, the psychiatric institute and the 
orthopaedic institute. In the rear of this group will 
be located the administration building. A wing of the 
eye and ear infirmary will be between the psychia- 
tric institute and the street. These buildings will 
cover about one-half of the site and enclose five 
large courts. The remainder of the site consists of 
a very large quadrangle about 350 by 375 feet in 
size, affording a suitable outdoor place for the pa- 
tients. This is especially desirable, as the hospitals 
are located in a very congested district. On the 
west of this quadrangle is located the orthopaedic 
institute; on the south, from west to east, the in- 
fectious diseases building, the power plant and the 
venereal diseases building. The buildings on the 
east are not yet definitely apportioned. The quarters 
for the patients will face this quadrangle and the 
utility and service rooms will face the streets. 

A study of the five entrances indicated on the block 
plan shows that there will be no interference in traffic. 
The ambulance entrance at "D" is inclined and the 
incoming patients are delivered at the basement level 
in an enclosed room. The turning court, "X," is also 
at the basement level and makes it possible to secure 
very well lighted rooms about its four sides. 

In general the buildings will be three stories in 
height, with a basement pipe space, and a fourth 
story occupying the lower portion of the space en- 
closed by the pitch roof ; an interesting structural de- 
vice by which the roof load is carried on inclined 
struts resembling flying buttresses, with a curtain 
wall set back from the building line. This permits 
the development of this fourth floor or roof space 
with light and air equal to that of the floor below. 
It also provides a very desirable outdoor space. This 
is illustrated in the detailed sections. Communica- 
tion over the entire area is secured by a system of 
corridors slightly below the level of the pipe spaces. 
In general, these corridors will be against the outside 
walls with ample light and air. The first floors are 
about five feet above the outside grade, making it 
possible to have basement windows above grade, 
without areas. All interdepartmental communica- 



tion, passage of visitors, transmission of food, laun- 
dry and supplies will be through the communicating 
corridor system, thus insuring ward privacy and a 
minimum of interference. 

The out-patient department will be, in most cases, 
the receiving department of the hospital. There will 
be chosen from the great mass of clinical material 
passing through it the selected cases to be trans- 
ferred to the wards for future study and treatment. 
This source of supply for clinical material has caused 

passage of the patients through the various depart- 
ments without interference and congestion. In fact, 
this department is so skilfully planned that it is 
worthy of careful study. Industrial architects plan 
to "route the product" through the factory. In like 
manner the product has been as carefully routed 
through this hospital. Its success effects economy 
in cost of operation, mental and physical effort. Ele- 
vators afford access to the X-ray department on the 
second floor and to the hyclrotherapy and electro- 



the planning of the dispensary to receive special at- 
tention as one of the most important features of the 
scheme. The dispensary will occupy the entire first 
floor of the first section of the main building and 
can be extended into adjoining units to be built 
later. The general clinics will occupy the east half 
of the building, the eye and ear clinics the west half, 
the psychiatric and orthopaedic clinics the east and 
west halves of the psychiatric wing. From the 
main entrance at the rear of the center, the patients 
are distributed to the various waiting rooms as clas- 
sified. Ample provision is made to effect the rapid 

therapy department at the basement level. A small 
lecture room, with a capacity of about one hundred, 
is provided for lectures and demonstrations for out- 
patients and for the use of students and nurses. 

The wards are located on the second and third 
floors. These are kept small as best adapted for 
teaching purposes. A ward capacity of four beds 
was adapted as the proper size, with a floor area of 
320 square feet, and this led to the choice of a bay 
16 feet wide by 20 feet deep as the typical unit for 
the entire scheme. In the eye and ear infirmary a 
ward for eight beds is the unit. The second and 










third floors of the psychiatric wing are assigned to 
male and female patients. The plan was governed 
by the special nature of the work and the space is 
divided in the reception quiet and disturbed wards. 
Access to the hydrotherapy department on the base- 
ment level and to the large solarium for occupational 
therapy and recreation on the fourth floor level is 
by means of elevators. 

The central portion of the fourth floor is devoted 
to the operating department, which has a capacity 
sufficient for the entire group when completed. 
There are six operating rooms with side and top light 
combined and two smaller operating rooms with side 
light only, with all of the requisite utility and service 
rooms. The student amphitheatres seat from sixteen 
to forty each and access thereto is by means of stairs 
from the fifth floor. This keeps the operating cor- 
ridor free from unnecessary traffic. 

The eastern portion of the fourth floor is de- 
voted to wards for children and infants ; the west- 
ern portion is used as day quarters for eye and ear 
patients and a small ward unit. In the psychiatric 
portion of this floor are research and demonstration 
rooms and two interns' rooms for the psychiatric 

On the fifth floor are wards for obstetrics and 
gynecology and on the sixth floor are quarters for 
resident physicians. Temporary quarters for in- 
terns are on the third floor of the main building 
in space ultimately intended for libraries and labo- 

Each floor of the main building will have direct 
access to the corresponding floor in the buildings to 
be erected on the West Polk street frontage to con- 
tain the libraries, lecture rooms and laboratories of 
the medical school. The basic idea of the institu- 
tion is the close association of the patient with the 
research physician and investigative worker, and by 
this means it will be accomplished. 

The ward pavilion type is desirable for the Ortho- 
pedic Institute, as the patients stay for a consider- 
able length of time and in this way a greater number 
of patients are accommodated. The south wards are 
for girls and the north wards are for boys. The first 
floor is devoted to ambulatory patients, day rooms 
and dining rooms. The grade of the quadrangle at 
this place is raised to the first floor level in order 
that the wheeled chairs may pass out thereto without 
difficulty. The second floor is devoted to bed pa- 
tients, the third floor is devoted to first and second 
observation wards. The fourth floor contains, in 
the central and southern portion, study and class- 

rooms for manual training and other forms of occu- 
pational instruction, as well as instruction in gram- 
mar school grades. There is also a large kinder- 
garten and playroom which is equipped with a stage 
for moving pictures and theatrical performances 
given by the children. All of these rooms open on- 
to balconies and roof spaces through French win- 
dows, so that advantage can be taken of the open air 
and sunlight. 

There are three isolation wards located in the 
north end of this floor, for the use of children who 
may develop contagious diseases and at the same 
time continue .their orthopedic treatment. Each 
ward has its own serving pantry and combined util- 
ity, toilet and bathroom. Separate entrances for 
nurses and doctors with adequate facilities for the 
prevention of cross infection are provided. 

The buildings are designed in a free adaptation 
of English collegiate gothic, which always has an 
atmosphere of peace and quiet particularly suitable 
for academic and hospital institutions. In this par- 
ticular case the location is in a congested and not 
overly attractive district and the plan was made with 
a view to provide the sick and convalescent patients 
with the advantages of the quiet and sheltered courts 
and quadrangle. This group will be a welcome con- 
trast with another large hospital group bedecked 
with an ostentatious display of columns, cornices, 
pediments and pavilions typically institutional in 
aspect and indicating an opulent charity towards its 

The exterior walls are faced with a wire-cut Illi- 
nois brick which presents a variety in color and tex- 
ture to approximate the charming weathered effect 
of old English brickwork. Bases, string courses, 
copings and window trim are of Indiana limestone. 
A fire-flashed interlocking shingle tile, with predomi- 
nating tints of purple and russet brown, is the roof 
covering. Ornamentation has been reduced to a 
minimum, dependence being placed on the proportion 
of parts and the proper selection and use of mate- 
rials for effect. The buildings are of fire-resisting 
construction throughout and of the most permanent 
and durable character. 

On the whole, these plans are of great interest to 
architects, whether they are directly interested in hos- 
pitals or not, to physicians and hospital managers 
and to the layman. A careful study of them dis- 
closes the clever and intelligent planning which, when 
fully comprehended, is appreciated. When com- 
pleted, these hospitals will rank equal with any of 
their kind in America, if not in the world. 



ill lffs!p 






Hospital Construction as Affecting Dis- 
tribution of Food* 

IN a development of the construction plans of a 
hospital the variety of phases to be considered 
are infinitesimal, but there is no one phase 
more difficult of correlation, no one phase meaning 
more to the future economical and efficient operation 
of the hospital, than the proper planning of the 
dietary department. This has by far the largest 
individual budget of any department in the hospital, 
and inasmuch as the physical layout is responsible to 
a large extent for its efficient or inefficient perform- 
ance, too much care cannot be given to the proper 
planning of this activity. 

It must be borne in mind that the institutional 
feeding problem is a rather complex one, cover- 
ing serving of food to private patients, to ward pa- 
tients, and to the hospital personnel, necessitating 
a very careful consideration of the methods of ser- 
vice in conjunction with preparation. A very com- 
mon mistake is that of planning the dietary depart- 
ment and then attempting to fit a service to this 
plan, rather than approaching the problem in the 
logical way, by first determining the character of 
service and then fitting the plan around that type of 

The centralization of all preparatory service is of 
course by far the most economical, and if it is pos- 
sible with the type of institution to prepare and 
serve the personnel of the institution from the main 
kitchen, it should be done. However, there are cer- 
tain developments in which this is not possible. 

The location of the main kitchen is of paramount 
importance. There are three general locations : the 
top floor, the first floor, or in a separate building. 

There are some few types of hospital buildings 
that lend themselves to a top floor kitchen develop- 
ment, but the scheme in general should not be en- 
couraged. The top floor of a building is unques- 
tionably the best floor for patients, and unless there 
are some unusual conditions that make a portion of 
this floor available for kitchen purposes better than 
for patients, this location is not advocated. In ad- 
dition is the problem of transportation of such sup- 
plies as coal, groceries, ice, etc., and returning gar- 
bage, ashes, etc. In favor of this location, of course, 
is the fact that the odor from such a kitchen is less 
objectionable; but after all, if a kitchen is properly 
ventilated, this nuisance can be reduced to a neg- 
ligible quantity. In a small hospital, unquestionably 
the best location for the kitchen is on the first floor, 

*F.xtract of an address read by Frank E. Chapman, superintendent 
of Mount Sinai Hospital, Cleveland, before the Twenty-second Annuai 
Convention of the American Hospital Association in Montreal. 

as near to the center of activities as possible, in 
order that the travel of food may be reduced to a 
minimum. The separate building for the large in- 
stitution is very desirable, provided it can be prop- 
erly correlated. Careful consideration must be 
given in any location to see that it will be possible 
to transport the food quickly and with a minimum 
loss of heat in transport. 

Very little, if anything, can be said as to the size 
of the kitchen, this being dependent entirely upon 
the type of institution, the proportion of private to 
ward beds, etc. By all means, the size should be 
developed from a very thorough knowledge of the 
service to be performed, bearing in mind that un- 
necessary space necessitates unnecessary labor. If 
at all possible, and the desirability of making such 
a scheme possible is very great, the kitchen should 
be open on three sides. The ventilation of a kitchen 
suite is rather difficult at times. The efficiency 
of hoods, ranges, stock pots, etc., is a mooted ques- 
tion, and unless such a hood is supplemented by ex- 
haust fans, both in the stack and in the hood, and 
in the openings in the kitchen proper, they are of 
very little value. 

Too much attention cannot be given to this ques- 
tion of ventilation, nor the question of light. The 
walls should be of white tile if possible, not only 
for cleanliness' sake, but for the sake of better 

The type of floor is important from a housekeep- 
ing point of view. Red quarry tile makes an ex- 
ceptionally good floor. It is expensive, but the ne- 
cessity for providing a floor that can be easily 
cleaned, and one that will wear well, indicates a 
very careful consideration of such a floor, or a floor 
of similar type. 

For hospitals of one hundred beds or over, un- 
questionably there should be furnished separate pas- 
try rooms, sculleries, meat and vegetables rooms, 
and cold and dry storage. With large units, addi- 
tional rooms are indicated. The policy of having 
one room for the entire kitchen activity tends to con- 
fusion and is not productive of the best results. 

By far more important than the actual equipment 
is its proper installation. A very efficient piece of 
equipment may lose its entire value if placed rela- 
tively in the wrong position in the activity. The 
whole kitchen operation should be studied with an 
institutional performance in mind, laying out the 
unit to permit the easiest possible performance. 
Hotel installation is not a good example to follow. 





The service required of a hotel kitchen is entirely 
different than that required of a hospital kitchen. 

The installation of hoods over as much of the 
equipment as is possible is very desirable. This not 
only takes off odors, but has a very salutary effect 
on the temperature of the room, provided these 
hoods are properly connected up. 

Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the in- 
stallation of as many labor saving devices as pos- 
sible. These not only conserve labor, but they in- 
sure economy in the distribution of foodstuffs. 

The item of plumbing in the kitchen is a very 
important one. Care should be exercised to get 
sinks at the proper height from the floor, in order 
that the preparation of vegetables and washing of 
pots and pans may be done with the minimum of ex- 
pended energy. 

The question of open shelves or closed cupboards 
is a matter of personal preference. In any event, 
these cupboards or shelves should be adequate in 
capacity and easy of access. 

The elevator service should be given very care- 
ful consideration. It is highly undesirable that food- 
stuffs be handled on the regular passenger elevators. 
By all means, electric dumb waiters should be in- 
stalled, if dumb waiters are indicated. The person- 
nel should not be compelled to labor with the hand 
operated system. Dumb waiters as usually installed 
are not sufficiently large to accommodate food carts. 
If food cart service is to be used as a routine, care 
should be taken to see that elevator service adequate 
to take care of these carts is installed in duplicate, 
in order to insure a continuity of service. 

The special diet kitchen should definitely be a 
part of the kitchen activity and should be so located 
as to permit of easy supervision on the part of the 
dietitian. The same comments pertain a?, in the 
main kitchen. This room should be sufficiently 
large to permit of an efficient operation, depending 
entirely upon the type of service and the size of the 
institution. It should be equipped with stove, 
broilers, dish warmers, sinks, and cupboards. It 
would also seem, in an institution in which a large 
number of infant feedings are prepared, that facili- 
ties should be provided for a room which can be 
used for the preparation of special formulas. Such 
a room need not be very large, but should be so con- 
structed as to be easily cleaned and ventilated. 

The ward serving room is a very important unit 
in the dietary service, and should be given very 
careful consideration in planning. Its location 
should be near the center of the unit that it serves, 
in order to reduce to a minimum the amount of ef- 
fort necessary to serve trays. It should be planned 
so that the elevator service should either come di- 
rectly into this room or be very closely adjacent 

thereto. The flooring should be of a type that is 
easily kept clean and is non-absorbent. A fair size 
for a room of this character should be ten square 
feet per patient to be served, with a minimum of 
150 feet floor space. The necessary equipment in 
such a room should include a refrigerator, a dish 
sterilizer for contaminated dishes, dish warmer, 
toaster, sink (double sink advocated), garbage re- 
ceptacle, towel racks, cupboards, a tray rack of suffi- 
cient capacity to hold all the trays to be served, and 
a large work table with drawers. 

The feeding of hospital personnel is an exceed- 
ingly difficult problem, and one that requires very 
close study to be satisfactorily worked out. In all 
events, the dining and service room should be lo- 
cated away from that part of the hospital containing 
patients, and should be varied in size and character, 
in order to serve the various classes of hospital at- 
taches. As a minimum list of the types of dining 
rooms, the following is submitted: officers, interns, 
nurses, special nurses, office attaches, orderlies, do- 
mestic help. 

A great many institutions have adopted the cafe- 
teria method of service. While it is true that this 
is economical, and offers some very definite ad- 
vantages over maid service, it is questionable if it 
is a desirable service. The hospital dining room is 
one of the few places of relaxation for the personnel 
of the institution. Most of these people have no 
other home than the hospital, and certainly standing 
in line for three meals a day, 365 days a year, has 
not the tendency of creating the homelike atmos- 
phere that is desirable in a hospital. In any event, 
the location and equipment of serving rooms is de- 
pendent primarily upon the type of service that is 
to be rendered. If there is cafeteria service, the 
arrangement of commercial cafeterias may be 
copied, bearing in mind, however, that there will 
have to be at least two, and probably three, differ- 
ent serving rooms to take care of the various classes 
of attaches. It is extremely undesirable, in fact 
almost impossible from an administrative stand- 
point, to have all groups supplied from one serving 

Food may be conveyed to patients by several 
methods : It may be taken by heated food carts, 
heated by hot water jackets or by electrical ele- 
ments. This method is in very common usage. 
Such a cart has some very definite advantages ; but 
it has one distinct disadvantage, i. e., unless the food 
is handled very promptly, the injection of this addi- 
tional heat in transit has a tendency to change the 
character of food by cooking it over and above the 
palatable state. This equipment does not, however, 
provide for the handling of cold foods, such as 
salads, desserts, etc. A new device on the market 





is a food cart constructed on the principle of the 
fireless cooker or vacuum bottle. The most perish- 
able of foodstuffs placed in this cart will retain its 
character and heat for several hours. This equip- 
ment, from personal experience, is submitted as the 
most efficient method of transporting foodstuffs. 

In conclusion, there is one primary thought that 
it is desired to convey. The best of raw material 
improperly prepared and improperly served is rank 
extravagance. If it cannot be placed before the pa- 
tient in a condition to be eaten, it might better not 

have been cooked. The great trouble with hospital 
dietaries is that foodstuffs are primarily prepared 
with facilities that have not been planned for the 
service; and as a consequence the food is handled 
so many times that it is bound to be cold when 
served. In the planning of a hospital building, the 
importance of the dietary department should not be 
overlooked. It should be studied just as carefully 
as one would study the location and equipment of 
the operating room suite, and the results obtained 
will more than justify the efforts. 

The Case for Modern Architecture 

From an Address by JOHN W. SIMPSON, P.R.I.B.A. 

TRADITIONAL education in design during 
the second half of the nineteenth century was 
disturbed one might say bewildered by a 
deluge of illustrated books and periodicals due to 
improved and cheapened processes of photography. 
The student, instead of having to select and make his 
own drawings of a chosen subject, thus found at his 
disposal a heterogeneous mass of information about 
buildings in every country and style. Though in- 
complete presenting selected aspects only, of com- 
positions which need plan, elevation and section to 
reveal their true meaning ; and prone to emphasize the 
picturesque, rather than the greater qualities of our 
art the material supplied was for the most part 
good of its kind, and we owe to photography many 
really valuable works of reference. The trouble was 
not so much the quality as the sudden profusion of 
varied suggestions, confusing to the receptive mind, 
overtaxing its capacity for absorption and digestion. 
In effect we have lived through an age which has 
collected a vast deal of new knowledge, some super- 
ficial, but on the whole profitable. Our fathers hardly 
strayed outside the classic groves of Greece and 
Rome, save for excursions into the field of Italian 
Renaissance, a passing glance at its French mani- 
festation, and perhaps a somewhat inappreciative 
survey of the Gothic cathedrals. We, cheaper and 
easier travel abetting, have had spread before us an 
architectural panorama of the whole world through 
seven thousand years of time. Egypt, Crete, China, 
Japan, Mexico, India, to say nothing of Spain and 
the less-visited parts of Europe. The result may, or 
may not, be something unexpected, but we see 
already a wider view prevailing of what constitutes 
tradition, a shedding of prejudice and much experi- 
mental reproduction of exotic work ; tentative efforts 
to find seemly clothing for new needs, to which 
neither toga, trunk hose nor periwig can be suitably 

These "new needs" form perhaps the chief reason 
for the change from what was deemed traditional de- 
sign. Educational and commercial requirements, for 
example, have altered materially since our boyhood, 
and have to be frankly recognized and provided for. 

Incompetent criticism, like any other public duty 
ill performed, has evil results. Persistent deprecia- 
tion of contemporary and recent art is, in great meas- 
ure, responsible for revolutionary efforts to break 
away altogether from the past, to find a new and 
short road to aesthetic expression. Exasperated by 
incessant taunts, unbalanced minds are stampeded 
from the quiet fields of honest study into the frantic 
eccentricities which, now and again, astonish us 
and vanish into oblivion. The classic track is no 
easy one, they are told it leads nowhere, and lack 
the faith to follow it to fruition. Architecture has 
been perhaps less disturbed by the clamour than has 
sister arts ; its solid ballast of utility has steadied it ; 
but architects, too, are disquieted by demands for 
originality, for a "national style," by assertions that 
"the old was better," by accusations of being mere 
copyists. We need not take the outcry too seriously. 
The middle period of the nineteenth century is still 
the common quarry of aesthetic hawks, but the work 
of its earlier years is now discovered to be better than 
was supposed; Gower street, built in 1826, is no 
longer the type of the unlovely. Let us hear what 
Heine, an accomplished critic and admirer of Lon- 
don, who was here at the time, thought of its archi- 
tecture. "These houses of brick," he writes in his 
English Fragments, "become of a uniform brown 
color ; they are all of the same style of building, 
generally two or three windows wide, three stories 
high, with small red tiles above which remind one 
of newly extracted, bleeding teeth; the broad and 
accurately aligned streets seem to be bordered by 
endlessly long barracks. Rich speculators, to meet 

(Concluded on page 243) 







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The Case for Modern Architecture 

(Continued from page 238) 

the demand, build wholesale entire streets of these 
dwellings, which they retail singly. At the west end, 
where the more aristocratic and less-occupied world 
lives, this uniformity is still more dominant; here 
there are very long and broad streets, where all the 
houses are as large as palaces, outwardly anything 
but distinguished, unless we except the fact that in 
these, as in all the better class of houses in London, 
the windows of the first story are adorned with iron- 
barred balconies, and on the ground floor there is also 
a black railing, protecting the entrance to certain 
cellar apartments buried in the earth. In this part 
of the city are also great squares, where rows of 
houses, like those already described, form a 

It is no new thing, this eulogy of the past and dis- 
paragement of the present. We may doubt if any 
artist is justly appreciated till long after he is beyond 
the reach of praise or blame ; some may be overrated, 
others are certainly underrated, "the idols of past 
generations crumble suddenly to dust, while the de- 
spised and rejected are lifted to pinnacles of glory." 
This is most true of architecture, for it is the mirror 
of our own life, and the reflection is too clear to be 

My address must necessarily, I fear, be deemed 
illogical. An artist must be convinced of the right- 
ness of his work, for without faith is no enthusiasm ; 
a doubter can never achieve a great creation. If, 
then, he can so detach himself from conviction as to 
be able to compare the work of dead Masters with 
his own, to survey dispassionately the past and pres- 
ent, he is no artist, and has no more claim to atten- 
tion than the casual layman ! The syllogism is 
irresistible ; I offer you my thoughts ; you will form 
your own conclusions. For my part, I shall pru- 
dently evade the consequence of the argument and 
make no reference to the work of living men. 

In determining the merit of modern architectural 
work there are certain actualities to be taken into 
account, if we are to arrive at a true judgment. To 
these, as it seems to me, sufficient attention is not 
given by those whether technicians or lay writers 
who attempt to define the quality of recent design 
in relation to the standards bequeathed by the great 
ancestors of our calling. 

As for "national style," whether it be good or bad, 
it clearly exists. No one could mistake a British 
city for one of any other country ; our national signa- 
ture is written all over it. It is nevertheless possible 
that we are on the verge of such a new departure in 

our art as has taken place in the art of warfare, 
where "fighting," in the historic sense, with the 
development of guns and swords, seems likely to give 
place to mere destruction by misuse of the products 
of peaceful industries. In our case it may well come 
about by frank recognition of the qualities of the 
machine, as opposed to obsolete methods of hand 
work. There is nothing inherently uncongenial in 
the association of machine work with architecture; 
the real incongruity is in attempts to maintain, or 
revive, mediaeval craftsmanship in the twentieth cen- 
tury. Its charm lay in its spontaneity, its unaffected 
fitness for the surroundings of its date; to imitate 
it is to fabricate artificial flowers, which lack life 
and perfume. We live in an age of machines, and 
true architecture must needs reflect their influence. 
If we set ourselves to the planning and constructing 
of buildings supremely proper for their purpose, art 
will take care of itself. An artist will always solve 
his problem artistically. Finding inspiration in stern 
Utility, he transmutes it by his touch into 

"Some fragment from his dream of human life, 

Shaped by himself. . . ." 

The question of "originality" is bound up with 
that of comparison. Ecclesiastes, you will remem- 
ber, pointed out that "The thing which hath been, 
it is that which shall be ; and that which is done is 
that which shall be done; and there is no new thing 
under the sun. Is there anything," he asks," whereof 
it may be said, See, this is new ? it hath been already 
of old time which was before us." In this sense, 
originality is, of course, impossible; on the other 
hand, the permutations and combinations of the 
eternal elements of architecture are beyond number, 
and I take the demand for original design to mean 
no more than for a fresh disposition of walls, doors, 
windows, roofs, their proportions and decorations. 
Here arises a curious point in support of the words of 
Solomon, who, you will also remember, "praised the 
dead which are already dead more than the living 
which are yet alive," for quite other reasons than 
those of our critics. If a building could be imagined 
which should be wholly original in design, neither 
its merit nor its demerit could be appreciated by the 
human mind. It would speak an unknown tongue; 
and there would be no standard by which to compare 
it. It follows that in every design must be repeated 
rome known forms or features whereby we may in- 
terpret and recognize the composition. Here is the 
reason why old work, the masterpieces of antiquity, 
must be studied with assiduous care and exactitude, 
lest our knowledge of them be imperfect, and tradi- 
tion debased by inferior reproduction. 



Old Tavern, Rossville, Staten Island 

(See reproduction of original drawing by O. R. Eggers on opposite page) 

Stage coach and tavern days were picturesque ones during 
our Colonial period. With our present facilities for safe 
and quick journeys over long distances it is difficult to 
realize -with what trepidation and great preparation our 
forefathers set about the trip from Philadelphia to Boston. 

Now a matter of hours, then a journey of weeks, the ven- 
turesome traveller, we learn, was wont to make his will, set 
his house in order and bid his family a tearful good-bye. 
It was only the rich and important who could afford the 
expense of these long stage coach trips and it is for this rea- 
son that these taverns are in a sense historical landmarks. 

At one time or another they have sheltered the great men 
who were active during our Colonial period. 

The tavern at Rossville on Staten Island, picturesquely 
presented by Mr. Eggers' skillful pencil, is on the one time 
direct route between the southern and northern colonies. 
It was along this route that Washington journeyed when he 
set out for New York to take the oath of office as first Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

In its architecture the tavern at Rossville follows traditions 
of Dutch Colonial types. In fact it may be regarded as an 
excellent example of that period. Much of the picturesque- 
ness of Staten Island has now disappeared and this old tavern 
is but a suggestion of what it was when all the village turned 
out to greet the arrival of "The Coach" and stare open- 
mouthed at the passengers alighting to stretch their legs 
after the long run from Trenton to find in the low-ceilinged 
tap room the refreshment that would ease their fatigue and 
fortify them to continue their journey. 


^.a^oy _ 

jTf.Ti.rt I si A -Mir; 


THK AMERICA*,' ARCHITECT Serin of Early Amtrican Anhiltclur, 


Improving Farm Conditions 

CONSIDERABLE space has been given in these 
pages during the past three years urging on the 
agricultural departments of the various states the 
necessity for action looking toward the betterment 
of the architectural aspect of farm buildings and the 
conditions surrounding the life of agricultural 

It is gratifying to note that this important matter 
is being seriously considered by the Department of 
Agriculture in Washington and that the offer of co- 
operation on the part of the American Institute of 
Architects has been promptly accepted. Through its 
various chapters in the agricultural states, the Insti- 
tute will be able to afford the government the most 
valuable assistance and if the subject is kept alive 
we may early look for a decided improvement in the 
types of farm building and the consequent better- 
ment of the social conditions affecting farm life. 

While most of the argument advanced as to the 
betterment of farm buildings has been to persuade 
men either to stay on the farm or to return to farm 
life, it must not be forgotten that the farm will be 
no lodestone for men unless it is also for women. 
A farm home survey recently made by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture shows why it is not attractive 
to women. 

More than 10,000 farm houses in thirty-three 
states were surveyed. The working day of farm 
women was found to average 11.3 hours the year 
round. These long hours were due to the lack of 
ordinary facilities and the poor equipment and plan- 
ning of the houses. What is needed to make the 
farm attractive is that its houses and their equipment 
shall, more nearly approach those in town. The de- 
velopment of trolley systems and of motor transit 
has enabled the farm worker to become more closely 
associated with town life. The comparison they 
make is all against the farm. We shall not be able 

to effect the desired result until we have made the 
home surroundings of the farmer attractive. 

A National Archives Building 

A BILL recently introduced by Senator Smoot, 
prohibiting smoking in public buildings but 
touches the rim of an important matter, a deplorable 
condition to which this journal has many times 
directed attention. During the last two months, fire 
has destroyed one state capitol and has done $2,000,- 
000 worth of damage in the Census Bureau. 

It is small wonder that the State Department 
should show uneasiness over the possible loss that 
would occur in the State, War and Navy Building in 
the event of a fire. In addition to the valuable and 
irreplacable documents stored in this building, there 
rest in a safe which in the judgment of the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters would not stand a severe 
fire, the original copies of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution of the Ujiited States. 
If by any chance fire should destroy these, the loss 
would of course be irreparable and this country would 
stand before the world as recreant to a solemn duty. 

In 1914 Congress passed an act authorizing the 
construction of a fire-proof Archives Building, where 
the invaluable records of the various departments not 
only might be stored secure from destruction by fire 
and water, but where they could be scientifically ar- 
ranged and made available for the use of those to 
whom their use is valuable. Notwithstanding that 
authorization, however, under which the Government 
was empowered to acquire the property and to con- 
struct the building, and notwithstanding the fact that 
a preliminary appropriation for the drawing of plans 
has been made by Congress, and that the necessary 
appropriation has been estimated for by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury from year to year, Congress 
has failed to make the appropriation. 

Patriotic people in this country will feel easier in 
mind when Congress acts in this important matter. 


The Correct Application of Metal Lath to 

Avoid Plaster Cracks 

Results of Tests Recently Conducted at Armour Institute, Showing 

Forms of Application 


AS the name indicates metal lath is a metal sup- 
port or background for plaster or stucco work. 
Rapid developments in the application and use 
of metal lath in building construction have been made 
in recent years and now we find it successfully used 
in the highest 
grade build- 
ings. The uses 
of metal lath 
are not con- 
fined to plaster 
and stucco 
work for we 
find it in many 
other parts of 
building con- 
struction, such 
as reinforce- 
ment for con- 
crete work. 
This article, 
however, will 
deal with it 
only as it is 

used as an improved substitute for wood lath and will 
call particular attention to recent tests conducted at 
Armour Institute of Technology by G. F. Gebhardt 
and J. C. Peebles, for the purpose of determining the 
best method of application of metal lath to prevent 
cracks in plaster walls and ceilings. 

In thinking of the results of these tests, let us 
remember that the purpose of metal lath is for a 
support for the plaster and not to give any rigidity to 
the frame-work itself. Many cases will show that 


Crack developed in center of wall and 

where the lath and plaster have been properly ap- 
plied, a certain amount of rigidity was obtained, 
but the deflection and failure of the framework un- 
der load have nothing to do with the efficiency of 
metal lath. It is surprising to note, however, that 

cracks did not 
appear in metal 
lath and plaster 
walls (properly 
applied) until 
after the frame 
work failed, 
which means 
that all deflec- 
tions caused by 
loads for which 
the frame was 
designed will 
not cause 
cracks in this 
type of con- 
struction. It is 
only when 
overloaded to 
the cracks will 


stopped when it reached the corner 

point of failure that 

to the 

The fact that expanded and sheet metal lath have 
enjoyed a greatly increased market in spite of keen 
competition indicates that it must have many practi- 
cal advantages. It simplifies construction, is easily 
and quickly handled and erected, provides better rein- 
forcement for plaster and when properly applied, 
prevents plaster cracking better than any other lath- 



The results of the tests showed that metal lath 
should be applied to the ceilings and carried down 6 
in. on all walls and partitions. It should not be 
permitted to butt together in the corners, but shoul' 

be started one 
stud away and 
bent into the cor- 
ner to avoid a 
lap there. On 
walls and parti- 
tions, metal lath 
should be started 
at the top and 
carried down, 
allowing the 
lower sheets to 
lap over the 
upper sheets not 
less than one- 
half inch. On the 
sides the sheets 
should be lapped 
not less than J4 
in. and tied once 
with wire be- 
tween the sup- 
ports. When 
channels are 
spaced on 15^4 
in. centers No. 


With cornerite corner crack developed at 

deflection greater than maximum allow- 


In the testing machine one wall was securely sup- 
ported from below in a vertical position. The other 
wall was unsupported and the load was so applied to 
parallel the condition that maintains when one wall 
settles and the other remains fixed. 

The results of this test were interesting because 
they showed that where metal lath lap was provided 
in the corner, the crack developed first in the cen- 
tral wall and in nearly every case was stopped when 
it reached the corner. It was almost impossible to 
produce a corner crack. Sample Bx had no lap and 
corner cracks de- 





1. Wood lath but- 
ting into masonry; 
cornerite attached at 

edges only. 

2. Same as 1, but 
with cornerite at- 
tached at edges only. 

3. Same as 1, with- 
out cornerite. 

4. Metal lath but- 
ting into masonry 
wall with 6" lap. 

5. Same as 4 with- 
out cornerite. 

6. Same as 4 except 
metal lath lapped 3" 
on masonry wall in- 
stead of 6". 

The samples 
were attached to 
the interior side 


No cornerite corner crack developed at 

18 gauge black 

annealed iron tie wire should be used once between 
supports. No tie wire is necessary when the sheets 
are lapped ^2 in. and nailed or 
stapled to wood studs spaced on 
16-in. centers. 

These tests were run in eight 
series, each series investigating 
different points of weakness 
under different forms of con- 
struction. Series A, dealing 
with cracks where side wall and 
ceiling meet, appeared in THE 
ruary 16, 1921. 


1. Two wood lath partition walls <& 
90; 6" metal lath bent into corner and 
attached at edges only. 

X. Same as 1, except metal lath lap 
in corner is omitted. 

2. Same as 1, but with 6" metal lath 
strip, 3" on each partition wall. 

3. Same as 1, except metal lath lap is 
attached at both edges and corner. 

The test pieces in Series B 
consisted of two 34" x 36" par- 
tition walls, meeting at 90 de- 
grees The studs were 2" x 4" 
hemlock spaced on 16" centers. 

r No cornerite corner crack developed at 

OI a permanent deflection less than maximum allowable 

masonry wall 

and plastering was carried approximately 12 in. on 
the masonry wall to provide for a good corner. 


No cornerite see note Sample C-3 


With cornerite see note Sample C-2 



A lifting force was applied to the partition wall 
giving the same effect as if the masonry wall settled. 

The following table shows the upward movement 
of outer edge of partition wall at which corner crack 
first appeared, and the numerical order of this crack 
among all cracks occurring. 



Upward Movement 

of Outer End of 

Partition Wall 







Order of 

No corner crack produced. 

which is equivalent to 2.256 inches at the center of a 
16-ft. joist. This is far in excess of the maximum 
allowable deflection in such a joist, which is 1/360 of 
the span, or 0.533 inch. The same disturbance would 
follow the vertical settlement of a wall or support 8 
feet away from the corner. 

Rather interesting observations may be made from 
this series of tests. It will be noted that both the 
metal lath and the wood lath without cornerite, sam- 
nles C3 and C5, show a corner crack at a deflection 
reduced to a 16 ft. span, which is less than the allow- 
able maximum noted above. 

On the other hand, all samples reinforced with 
cornerite showed no corner crack until the deflection, 
expressed as above, exceeded the allowable maxi- 
mum. Even the wood lath, the weakest of the cor- 

Effect of Tis Wire and Lap in Reducing Deflection 

of Lath under Trow^L 
Showing fit wire notnoffdedon wood '&tud&. 

ill ' 





ref Sheet 
eef Sheet 

62 1.15 

^^^^^M III II 

vl-2.5 Jcrthonchannets-ddjacentsheefs lapped and tied with twin 

G?-5ame-Mo tie wire 
03 -Same -Laced channel to channel 
G4-23*-Latb on wood studs-Hotie wire 
GS-Same- One tie wire midway between studs, 
if- ABBOC. Metal Lath Mfrs. Specifications. 

Showing that comente prevents corner cracks betwe 
partitions and masonry walls ev-en after maximum 
allowable deflection is reached 'in Joists. 

ChWood lath wall buffing info masonry 
\vetll with cor neriteerthych(?&'crt&cfgr& only 

C2- Sc*m<* but with cornerife attcrchecj art 
edge and corner 

C3 -Same but without cornerite 

C4 - Mvfcil Icrth wall butting into masonry 
wall with 6 "lap. 

CS-Sama but without corn erife 

CG - Samff except metal lath lapped 3 ' 


v .... ^ ... 

1.438 >? 



~*fc^ 16 j 






corner crcrck 


pulled from wall at deflection of Z.S56 

d to that 


Assoc. rlefal Lath Hfrs,. Specifications, 

The samples without cornerite were much less able 
to withstand cracking in the corner than those with 
cornerite and the metal lath wall with 6" lap showed 
the maximum distortion before corner crack ap- 
peared. The wall with 3" la]) also showed excellent 
results, no corner crack appearing, but lath and 
plaster being stripped from brick wall instead. 

Under the test conditions which were as near 
practical conditions as it is possible to come, the 
metal lath wall with lap on brick wall, is the strong- 
est to resist corner cracking, while wood walls 
without cornerite are the weakest. 

On the wood wall, the better result was obtained 
when cornerite was attached at edges only, rather 
than at edges and corner. 

The lath and plaster were not stripped from the 
brick wall, however, until a deflection was reached 

nerite samples, was safe from corner crack until af- 
ter the allowable maximum was reached. 


1. Diamond mesh metal lath butted; No. 18 gage iron tie wire 
once between studs. 

2. Same as 1, tie wire laced from stud to stud. 

3. Same, lapped %". 

4. Same, lapped one full mesh. 

5. Herringbone, lapped selvedge edge only. 

6. Same as 5, with one tie wire between studs. 

7. "A" lath, lapped selvedge edge only. 

8. Same, lapped one full mesh. 

In these samples the joint in the lath was hori- 
zontal, i. e., at right angles to the wood studs and 
near the middle of the sample. They were placed on 
the machine with studs vertical and the load applied 
in the center vertically downward. 

In no case was a crack produced at the edges of 
the metal lath although the distortion was often suffi- 
cient to shear the plaster and lath from the studs. 



Vertical cracks were produced in all cases except D8. 
From the results it was concluded that the method of 
joining the adjacent sheets had no bearing on crack- 
ing provided the sheets were lapped and tied together. 


1. Plaster board with *4" gypsum plaster in 2 coats. 

2. Same as 1, but with *" gypsum plaster. 

3. Same as 2, with 6" piece light diamond mesh metal lath 
laid on joint before plastering. 

The joint between the edges of the plaster board 
ran horizontally and near the middle of the sample 

recommended that specifications call for three-coat 
work as a practical solution. 


1. 2. # Dia. mesh metal lath on 2"x4" studs. 

2. 2.5 # Dia. mesh metal iath on %" channels. 

3. 3.0 * Dia. mesh metal lath on %" channels. 

4. 3.4 # Dia. mesh metal lath on %" channels. 

The metal lath was fastened to the wood frame 
with 4-penny nails spaced 6" apart and was tied to 
the, channels with Nto. 18 gauge iron wire every 6 
inches. Adjacent edges of metal lath sheets were 

$hcn*sina fhaf' corner/ fr? prof &cfe corner of WO&GJ /c*fh 
Or plcrs%?r bo&rcf until aft&r cracks ctppe&r in par f/f/c"? 
when vertical settlement- occurs,. 
Also showing remarkable resistance fo crac/rs in 
me-ral lath walls 

--SCracff firtG Shear 
H& : Crocks, 
' ' 

6 Comer Crack 
H^M^^-. Corner Shear 
"No Other Crack 

Crcrcff Second Hor'z. Crack 
Corner . 
'Shear -& 

Sheared to Zero Deflection 


ck lOCr&ck 
.' ~to Corner 




If HI 

* H4- 

* H6 


^ ^^^^-^^^^-^^-^^-- m l4"-dnofh<?r 

*Small Crack 

2!^ . - i | Corner Crack erf 2" 

_/'" ^// ^/// ^ a 2" 

32 16 8 16 4 

Two metal latfl walls, with mefal lath carried around Corner 

Tim mekrl Icrrh walls, with mtrtal lath butted in the corner 

- Two weed lath nverl/s. 

Two wocxt la+h wal/Sjwifh metal lath cornen'r<?G'on?acHv/al/ 

Two wall board and plfft'SfGr walls, 

-Two wall bo&rdand pla&+er w&lls, with metcrl lath cornerite 
: Matal Lath Mfrs. Specification!, 

and the load was applied the same as in Series D. 

In each sample of this series, a vertical crack 
through the center of the sample was the first to oc- 
cur. In sample El a break along the edges of the 
plaster board occurred, when a further distortion 
was applied. Gypsum plaster %" thick does not 
appear to be thick enough to prevent cracks along 
the edges, but Y^" of such plaster is probably suffi- 
cient with or without the use of a metal lath strip 
laid across the joint. That is to say, with such 
construction a crack along the edge of the plaster- 
board will not occur until the distortions are suffi- 
cient to destroy the wall. 

It is important to put the plaster on to a full y?" in 
thickness. On account of the difficulty of inspecting 
the thickness of the coat and the necessity of build- 
ing up sufficient thickness to prevent cracks it is 












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vih walls - No c&rnc 
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er+h *vall&~6 tf corne 
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'o Corner] q 
Cracks. }\ / 






lapped y 2 " and tied with one tie wire midway be- 
tween studs. 

The metal lath was allowed to project 6" beyond 
each end of the frame. These projecting ends were 
gripped in the jaws of the testing machine to deter- 
mine if the adjacent sheets could be pulled apart, be- 
fore a failure occurred in the projecting ends of the 
lath which were held in the machine. 

It was found that on 2" x 4" studs distortion of 
the wall will not pull adjacent sheets of metal lath 
apart if lapped and tied with one tie wire. 

On metal channels there is a possibility of pulling 
the sheets apart, because the lath cannot be secured 
by tie wires to the channels so firmly as by nails to 
wood studs. In the former case, a careful securing 
of adjacent edges becomes important. 

The object of tests was to determine the deflection 



of metal lath produced by the trowel when the plaster 
is applied, both at the center of a sheet and at the 
edge where one sheet is joined to the next one. 

The results showed that under the conditions out- 
lined, a tie wire used on metal lath on 2" x 4" studs 
makes but little difference on the deflection pro- 
duced in the lath by the pressure of the trowel. 

When iron channels are used, a tie wire seems de- 
sirable, because of the abnormal deflection produced 
in the sample having no such tie. Structural irregu- 
larities will no doubt account for some of the differ- 
ences noted but after due allowance is made for such 
irregularities it appears that the edges should be tied 
when using metal channels. There is not sufficient 
difference between the results on sample using one 
tie wire and the laced sample to warrant a conclusion 



as to which method is preferable. It seems clear, 
however, that some method of tying should be used. 
The object of Series H was identical with that of 
Series B, the only difference being in the method. 
The forms of construction were as follows : 

1. Two metal lath walls, with metal lath carried around the 

2. Two metal lath walls, with metal lath butted in the corner 

3. Two wood lath walls. 

4. Two wood lath walls, with metal lath cornerite 6" on each 

Two plaster board and plaster walls. 

6. Two plaster board and plaster walls with metal lath 

In some of the tests it was noted that as the loaded 
wall was forced downward, the plaster on the sup- 
ported wall moved downward with it, the two plas- 
ter surfaces acting as a unit. This was accom- 
plished by tearing the metal lath away from the 
studs, thus producing a gap in the supported wall 
between the upper sill and the top edge of the 

In every case where metal lath cornerite was 
used, cracks in the side walls appeared before the 
corner crack. On the other hand (with the single 

exception of the metal lath walls) the corner crack 
was the first to appear in the samples in which no 
cornerite was used. 

Whenever samples with and without metal lath 
bent around the corners were tested in the same 
manner, the comparative results show that cornerite 
does not induce plaster cracks in the wall surface 
prior to wall cracks in the samples which did not 
have cornerite. The metal lath samples, as noted 
above, were the only exception to this rule, but in 
order to produce the wall cracks a distortion was 
required which it would be unreasonable to expect 
in any safe building. 

In the case of the plaster board samples, the 
walls were composed of a single sheet, and, con- 
sequently, there was much less tendency for cracks 
to develop in the side walls than 
would be the case where sheets 
were joined. However, the use 
of a cornerite in the plaster 
board samples, increased the load 
required to produce a corner 
shear from 3960 Ib. to 6700 Ib. 
and the deflection from 1/16 in. 
to l /z in. 

The photographs show that 
two different actions occurred in 
the samples. As the load was 
applied, there was a tendency to 
produce a straight downward 
movement of the loaded wall, 
relative to the stationary or sup- 
ported wall. This action can 
produce one of two effects : 

1st It may wear the plaster 

at the corner, thus breaking one wall free from the 

2nd If the corner is sufficiently strong, both 
plaster surfaces will travel down as a unit. This 
latter effect can only occur in the case of the metal 
lath by stripping the lath from the studs or in the 
case of the wood lath, by shearing the plaster keys. 
In the case of sample H-l, the latter effect occur- 
red to a notable extent. The downward travel of 
the surface nailed to the supported wall was 2 in. 
and the metal lath was completely stripped from the 
wood without producing a corner crack. In fact, so 
strong was the corner that no corner crack occurred 
until the plaster surface, which had been on the sup- 
ported wall, struck the support on the bed of the 
machine and consequently could go no farther. 

In the case of sample H-2, the downward travel of 
the plastered surface attached to the supported wall 
was 3/16". At this point a shear in the corner oc- 
curred. It is to be noted in this case that the shear 
of the corner was a direct result of the load applied, 
the surface being still free to move. 



Short Cuts for Calculating and Estimating 

Reinforced Concrete 


THE purpose of this article is to show the ar- 
chitect some short cuts that may be used in 
the solution of problems in reinforced con- 
crete design. 

The design data used by the writer will be found 
in any recognized handbook on concrete work, such 
as Hool and Johnson, Kidder's Pocket Companion 
and others. For this purpose the writer will use 
the nomenclature and formulae found on pages 293 
to 296 of the Carnegie Pocket Companion, edition 
of August 1, 1913. He will show how the various 
formulae can be transposed and condensed so the 
designer will understand the use of the constants 
employed, so he will no longer use design tables 
without some means of checking the results ob- 

Me = Moment of resistance of concrete (in.-lbs.) 
fc = Compressive unit stress concrete (Ib. per sq. 


k = Ratio depth neutral axis to effective depth d 
j = Ratio of lever arm of resisting couple to 

depth d 

b = Width beam (in.) 

d = Depth beam to center steel in tension (in.) 
jd = Arm of resisting couple (in.) 
As = Area steel in tension (sq. in.) 
Ms = Moment of resistance of steel (in.-lbs.) 

fs = Tensile unit stress in steel (Ib. per sq. in.) 
BM = Bending Moment (in.-lbs.) 

Formula 1 For rectangular beams reinforced for 

Mc= l / 2 f c kjbd 2 

The term (^f c kj) is a constant in the formula, 
and Ketchum's Structural Engineers' Handbook 
shows this worked out as 1290. Some engineers use 
1280, but either is on the safe side, 
(^fckj) == y 2 (650 x .379 x .873 x 12) = 1290 


Therefore, Me = 1290bd 2 

This constant can be used for the solution of M c 
for rectangular beams and slabs reinforced for ten- 

Formula 2 For rectangular beams reinforced for 

M s = f s p jbd 2 

In this formula (f s pj) is the constant. 
Referring to the formulae in the Carnegie hand- 

M s = f. pjbd 2 

= fs Ajd 

Formula 1 determined the resisting moment due to 
the concrete, and it is the purpose of Formula 2 to 

determine the area of steel required for the cross sec- 
tion of the beam or a 12" width of slab. 

M B = f. Ajd 

M 8 

A = 


M s 

1600 x .873 d 

M 8 

1396.8 d 

1400 x d 

A correct solution of a problem will show M c 
slightly larger than the bending moment. In solving 
the problem for the required amount of steel it is 
advisable to use the bending moment rather than the 
resisting moment as the value of the bending moment 
is the amount the steel must provide for. 

Formula 3 The shearing stresses in a concrete 
beam should not be slighted by the designer as many 
beams fail because of the lack of stirrups. 

An easy method of designing the required stirrups 
is to employ a formula that will assume the size of 
stirrup to be used and solve for the distance of the 
stirrups from the face of the supports. The formula 
given below determines the distance of the first stir- 
rup from the face of the support. By finding the 
shear at, say, three feet out from the end of beam 
the distance of the stirrup at that point is determined. 
Approximate the stirrups between there and the face 
and diminish the number toward the center of the 
beam to correspond to the value of the shear at the 
point of the stirrup. Stirrups are usually %" or y 2 ". 

Regardless of the number of stirrups about 40 
per cent, of the bars should be bent up at an angle of 
45 deg. or less. The bend at the top should end not 
less than one foot from the supports. 

Distance in inches of the first stirrup from the face 
of the support 

2 x (area of stirrup x f s x d) 
(shear to be taken by steel) 



This formula is derived from the data given in 
Vol. 1 of Hool's book on reinforced concrete. 

An item often overlooked in the design of con- 
crete beams is the bending diagrams for the steel 
bars. These should be shown to be sure the bars 
will be bent correctly. 

The application of these formulae to a practical 
problem is as follows : 

Problem Assume a simple beam of 18-ft. span 
which is to carry a uniformly distributed load of 
60,000 Ibs. Neglecting the weight of the beam, 
find the size of beam required and the area of steel 

three to be bent up and four to be straight. 
The accuracy of the calculations is shown by find- 
ing the compressive stress in the concrete under the 
given conditions of loading. 

2 x bending moment 


j x kb d 2 

2 x 1,620,000 

.873 x .385 x 16 x 32 x 32 

= 480 Ibs. per sq. in. 

Hake spacing of 'stirrup & 
9-lo"ll"-l2"from<>ach support 

Bendi'nq Diagram for Steel 

Ji Mjppor 
,-i "srirrup Hangar 


s IS'-o'Spart >l 

Bending Diagram for Steel 


*t i 

.y LV-M 


4- . . a 

2- . 4 " round-n-o"lg. >, Sij-stirr'up 

k -18'-o"Span 

fd.-^'s^. -Z3-8"lg. Mark AS, 

^. . it, 

8-Stirrups,% nxjnd-9-l Iff 

NOTE: Thy rods marhtfd 'stirrup honors 
are v&ed for convenience in placing 
stvet but take no i&rress 

This is less than the al- 
lowable stress of 650. 

The beam should now be 
provided with the proper 
stirrups to take care of the 
shear. The concrete in the 
beam will resist a shear of 
40 Ibs. per sq. in. The equiv- 
alent load is 60,000 Ibs. and 
the maximum shear is one- 
half or 30,000 Ibs. 

Solution Bending moment = W x L x 12 


= 60000 x 18 x 1.5 
= 1,620,000 in. Ibs. 
(By formula 1) 

M c = 1290 x b x d 2 

Before solving for M c assume a size for the beam. 
In this case we assume a beam 16" wide by 34" deep. 

M c = 1290 x 1-1/3 x 32 x 32 
= 1,761,280 in. Ibs. 

Note that the value of M c is larger than the bend- 
ing moment. If M c had been smaller than the bend- 
ing moment, then a larger beam would have been 

(By formula 2) 

Sq. in. of steel required for the beam 
= Bending moment 

Maximum shear 30000 

Shear to be taken by the beam 
(16x32x40) 20480 

Shear to be taken by stirrups which are 
Y&" round (area .11 sq. in.) = 10520 

(By formula 3) 

Distance of first stirrup from face to support 
2x .11 x 14000x32 

14000 xd 


14000 xd 

= 3.3 sq. in. required 
Use seven y 4 " sq. bars having an area of 3.9 sq. in., 

= 9" 

Make the first stirrup 9" from the face of the sup- 

By interpolation check the spacing at a distance of 
three feet from the face of the support. 
Shear 3 ft. from face 

= 6/9 x 30000 

= 20000 

But the beam is good for 20480. Therefore, the 
stirrups can die out at that point. 

On the following pages are some useful charts 
drawn up by George C. Habicht, showing costs of 
concrete materials and form work per cubic yard for 
varying costs of labor, lumber, stone, cement, sand, 
etc. The explanatory notes indicates clearly any as- 
sumptions that have been made as well as the method 
of using the charts. 



Cost Materials Concrete 

|: [:Mixture 


I 2345 

Costof Stone per Cu. Yd. in Dollars 


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/ j 







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'01 Z 5 4- S 

Cost of Stone per Cu. Yd in Dollars 


l'-2 :*3 Mi'xtufe 


1:2:4 Mixture 


















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Cost of Cement per B 

Cost of Somd per Cu Yd.jDollars,' Cost of Matericn 
o n) ii 5 10 o - 







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5 Dollars 
:5 Mixture 

Cosiof Stone porCu.Yd^in Dollars 


Assuming a 1:2 A mixture and prices 
of $2.00 per cu. yd. for stone, $1.50 per 
cu. yd. for sand, and $3.00 per bbl. for 
cement, enter the chart at bottom 
diagonal line indicating cost of stone 
($2.00). Follow diagonal to intersection 
with horizontal line indicating cost of 
sand ($1.50). Thence follow vertical line 
through this intersection until it inter- 
sects diagonal indicating cost of cement 
($3.00). From that intersection follow 
horizontal line to left to the total cost 
of all materials, $6.62 per cu. yd. 

1 bb. cement = 3.8 cu. ft. % voids in 
stone or gravel = 45. Cement costs are 
net; bags are not included. 

1:3:6 Mixture 

is T> 4- 

Cost of Stono Dollars 

Costof Sto 

e j 4. 

nc- rerCu.Yd.m Dollars 



Cost Form Work Concrete 







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er H 


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V * 

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yl N-. 


Cost of Lumber per Kf.bmm Dotes 


in Wall 





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X ^ - 



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Js \~" 

N r 

% ^- 

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1 S 




X s, 


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x S 




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ZO 50 40 50^ W TO 

Co&t of Lumber perM.f.m.b,in Dollars 

Beam&.Ginters and 4- Slabfe 

-t TO 


F* j 


"^ E 



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N v x 




I x 

l ' l \ 

ltQ I 









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x \ 

^ , v 



.\[-. - N 

1 , 


^ ,^/j 


x_ " x 




1 > 


. - 

X \ ' 

to 50 40 60 SO 16 
Cost of Lumber per M.fb.m. in Dollars 

fbundatton Wall&^'-O 11 Thick 







t i 












^ ^av 






2 1 


220 d 

^ s 





































^ i 












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s 4 > 







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^ x 







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x k > vX 

















































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:^H N 




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W 40 50 60 1 "" ZO 50 40 50 60 K 
Cost of Lumber per M.f.m.binOollars Cost of Lumber per M.f.m.b.'in Dollars 


Assuming carpenters' wages 90c. 
and laborers' wages 50c. enter chart 
at 90c. and follow horizontally to 
intersection with vertical line 
through labor wage of 50c. The 
diagonal line through this inter- 
section gives the labor unit, 230. 
For beams and girders enter chart 
at 230 labor unit and follow hori- 
zontal line to intersection with 
vertical line through lumber cost, 
say, $50 per M ft. b. m. The 
diagonal through this intersection 
indicates $14.58 total cost form 
work per cu. yd. concrete. 

Curves are based on using lum- 
ber three times. 



The Wisdom of Building Now 

What the general public needs, and more particu- 
larly at this time, is education as to the exact truth 
of the present building situation. This education 
should, of course, come from those elements in the 
building industry most competent to instruct. Un- 
fortunately, the architects have not, as they very well 
might, taken the lead in this important campaign. 
There is no ethical reason why they should not. The 
bar on advertising having been removed architects as 
individuals or collectively, through their representa- 
tive bodies may by a series of well composed adver- 
tisements place accessably before the public the exact 
conditions at this time and the probable outcome in 
the future. 

General contractors throughout the country have 
been doing this work of education, and to good pur- 
pose. A skilfully directed scheme of advertising by 
a representative firm of contractors has appeared in 
the New York daily press. 

Well written, terse statements are made, attractive- 
ly set forth with small "cuts." The following is an 
example of the text : 

Maybe you're sitting tight, instead of build- 
ing a new factory or warehouse now. 

You know materials are on the bargain coun- 
ter and that competition is keen, but you're hop- 
ing the bottom will drop out the same as it has 
in some other lines. 

Will it ? How about the homes, hotels, office 
buildings, etc., that simply must be built next 
Spring and Summer? 

If you need a new factory or warehouse, 
build it now for Economy. 

'Phone Bryant 2908. 

Industrial Construction 
"Speed ivith Economy" 

If general contractors find it worth while to pursue 
such a campaign of education, would it not be equally 
worth while for architects everywhere to pursue a 
similar course? 

The Standard of Living 

An Index to National Prosperity, It Must Be Main- 

According to R. Goodwyn Rhett, of Charleston, 
South Carolina, a former president of the National 
Chamber of Commerce, the future of American 
Democracy depends in a very large measure upon 
the kind of housing program the United States 

adopts at this time to relieve the present shortage of 
one million and a half family dwellings. 

"In taking up the various phases of the problem 
of making up the shortage of houses," says Mr. 
Rhett, "we cannot afford to overlook or disregard 
the bearing which such construction will neces- 
sarily have upon the permanent welfare of this coun- 
try. We cannot afford to countenance or permit 
any backward step in the standards of living which 
have been established either by law or by public 
opinion for the standard of living of the great 
mass of the people is the surest index of progress 
in the march of civilization." 

Good Housing Hurt by Shortage 

The Evil Rises Through the Ranks, Affecting All 
Types of Living Places 

Endless proofs can be drawn from the literature 
of Housing Reform to show the demoralization, 
physical and moral, the dulled minds that accom- 
pany bad housing, says Julia Lathrop, chief, Chil- 
dren's Bureau, Department of Labor. The worst 
evil of a great housing shortage is that it tends to 
make all housing bad. It crowds indecently, it 
tolerates the use of abandoned and- condemned build- 
ings. It makes unscrupulous owners and landlords 
charge excessive rentals, ruinous to the tenants. 
The existing good housing deteriorates under the 

Building with Government Aid 

Foreign Countries Encourage Construction 

A list of the continental countries whose parlia- 
ments have provided or are considering measures to 
protect tenants and to encourage building homes, in- 
cludes Spain, Germany, Czecho-Slovakia, Austria. 
Hungary, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, 
Finland, Norway, France, Sweden. Naturally the 
countries in this list which are most depleted by the 
war are those which need houses most and are least 
able to build. In Berlin, Moscow, France, Warsaw, 
Budapest, all housing capacity is carefully measured 
and strictly rationed according to the size of the 

Upbuilding the Nation 

Why, inquires Senator Calder at the Chamber of 
Commerce Housing Council, have we not used a 
larger part of our surplus labor and materials for 
the upbuilding of our national plant, built more 
houses so that rents may be lowered ; improved our 
railroads so that our goods can be promptly moved 
to market, improved our terminals, our coastwise 
shipping and our inland waterways? 


Teach Housing in Schools 

Ignorance On This Subject Breeds Indecent Con- 

The principles of housing should be taught in our 
schools high and elementary, and in our churches of 
every creed, states Julia Lathrop. Housing is as 
truly the concern of statesmanship as commerce, in- 
dustry and agriculture, and international relations. 
No citizen should be able to escape some knowledge 
of what housing means and therefore what shortage 

A housing shortage inevitably lowers living stand- 
ards. Its effect upon industry is to lower the health, 
resistance, efficiency of workers and to repel work- 
men from localities where decent housing is unob- 
tainable, or to make them restless and wretched if 
they find themselves tied to a location which gives 
them and their families less than a decent shelter in 
decent surroundings. 


by formulating modern, economical, simple building 
regulations in the form of a code and by concerted 
effort have this code established in many cities or by 
state legislatures as a substitute for present codes 
which in many ways are objectionable because these 
codes take the form of specifications rather than pro- 
hibitions. The reason for having hundreds of build- 
ing codes in hundreds of different cities is not evi- 
dent. The time is ripe for a National Building Code, 
especially in the simple types of buildings about 
which I am speaking. A start has been made and 
this effort should be continued, stated W. H. Ham, 
manager of the Bridgeport Housing Co., before the 
National Housing Conference of the Washington 
Chamber of Commerce. 

To Reduce Excessive Building Costs 

Resolutions Covering This Topic Passed By National 
Chamber of Commerce 

BE IT RESOLVED, That we call upon all per- 
sons engaged in the business of manufacturing 
building materials of every class and character, as 
well as upon builders and contractors, to exert their 
utmost efforts to the end that conditions are brought 
about which will result in immediate reductions in 
costs of construction. 

That we call upon the retailers and distributors of 
building materials to do their full share in meeting 
.the demand of the people for cheaper